Avatar (filem 2009)
|Avatar (filem 2009)|
Joel David Moore
C. C. H. Pounder
|Pengedar||20th Century Fox|
|Mula ditayang||Disember 10, 2009
(tayangan perdana London)
18 Disember 2009
|Tempoh ditayang||162 minit |
$9 juta (Keluaran semula)
Avatar ialah sebuah filem epik cereka sains yang ditulis dan diarah oleh James Cameron, dibintangi oleh Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Sigourney Weaver, Michelle Rodriguez dan Stephen Lang. Filem ini berlatarkan tahun 2154, apabila manusia terlibat dalam usaha perlombongan rizab galian berharga unobtanium di bulan Pandora dalam sistem bintang Alpha Centauri. Peluasan koloni manusia di situ mengancam kemandirian kaum pribumi Na'vi di Pandora, dan juga seluruh ekosistem bumi. Judul filem ini menyentuh tindakan sesetengah manusia memakai jasad Na'vi rekaan genetik untuk berinteraksi dengan kaum pribumi Pandora.
Filem Avatar mula dibangunkan pada tahun 1994, apabila Cameron menulis skripmen 80 muka surat untuk filem ini. Penggambaran sepatutnya dimulakan sebaik sahaja siapnya filem Cameron yang sebelumnya, iaitu Titanic, agar sempat dikeluarkan pada tahun 1999, tetapi Cameron mengaku bahawa teknologi ketika itu masih belum sedia menzahirkan visi filemnya itu. Usaha mereka bahasa kaum makhluk asing bermula pada pertengahan tahun 2005, sementara Cameron mula mengembangkan lakon layar dan alam cerekanya pada tahun 2006.
Filem ini dikeluar dalam format 2-D biasa, dan juga bentuk 3-D yang berformatkan RealD 3D, Dolby 3D, dan IMAX 3D. Perbelanjaan rasmi Avatar adalah $237 juta; tetapi ada yang menganggarkan perbelanjaannya adalah $280–310 juta untuk penerbitan tambah $150 juta untuk pemasaran. Filem ini disambut sebagai kecemerlangan besar dari segi teknologi perfileman, pembangunan tayangan 3D dan perfileman stereoskopik dengan penggunaan kamera yang direka khusus untuk penerbitan filem ini.
Tayangan perdana Avatar diadakan di London pada 10 Disember 2009, kemudian dikeluarkan ke pawagam seluruh dunia pada 16 Disember 2009, diikuti di Amerika Syarikat pada 18 Disember 2009, lalu berjaya menambat hati para pengulas dan penonton filem dengan cemerlang sekali. Filem ini memecah beberapa rekod kutipan pawagam sebaik sahaja mula tayangannya sehingga menjadi filem yang meraih kutipan kasar tertinggi sepanjang zaman, sekaligus mengatasi filem Titanic. (Avatar sebenarnya merupakan filem ke-26 tertinggi kutipannya di Amerika Syarikat setelah diselaraskan kesan inflasinya.) Berikutan kecemerlangan filem ini, Cameron mengesahkan filem ini akan ada sambungannya.. Avatar diplih untuk sembilan Anugerah Akademi, termasuk Filem Terbaik dan Pengarah Terbaik, dan memenangi tiga, untuk Sinematografi Terbaik, Kesan Visual Terbaik, dan Arahan Seni Terbaik.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Watak
- 3 Produksi
- 4 Pemasaran
- 5 Release
- 6 Sekuel
- 7 Rujukan
- 8 Pautan luar
Plot[sunting | sunting sumber]
Cerita berlaku pada tahun 2154 di Pandora, sebuah bulan planet Polyphemus  yang berada di dalam sistem planet Alpha Centauri. Korporat RDA sedang melombong sebuah mineral bernilai yang diketahui sebagai unobtanium. Penyelia RDA Parker Selfridge (Giovanni Ribisi) mengetuai operasi perlombongan koloni RDA, yang mempunyai pasukan keselamatan swasta iaitu Sec-Ops. Manusia terpaksa menggunakan topeng pernafasan disebabkan atmosfera Pandora yang toksik kepada mereka.
Pandora dihuni oleh Na'vi, setinggi sepuluh kaki (3 m) spesies berkulit biru sapient humanoids, yang hidup secara harmoni dengan alam, menyembah dewi ibu dipanggil Eywa. Untuk memudahkan hubungan dengan Na'vi dan penyelidikan biosfera Pandora, saintis mencipta gabungan badan antara Na'vi-manusia dipanggil Avatar yang dikendalikan melalui hubungan mental dengan genetik manusia yang sesuai. Jake Sully (Sam Worthington), seorang bekas Marin lumpuh, menggantikan saudara kembarnya, seorang saintis terlatih yang telah dilatih sebagai pengendali avatar tetapi terbunuh dalam suatu rompakan. Dr. Grace Augustine (Sigourney Weaver), ketua Program Avatar, menganggap Sully pengganti tidak sesuai bagi saudaranya itu dan menjadikan dia sebagai pengawal.
