Astronomi India

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Astronomi India—sebutan teks terawal yang ada wujud dalam kesusasteraan keagamaan India (alaf ke-2 SM)—menjadi tradisi mantap pada alaf pertama SM, apabila Jyotiṣa Vedānga dan cabang pembelajaran sampingan lain dipanggil Vedanga mula terbentuk.[1] Semasa abad-abad berikutnya beberapa ahli astronomi India mengkaji berbagai-bagai aspek sains astronomi dan diikuti dengan perbincangan sejagat dengan kebudayaan lain.[1]

Sejarah awal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Astronomi di India pada awalnya terikat dengan agama. [1] Kitab Veda, kitab penting agama Hindu, adalah tulisan pertama yang menyentuh perihal astronomi. [1] Seperti ulasan Sharma (2008): “Kitab Rigveda ada membuat spekulasi tentang penciptaan alam semesta dari tiada, dan susun letaknya, tentang Bumi yang bulat dan mampu menyokong beratnya sendiri, dan tentang setahun mempunyai 360 hari dibahagikan kepada 12 bahagian dengan 30 hari satu bahagian, dan kewujudan bulan-bulan interkalari (bulan dengan hari tambahan, seperti hari ke-29 bulan Februari dalam kalendar moden).” [1]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Sarma (2008), Astronomy in India

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Abraham, G. (2008), "Gnomon in India", Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2nd edition) edited by Helaine Selin, pp. 1035-1037, Springer, ISBN 9781402045592.
  • Almeida, D. F. etc. (2001), "Keralese Mathematics: Its Possible Transmission to Europe and the Consequential Educational Implications", Journal of Natural Geometry, 20:77-104.
  • Baber, Zaheer (1996), The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791429199.
  • Dallal, Ahmad (1999), "Science, Medicine and Technology", The Oxford History of Islam edited by John Esposito, Oxford University Press.
  • Hayashi, Takao (2008), Aryabhata I, Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Hayashi, Takao (2008), Bhaskara I, Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Hayashi, Takao (2008), Brahmagupta, Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Hayashi, Takao (2008), Shripati, Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • J.A.B. van Buitenen (2008), calendar, Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Joseph, George G. (2000), The Crest of the Peacock: Non-European Roots of Mathematics, Penguin Books, ISBN 0691006598.
  • King, David A. (2002), "A Vetustissimus Arabic Text on the Quadrans Vetus", Journal for the History of Astronomy, 33: 237-255.
  • Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2003), "Hinduism, History of Science and Religion", Encyclopedia of Science and Religion edited by J. Wentzel Vrede van Huyssteen, pp. 405-410, Macmillan Reference USA, ISBN 0028657047.
  • Raju, C. K. (2001), "Computers, Mathematics Education, and the Alternative Epistemology of the Calculus in the Yuktibhasa", Philosophy East and West, 51 (3): 325-362.
  • Ramasubramanian, K. etc. (1994), "Modification of the earlier Indian planetary theory by the Kerala astronomers (c. 1500 AD) and the implied heliocentric picture of planetary motion", Current Science, 66: 784-790.
  • Sarma, K.V. (2008), "Acyuta Pisarati", Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2nd edition) edited by Helaine Selin, p. 19, Springer, ISBN 9781402045592.
  • Sarma, K.V. (2008), "Armillary Spheres in India", Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2nd edition) edited by Helaine Selin, p. 243, Springer, ISBN 9781402045592.
  • Sarma, K.V. (2008), "Astronomy in India", Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2nd edition) edited by Helaine Selin, pp. 317-321, Springer, ISBN 9781402045592.
  • Sarma, K.V. (2008), "Lalla", Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2nd edition) edited by Helaine Selin, p. 1215, Springer, ISBN 9781402045592.
  • Sharma, V.N. (1995), Sawai Jai Singh and His Astronomy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 8120812565.
  • Sharma, V.N. (2008), "Observatories in India", Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2nd edition) edited by Helaine Selin, pp. 1785-1788, Springer, ISBN 9781402045592.
  • Savage-Smith, Emilie (1985), Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their History, Construction, and Use, Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Subbaarayappa, B.V. (1989), "Indian astronomy: an historical perspective", Cosmic Perspectives edited by Biswas etc., pp. 25-41. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521343542.
  • Tripathi, V.N. (2008), "Astrology in India", Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2nd edition) edited by Helaine Selin, pp. 264-267, Springer, ISBN 978-1-4020-4559-2.

Indian astronomy