Apabila Grace, pakar anthropologi Norm Spellman (Joel David Moore) dan Jake mengumpul sampel biologi dan data di dalam kawasan hutan menggunakan badan avatar mereka, serangan seekor thanator memisahkan Jake dari kumpulan tersebut. Neytiri (Zoe Saldana), seorang perempuan Na'vi, menyelamatkan Jake daripada pemangsa di dalam kawasan hutan, melihat ramalan dari Eywa, membawanya ke Hometree, di mana puaknya, Omaticaya tinggal. Ibu Neytiri Mo'at (C. C. H. Pounder), ketua rohani puak tersebut, menunjukkan minat terhadap "askar dreamwalker" lalu mengarahkan anak perempuannya untuk mengajar Jake budaya mereka.
Ketua Sec-Ops, Kolonel Miles Quaritch (Stephen Lang), menjanjikan rawatan untuk penyakit lumpuh Jake dengan mendapatkan perisikan yang akan membolehkan Quaritch memaksa kerjasama Na'vi. Hometree berada di atas sebuah rizab besar unobtanium, dan RDA inginkan tapak itu. Apabila Jake ingin menyampaikan maklumat kepada Quaritch, Grace menjadi curiga lalu memindahkan dirinya, Jake dan Norm ke sebuah pos terpencil dengan unit link avatar. Dalam masa tiga bulan, Jake menjadi rapat kepada Neytiri dan puak Omaticaya, dan akhirnya menolak agenda RDA. Setelah Jake dimasukkan ke puak Omaticaya, dia dan Neytiri memilih masing-masing sebagai pasangan mereka. Jake menunjukkan perubahan kesetiaannya apabila dia melumpuhkan sebuah jentolak semasa ia memusnahkan Tree of Voices. Apabila Quaritch menunjukkan diari video Jake kepada Selfridge, di mana Jake mengaku bahawa Omaticaya tidak akan meninggalkan Hometree, Selfridge mengarahkan supaya Hometree dimusnahkan.
Walaupun dengan bangkangan Grace bahawa menghancurkan Hometree boleh mempengaruhi saraf rangkaian bio-botani rangkaian neural yang menhubungkan organisma Pandora, Selfridge memberikan Jake diaian Grace satu jam untuk meyakinkan Na'vi untuk meninggalkan Hometree. Jake mengaku misi asalnya kepada Omaticaya, lalu Jake dituduh sebagai pengkhianat oleh Neytiri. Maka badan Jake dan Grace diikat tangannya. Pihak Quaritch memusnahkan Hometree, menyebabkan bapa Neytiri iaitu ketua puak Eytucan (Wes Studi), dan ramai lagi terbunuh. Jake, Grace dan Norm dipenjarakan kerana mengkhianat RDA. Trudy Chacón (Michelle Rodriguez), seorang juruterbang pasukan keselamatan yang jijik dengan cara Quaritch, membebaskan lalu menerbangkan mereka ke pos terpencil lalu membantu mereka memindahkannya. Semasa pelarian tersebut Grace cedera parah akibat tembakan Quaritch.
Bagi memulihkan kepercayan puak Omaticaya terhadapnya, Jake menjinakkan seekor Toruk, seekor pemangsa terbang gagah yang hanya lima orang Na'vi pernah jinak. Jake menjumpai puak Omaticaya di tempat suci Tree of Souls dan merayu kepada Mo'at untuk menyembuhkan Grace. Puak tersebut membuat percubaan untuk memindahkan Grace dari tubuh badannya ke badan avatarnya yang tidak sedar dengan bantuan Tree of Souls, tetapi beliau meninggal sebelum pemindahan itu selesai. Mo'at mengisytiharkan bahawa "beliau sekarang bersama dengan Eywa".
Dengan bantuan Neytiri dan ketua baru Omaticaya Tsu'tey (Laz Alonso), Jake menghimpunkan beribu-ribu pahlawan dari pelbagai puak Na'vi dalam usaha menghalau manusia. Jake bersembahyang kepada Eywa, melalui sambungan neural dengan Tree of Souls, untuk mendapat syafaat atas nama Na'vi dalam pertempuran mendatang. Quaritch mengetahui pergerakkan Na'vi and memujuk Selfridge untuk menyerang Tree of Souls, supaya pemusnahan tersebut boleh membawa kepada kemusnahan agama dan budaya Na'vi yang akan melemahkan semangat mereka menjadi supaya menyerah kalah.
Apabila pihak Quaritch menyerang, puak Na'vi menyerang balas tetapi mereka megalami kecederaan teruk, termasuklah Tsu'tey dan Trudy. Mahkluk-makhluk liar Pandora tiba-tiba bergabung terhadap serangan lawan, mengepung mereka, Neytiri menafsir peristiwa berikut sebagai Eywa menjawab doa Jake. Jake memusnahkan kapal pengebom sebelum ia dapat sampai ke Tree of Souls. Quaritch menyerang unit avatar link di mana badan manusia Jake didalamnya, mendedahkan Jake kepada atmosfera Pandora Neytiri membubuh Quaritch dan sempat menyelamatkan Jake. Dengan serangan tersebut dapat dibalas, Neytiri dan Jake mengukuhkan kembali cinta mereka apabila Neytiri melihat badan manusia Jake buat kali pertama.
Selfridge dan kakitangan korporat lain dibuang dari Pandora, manakala Jake, Norm, dan saintis lain dibenarkan untuk tinggal. Jake dilihat memakai simbol ketua puak Omaticaya. Puak melalukan ritual untuk memindahkan roh Jake ke badan Na'vinya secara kekal.
Watak[sunting | sunting sumber]
Manusia[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Sam Worthington sebagai Korporal Jake Sully. Sully, yang merupakan protagonis filem, adalah seorang bekas Marine kurang upaya yang menjadi sebahagian Program Avatar. Latar belakang tenteranya membolehkan pahlawan Na'vi memahami dia. Cameron memberi watak tersebut kepada pelakon Australia itu selepas ujibakat seluruh dunia untuk mencari pelakon muda yang berbakat, tidak diketahui bagi bagi mengurangkan bajet. Worthington yang tinggal di dalam keretanya semasa itu, diujibakat dua kali sebelum itu, dan dia telah menandatangi kontrak untuk kemungkinan sekuel. Cameron merasakan bahawa kerana Worthington tidak pernah melakukan filem besar, dia akan mejadikan watak itu "kualiti yang benar-benar nyata". Cameron mengatakan "dia mempunyai kualiti untuk menjadi seorang lelaki yang anda pasti ingin minum bir bersama, dan dia akhirnya menjadi pemimpin yang mengubah dunia".
- Stephen Lang sebagai Kolonel Miles Quaritch. Quaritch merupakan ketua keselamatan operasi perlombongan RDA. Sangat taat terhadap kod tenteranya, beliau mempunyai sifat mengabaikan penduduk Pandora dan menjadi antagonis utama filem ini. Lang tidak berjaya dalam ujibakat Cameron Aliens (1986), tetapi pengarah tersebut mengingati Lang dan mencari dia Avatar. Michael Biehn, yang belakon didalam Aliens, membaca skrip tersebut dan menonton beberapa sedutan 3D bersama Cameron, tetapi akhirnya tidak deberikan watak tersebut.
- Sigourney Weaver sebagai Dr. Grace Augustine. Augustine adalah seroang exobiologist dan ketua Program Avatar. Beliau pembimbing Sully dan juga seorang penyokong hubungan damai dengan kaum Na'vi, dengan mendirikan sebuah sekolah untuk mengajar mereka Bahasa Inggeris.
- Michelle Rodriguez sebagai Trudy Chacón. Chacón merupakan seorang juruterbang combat ditugaskan untuk memebantu Program Avatar dan juga menunjukkan perasaan simpati terhadap kaum Na'vi. Cameron mahu bekerja dengan Rodriguez selepas menontonnya dalam filem Girlfight.
- Giovanni Ribisi sebagai Parker Selfridge. Selfridge merupakan penyelia korporat operasi perlombongan RDA dan salah seorang daripada antagonis filem.  Walaupuan menjadi manusia yang bertanggungjawab terhadap projek perlombongan tersebut, dia hanya enggan meluluskan terhadap kaum Na'vi setelah dipujuk Quaritch bahawa serangan itu adalah perlu, dan serangan itu berperikemanusiaan. Apabila serangan itu dipancarkan ke pangkalan, Selfridge kelihatan tidak selesa melihat keganasan tersebut.
- Joel David Moore sebagai Norm Spellman. Spellman adalah seorang anthropologist yang mengaji kehidupan tumbuhan dan alam didalam Program Avatar. Beliau tiba di Pandora pada masa yang sama dengan Sully dan mengendalikan sebuah badan avatar. Walaupun dia diharapkan memimpin hubungan diplomatik dengan kaum Na'vi, ternyata bahawa Jake mempunyai keperibadian lebih untuk memenangi menghormatan penduduk
- Dileep Rao sebagai Dr. Max Patel, seorang ahli saintis yang bekerja dalam Program Avatar.
Na'vi[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Zoe Saldana sebagai Neytiri. Neytiri adalah protagonis wanita Na'vi, anak raja perempuan Omaticaya, kaum Na'vi puak utama cerita ini, yang tertarik kepada Jake oleh keberaniannya.  Watak tersebut, seperti semua Na'vi, dicipta melaluiperformance capture, dan aspek visual sepenuhnya dihasilkan komputer. Saldana juga telah menandatangi kontrak untuk kemungkinan sekuel.
- C. C. H. Pounder sebagai Mo'at. Mo'at merupakan ketau spiritual puak Omaticaya, ibu Neytiri, dan permaisuri kepada ketua puak, Eytucan.
- Laz Alonso sebagai Tsu'tey. Tsu'tey adalah pewaris takhta puak, dan pada permulaan cerita filem, dia bertunang kepada Neytiri.
- Wes Studi sebagai Eytucan. Eytucan ialah ketua kaum Omaticaya, bapa Neytiri dan teman Mo'at.
Produksi[sunting | sunting sumber]
Asal-usul[sunting | sunting sumber]
Padea 1994, pengarah James Cameron menulis skripmen 80 muka surat untuk Avatar. Pada bulan Ogos 1996, beliau mengumum bahawa selepas menyiapkan Titanic, beliau akan menggambar Avatar, yang akan menggunakan aktor sintetik, atau dijana oleh komputer. Projek ini akan melibatkan kos $100 million dan melibatkan sekurang-kurangnya enam pelakon dalam peranan utama "yang muncul untuk menjadi sebenar tetapi tidak wujud dalam dunia fizikal". Rumah Kesan Visual Digital Domain, yang Cameron mempunyai perkongsian, menyertai projek itu, yang sepatutnya memulakan produksi pada musim panas tahun 1997 untuk dikeluarkan pada tahun 1999. Walau bagaimanapun, Cameron merasa bahawa teknologi belum menangkap dengan cerita dan visi yang beliau hendak beritahu. Beliau membuat keputusan untuk menumpukan perhatian kepada membuat dokumentari dan memperhalusi teknologi untuk beberapa tahun akan datang. Ia diturunkan dalam sesuatu cerita Bloomberg BusinessWeek bahawa 20th Century Fox telah memberi $10 million kepada Cameron untuk menggambarkan klip bukti konsep untuk Avatar, yang dia menunjukkan kepada eksekutif Fox pada bulan Oktober 2005.
Pada bulan Februari 2006, Cameron mendedah bahawa filem Projek 880 adalah "versi "retooled" Avatar", sebuah filem yang telah beliau cuba buat beberapa tahun dahulu, menyebut kemajuan teknologi dalam penciptaan watak-watak janaan komputer Gollum, King Kong, dan Davy Jones. Cameron telah memilih Avatar ke atas projeknya Battle Angel selepas selesai ujian kamera lima hari pada tahun lepas.
Pembangunan[sunting | sunting sumber]
Dari Januari ke April 2006, Cameron worked on the script dan developed a culture for the film's aliens, the Na'vi. Bahasa mereka dicipta Dr. Paul Frommer, seorang pakar bahasa USC. The Na'vi language has a vocabulary of about 1000 words, with some 30 added by Cameron. The tongue's phonemes termasuk konsonan ejektif (such as the "kx" in "skxawng") that are found in the Amharic language of Ethiopia, and the initial "ng" that Cameron may have taken from New Zealand Māori. Actress Sigourney Weaver and the film's set designers met with Jodie S. Holt, professor of plant physiology at University of California, Riverside, to learn about the methods used by botanists to study and sample plants, and to discuss ways to explain the communication between Pandora's organisms depicted in the film.
Dari tahun 2005 hingga 2007, Cameron bekerja dengan beberapa pereka, termasuk ilustrator fantasi terkenal Wayne Barlowe dan artis konsep terkenal Jordu Schell, untuk membentuk reka bentuk Na'vi dengan lukisan dan ukiran fizikal apabila Cameron berpendapat bahawa pentafsiran berus 3-D tidak menangkap visi beliau, sering bekerja bersama di dapur rumah di Malibu Cameron. Pada bulan Julai 2006, Cameron mengumumkan bahawa dia akan memulakan penggambaran Avatar for a mid 2008 release and planned to begin principal photography with an established cast by February 2007. The following Ogos, the visual effects studio Weta Digital signed on to help Cameron produce Avatar. Stan Winston, who had collaborated with Cameron in the past, joined Avatar to help with the film's designs. Production design for the film took several years. The film had two different production designers, and two separate art departments, one of which focused on the flora and fauna of Pandora, and another that created human machines and human factors. In September 2006, Cameron was announced to be using his own Reality Camera System to film in 3-D. The system would use two high-definition cameras in a single camera body to create depth perception.
Fox was wavering because of its painful experience with cost overruns and delays on Cameron's previous picture, Titanic, even though Cameron rewrote Avatar's script to combine several characters together and offered to cut his fee in case the film flopped. Cameron installed a traffic light with the amber signal lit outside of co-producer Jon Landau's office to represent the film's uncertain future. In mid-2006, Fox told Cameron "in no uncertain terms that they were passing on this film," so he began shopping it around to other studios, and showed his proof-of-concept to Dick Cook (then chairman of The Walt Disney Company). However, when Disney attempted to take over, Fox exercised its right of first refusal. In October 2006, Fox finally agreed to commit to making Avatar after Ingenious Media agreed to back the film, which reduced Fox's financial exposure to less than half of the film's official $237 million budget. After Fox accepted Avatar, one skeptical Fox executive shook his head and told Cameron and Landau, "I don't know if we're crazier for letting you do this, or if your crazier for thinking you can do this..."
Templat:External media In December 2006, Cameron described Avatar as "a futuristic tale set on a planet 200 years hence ... an old-fashioned jungle adventure with an environmental conscience [that] aspires to a mythic level of storytelling". The January 2007 press release described the film as "an emotional journey of redemption and revolution" and said the story is of "a wounded former Marine, thrust unwillingly into an effort to settle and exploit an exotic planet rich in biodiversity, who eventually crosses over to lead the indigenous race in a battle for survival". The story would be of an entire world complete with an ecosystem of phantasmagorical plants and creatures, and a native people with a rich culture and language.
Estimates put the cost of the film at about $280–310 million to produce and an estimated $150 million for marketing, noting that about $30 million in tax credits will lessen the financial impact on the studio and its financiers. A studio spokesperson, said that the budget "is $237 million, with $150 million for promotion, end of story".
Tema dan Inspirasi[sunting | sunting sumber]
Avatar is primarily an action-adventure journey of self-discovery, in the context of imperialism and deep ecology. Cameron said his inspiration was "every single science fiction book I read as a kid", and that he was particularly striving to update the style of Edgar Rice Burroughs's John Carter series. The director has acknowledged that Avatar shares themes with the films At Play in the Fields of the Lord, The Emerald Forest, and Princess Mononoke, which feature clashes between cultures and civilizations, and with Dances With Wolves, where a battered soldier finds himself drawn to the culture he was initially fighting against.
In a 2007 interview with Time magazine, Cameron was asked about the meaning of the term avatar, to which he replied, "It's an incarnation of one of the Hindu gods taking a flesh form. In this film what that means is that the human technology in the future is capable of injecting a human's intelligence into a remotely located body, a biological body."
The look of the Na'vi—the humanoids indigenous to Pandora—was inspired by a dream that Cameron's mother had, long before he started work on Avatar. In her dream, she saw a blue-skinned woman 12 feet (4 m) tall, which he thought was "kind of a cool image". Also he said, "I just like blue. It's a good color ... plus, there's a connection to the Hindu deities, which I like conceptually." He included similar creatures in his first screenplay (written in 1976 or 1977), which featured a planet with a native population of "gorgeous" tall blue aliens. The Na'vi were based on them.
For the love story between characters Jake and Neytiri, Cameron applied a star-crossed love theme, and acknowledged its similarity to the pairing of Jack and Rose from his film Titanic. Both couples come from radically different cultures that are contemptuous of their relationship and are forced to choose sides between the competing communities. He felt that whether or not the Jake and Neytiri love story would be perceived as believable partially hinged on the physical attractiveness of Neytiri's alien appearance, which was developed by considering her appeal to the all-male crew of artists. Though Cameron felt Jake and Neytiri do not fall in love right away, their portrayers (Worthington and Saldana) felt the characters do. Cameron said the two actors "had a great chemistry" during filming.
For the film's floating "Hallelujah Mountains", the designers drew inspiration from "many different types of mountains, but mainly the karst limestone formations in China." According to production designer Dylan Cole, the fictional floating rocks were inspired by Mount Huang (also known as Huangshan), Guilin, Zhangjiajie, among others around the world. Director Cameron had noted the influence of the Chinese peaks on the design of the floating mountains. When Cameron was asked if he got the idea for the floating mountains from an album cover of the rock band Yes, he replied with a laugh, "It might have been ... Back in my pot-smoking days."
To create the interiors of the human mining colony on Pandora, production designers visited the Noble Clyde Boudreaux oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico during June 2007. They photographed, measured and filmed every aspect of the platform, which was later replicated on-screen with photorealistic CGI during post-production.
Cameron said that he wanted to make "something that has this spoonful of sugar of all the action and the adventure and all that" but also have a conscience "that maybe in the enjoying of it makes you think a little bit about the way you interact with nature and your fellow man". He added that "the Na'vi represent something that is our higher selves, or our aspirational selves, what we would like to think we are" and that even though there are good humans within the film, the humans "represent what we know to be the parts of ourselves that are trashing our world and maybe condemning ourselves to a grim future".
Cameron acknowledges that Avatar implicitly criticizes the United States' role in the Iraq War and the impersonal nature of mechanized warfare in general. In reference to the use of the term shock and awe in the film, Cameron said, "We know what it feels like to launch the missiles. We don't know what it feels like for them to land on our home soil, not in America." He said in later interviews, "...I think it's very patriotic to question a system that needs to be corralled..." and, "The film is definitely not anti-American." A scene in the film portrays the violent destruction of the towering Na'vi Hometree, which collapses in flames after a missile attack, coating the landscape with ash and floating embers. Asked about the scene's resemblance to the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center, Cameron said he had been "surprised at how much it did look like September 11".
Pengfileman[sunting | sunting sumber]
Principal photography for Avatar began in April 2007 in Los Angeles and Wellington, New Zealand. Cameron described the film as a hybrid with a full live-action shoot in combination with computer-generated characters and live environments. "Ideally at the end of the day the audience has no idea which they're looking at," Cameron said. The director indicated that he had already worked four months on nonprincipal scenes for the film. The live action was shot with a modified version of the proprietary digital 3-D Fusion Camera System, developed by Cameron and Vince Pace. In January 2007, Fox had announced that 3-D filming for Avatar would be done at 24 frames per second despite Cameron's strong opinion that a 3-D film requires higher frame rate to make strobing less noticeable. According to Cameron, the film is composed of 60% computer-generated elements and 40% live action, as well as traditional miniatures. Additional live action elements were filmed at Kerner Studios on Kernercam 3D systems and RED cameras.
Motion-capture photography lasted 31 days at the Hughes Aircraft stage in Playa Vista in Los Angeles. Live action photography began in October 2007 at Stone Street Studios in Wellington, New Zealand, and was scheduled to last 31 days. More than a thousand people worked on the production. In preparation of the filming sequences, all of the actors underwent professional training specific to their characters such as archery, horseback riding, firearm use, and hand-to-hand combat. They received language and dialect training in the Na'vi language created for the film. Prior to shooting the film, Cameron also sent the cast to the jungle in Hawaii to get a feel for a rainforest setting before shooting on the soundstage.
During filming, Cameron made use of his virtual camera system, a new way of directing motion-capture filmmaking. The system is showing the actors' virtual counterparts in their digital surroundings in real time, allowing the director to adjust and direct scenes just as if shooting live action. According to Cameron, "It's like a big, powerful game engine. If I want to fly through space, or change my perspective, I can. I can turn the whole scene into a living miniature and go through it on a 50 to 1 scale." Using conventional techniques, the complete virtual world cannot be seen until the motion-capture of the actors is complete. Cameron said this process does not diminish the value or importance of acting. On the contrary, because there is no need for repeated camera and lighting setups, costume fittings and make-up touch-ups, scenes do not need to be interrupted repeatedly. Cameron described the system as a "form of pure creation where if you want to move a tree or a mountain or the sky or change the time of day, you have complete control over the elements".
Cameron gave fellow directors Steven Spielberg and Peter Jackson a chance to test the new technology. Spielberg said, "I like to think of it as digital makeup, not augmented animation.... Motion capture brings the director back to a kind of intimacy that actors and directors only know when they're working in live theater." Spielberg and George Lucas were also able to visit the set to watch Cameron direct with the equipment.
To film the shots where CGI interacts with live action, a unique camera referred to as a "simulcam" was used, a merger of the 3-D fusion camera and the virtual camera systems. While filming live action in real time with the simulcam, the CGI images captured with the virtual camera or designed from scratch, are superimposed over the live action images as in augmented reality and shown on a small monitor, making it possible for the director to instruct the actors how to relate to the virtual material in the scene.
Kesan visual[sunting | sunting sumber]
A number of revolutionary visual effects techniques were used in the production of Avatar. According to Cameron, work on the film had been delayed since the 1990s to allow the techniques to reach the necessary degree of advancement to adequately portray his vision of the film. The director planned to make use of photorealistic computer-generated characters, created using new motion-capture animation technologies he had been developing in the 14 months leading up to December 2006.
Innovations include a new system for lighting massive areas like Pandora's jungle, a motion-capture stage or "volume" six times larger than any previously used, and an improved method of capturing facial expressions, enabling full performance capture. To achieve the face capturing, actors wore individually made skull caps fitted with a tiny camera positioned in front of the actors' faces; the information collected about their facial expressions and eyes is then transmitted to computers. According to Cameron, the method allows the filmmakers to transfer 100% of the actors' physical performances to their digital counterparts. Besides the performance capture data which were transferred directly to the computers, numerous reference cameras gave the digital artists multiple angles of each performance. A technically challenging scene was near the end of the film when the computer-generated Neytiri held the live action Jake in human form, and attention was given to the details of the shadows and reflected light between them.
The lead visual effects company was Weta Digital in Wellington, New Zealand, at one point employing 900 people to work on the film. Because of the huge amount of data which needed to be stored, cataloged and available for everybody involved, even on the other side of the world, a new cloud computing and Digital Asset Management (DAM) system named Gaia was created by Microsoft especially for Avatar, which allowed the crews to keep track of and coordinate all stages in the digital processing. To render Avatar, Weta invented a new system called Mari, and used a 10,000 ka persegi (930 m²) server farm making use of 4,000 Hewlett-Packard servers with 35,000 processor cores running Ubuntu Linux and the Grid Engine cluster manager. The render farm occupies the 193rd to 197th spots in the TOP500 list of the world's most powerful supercomputers. Creating the Na'vi characters and the virtual world of Pandora required over a petabyte of digital storage, and each minute of the final footage for Avatar occupies 17.28 gigabytes of storage. To help finish preparing the special effects sequences on time, a number of other companies were brought on board, including Industrial Light & Magic, which worked alongside Weta Digital to create the battle sequences. ILM was responsible for the visual effects for many of the film's specialized vehicles and devised a new way to make CGI explosions. Joe Letteri was the film's visual effects general supervisor. Working with ILM, ILM-spinoff KernerFX provided live action VFX elements which were captured with Kernercam 3D systems using RED cameras.
Muzik dan soundtrack[sunting | sunting sumber]
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Komposer James Horner scored the film, his third collaboration with Cameron after Aliens and Titanic. Horner recorded parts of the score with a small chorus singing in the alien language Na'vi in March 2008. He also worked with Wanda Bryant, an ethnomusicologist, to create a music culture for the alien race. The first scoring sessions were planned to take place in Spring 2009. During production, Horner promised Cameron that he would not work on any other project except for Avatar and reportedly worked on the score from four in the morning till ten at night throughout the process. He stated in an interview, "Avatar has been the most difficult film I have worked on and the biggest job I have undertaken." Horner composed the score as two different scores merged into one. He first created a score that reflected the Na'vi way of sound and then combined it with a separate "traditional" score to drive the film. Penyanyi British Leona Lewis dipilih untuk menyanyikan lagu tema filem, bertajuk "I See You". An accompanying music video, arahan Jake Nava, premiered December 15, 2009, on MySpace.
Pemasaran[sunting | sunting sumber]
Promosi[sunting | sunting sumber]
Gambar filem pertama was released pada 14 Ogos, 2009, and Empire magazine released exclusive images from the film in its October issue. Cameron, producer Jon Landau, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, and Sigourney Weaver appeared at a panel, moderated by Tom Rothman, at the 2009 San Diego Comic-Con on July 23. Twenty-five minutes of footage was screened in Dolby 3D. Weaver and Cameron appeared at additional panels to promote the film, speaking on the 23rd and 24th respectively. James Cameron announced at the Comic-Con Avatar Panel that Ogos 21 will be 'Avatar Day'. On this day the trailer for the film was released in all theatrical formats. The official game trailer and toy line of the film were also unveiled on this day.
The 129-second trailer was released online on Ogos 20, 2009. The new 210-second trailer was premiered in theatres on October 23, 2009, then soon after premiered online on Yahoo! on October 29, 2009, to positive reviews. An extended version in IMAX 3D received overwhelmingly positive reviews. The Hollywood Reporter said that audience expectations were coloured by "the [same] establishment skepticism that preceded Titanic" and suggested the showing reflected the desire for original storytelling. The teaser has been among the most viewed trailers in the history of film marketing, reaching the first place of all trailers viewed on Apple.com with 4 million views. On October 30, to celebrate the opening of the first 3-D cinema in Vietnam, Fox allowed Megastar Cinema to screen exclusive 16 minutes of Avatar to a number of press. The three-and-a-half-minute trailer of the film premiered live on November 1, 2009, during a Dallas Cowboys football game at Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Texas on the Diamond Vision screen, the world's largest video display, and to TV audiences viewing the game on Fox. It is said to be the largest live motion picture trailer viewing in history.
The Coca-Cola Company collaborated with Twentieth Century Fox to launch a worldwide marketing campaign to promote the film. The highlight of the campaign was the website AVTR.com. Specially marked bottles and cans of Coca-Cola Zero, when held in front of a webcam, enabled users to interact with the website's 3-D features using augmented reality (AR) technology. The film was heavily promoted in an episode of the Fox Network series Bones in the episode "The Gamer In The Grease" (Season 5, Episode 9). Avatar star Joel David Moore has a recurring role on the program, and is seen in the episode anxiously awaiting the release of the film. A week prior to American release, Zoe Saldana promoted the film on Adult Swim when she was interviewed by an animated Space Ghost.
Buku[sunting | sunting sumber]
Avatar: A Confidential Report on the Biological and Social History of Pandora (Avatar: Laporan Rahsia tentang Sejarah Biologi dan Sosial Pandora), sebuah buku 224 muka surat dalam bentuk a field guide to the film's fictional setting of the planet of Pandora, was released by Harper Entertainment pada 24 November, 2009. It is presented as a compilation of data collected by the humans about Pandora and the life on it, written by Maria Wilhelm and Dirk Mathison. HarperFestival also released Wilhelm's 48-page James Cameron's Avatar: The Reusable Scrapbook for children. The Art of Avatar: James Cameron's Epic Adventure was released on November 30, 2009, by Abrams Books. The book features detailed production artwork from the film, including production sketches, illustrations by Lisa Fitzpatrick, and film stills. Producer Jon Landau wrote the foreword, Cameron wrote the epilogue, and director Peter Jackson wrote the preface. In October 2010, Abrams Books also released The Making of Avatar, a 272 page book that detailed the film's production process and contains over 500 color photographs and illustrations.
In a 2009 interview, Cameron said that he planned to write a novel version of Avatar after the film was released. In February 2010, producer Jon Landau stated that Cameron plans a prequel novel for Avatar that will "lead up to telling the story of the movie, but it would go into much more depth about all the stories that we didn't have time to deal with", saying that "Jim wants to write a novel that is a big, epic story that fills in a lot of things".
Permainan video[sunting | sunting sumber]
Cameron memilih Ubisoft Montreal untuk mencipta permainan Avatar untuk filem pada tahun 2007. Pembikin filem dan pembangun pemarmainan bekerjasama dengan banyaknya, lalu Cameron berputus untuk memasukkan sebahagian reka bentuk permainan dan haiwan Ubisoft ke dala filem. James Cameron's Avatar: The Game dikeluarkan pada 1 Disember, 2009, untuk kebanyakkan konsol permainan video (PS3, Xbox 360, Wii, Nintendo DS, iPhone), Microsoft Windows dan 8 Disember untuk PSP.
Action figures dan setem pos[sunting | sunting sumber]
Mattel Toys announced in December 2009 that it would be introducing a line of Avatar action figures. Each action figure will be made with a 3-D web tag, called an i-TAG, that consumers can scan using a web cam, revealing unique on-screen content that is special to each specific action figure. A series of toys representing six different characters from the film were also distributed in McDonald's Happy Meals in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, the United States and Venezuela.
Release[sunting | sunting sumber]
Tayangan perdana[sunting | sunting sumber]
Avatar premiered in London on December 10, 2009, and was released theatrically worldwide from December 16–18. The film was originally set for release on May 22, 2009, during filming, but was pushed back to allow more post-production time (the last shots were delivered in November), and to give more time for theatres worldwide to install 3-D projectors. Cameron stated that the film's aspect ratio would be 1.78:1 for 3-D screenings and that a 2.39:1 image would be extracted for 2-D screenings. However, a 3-D 2.39:1 extract was approved for use with constant-image-height screens (i.e. screens which increase in size to display 2.39:1 films). During a 3-D preview showing in Germany on December 16, the movie's DRM ‘protection’ system failed, and some copies delivered could not be watched at all the theaters. The problems were fixed in time for the public premiere, however. Avatar was released in a total of 3,457 theatres in the US, of which 2,032 theatres ran it in 3-D. In total 90% of all advance ticket sales for Avatar were for 3-D screenings.
Internationally, Avatar opened on a total of 14,604 screens in 106 territories, of which 3,671 were showing the film in 3-D (producing 56% of the first weekend gross). The film was simultaneously presented in IMAX 3D format, opening in 178 theaters in the United States on December 18. The international IMAX release included 58 theaters beginning on December 16, and 25 more theaters were to be added in the coming weeks. The IMAX release was the company's widest to date, a total of 261 theaters worldwide. The previous IMAX record opening was Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, which opened in 161 IMAX theatres in the US, and about 70 international. In summer 2009, 20th Century Fox Korea adapted and later released Avatar in 4-D version, which included "moving seats, smells of explosives, sprinkling water, laser lights and wind".
Box office[sunting | sunting sumber]
Avatar earned $3,537,000 from midnight screenings domestically (United States and Canada), with the initial 3-D release limited to 2,200 screens. The film earned $27 million on its opening day, and $77 million over its opening weekend, making it the second largest December opening ever behind I Am Legend, the largest domestic opening weekend for a film not based on a franchise (topping The Incredibles), and the 25th largest national United States weekend opening, despite a blizzard which blanketed the East Coast of the United States and reportedly hurt its opening weekend results. The IMAX opening also broke box office records, with 178 theaters generating approximately $9.5 million, 13% of the film's $73 million (at the time) domestic gross on less than 3% of the screens.
International markets generating opening weekend tallies of at least $10 million were Russia ($20.8 million), France ($20.3 million), the UK ($14.1 million), Germany ($13.2 million), Australia ($11.9 million), South Korea ($11.4 million) and Spain ($10.9 million). Avatar's worldwide gross was an estimated $232,180,000 after five days, the ninth largest opening-weekend gross of all time, and the largest for a non-franchise, non-sequel and original film. 58 international IMAX screens generated an estimated $4.1 million during the opening weekend.
The film's revenues decreased by a mere 1.8% in its second weekend in domestic markets, earning $75,617,183, to remain in first place at the box office and recording the biggest second weekend of all time. The film experienced another small decrease in revenue in its third weekend, dropping 9.4% to $68,490,688 domestically, though remaining in first place at the box office, to set another weekend record. On the 19th day of the film's international release, it crossed the $1 billion mark worldwide, making it the fastest film ever to do so and also making it the highest-grossing release of 2009 worldwide. In its fourth weekend, Avatar continued its streak, leading the box office domestically, to set a new all-time fourth-weekend record of $50,306,217, and becoming the highest-grossing 2009 release in the United States. In the film's fifth weekend, it set the Martin Luther King Day four-day weekend record, grossing $54,401,446, and set another three-day weekend record with a take of $42,785,612. It held to the top spot to set the sixth and seventh weekend records earning $34,944,081 and $31,280,029 respectively. On January 31 it became the first film to earn over $2 billion, and on February 27, after 72 days of domestic release, it became the first film to gross over $700 million. It remained in the number one spot at the domestic box office for seven consecutive weeks—the most consecutive #1 weekends since Titanic spent 15 weekends at #1 in 1997–'98—and also spent 11 consecutive weekends at the top of the box office outside the United States and Canada. By the end of its first theatrical release Avatar had grossed $749,766,139 in Canada and the U.S., and $1,990,639,582 in other territories, for a worldwide total of $2,740,405,721.
Including the revenue from a re-release of Avatar featuring extended footage, Avatar has grossed over $760 million in the U.S. and Canada, and $2.010 billion in other territories for a worldwide total of over $2.770 billion, with over 72.6% of its total worldwide gross in international markets. Avatar has set a number of box office records during its release: on January 25, 2010, it surpassed Titanic's worldwide gross to become the highest-grossing film of all time worldwide 41 days after its international release, just two days after taking the foreign box office record, and on February 2, 47 days after its domestic release, Avatar overtook Titanic to become the highest-grossing film of all time in Canada and the United States. It became the highest-grossing film of all time in at least 30 other countries and is the first film to earn over $2 billion in foreign box office receipts. IMAX ticket sales account for $228 million of its worldwide gross, more than double the previous record.
Box Office Mojo estimates that after adjusting for the rise in average ticket prices, Avatar would be the 14th-highest-grossing film of all time in the U.S. and Canada. Box Office Mojo also observes that the higher ticket prices for 3-D and IMAX screenings have had a significant impact on Avatar's gross; it estimated, on April 21, 2010, that Avatar had sold approximately 75 million tickets in North American theatres, more than any other film since 1999's Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. In terms of worldwide revenue, Avatar has grossed more than Titanic after adjusting for inflation.
Analisis komersial[sunting | sunting sumber]
Before its release, pelbagai kritik filem dan masyarakat peminat filem akan gagal teruk di box office, selari dengan ramalan untuk blockbuster Cameron dahulu, Titanic. Kritikan ranged dari bajet filem Avatar', hingga konsepnya dan penggunaan "orang kucing biru" 3-D.  Daniel Engber dari majalah Slate memuji kesan 3-D, tetapi juga mengkritiknya kerana mengingatkannya akan segelintir watak CGI dari filem prekuel Star Wars dan juga kesan "uncanny valley".
Box office analysts, on the other hand, estimated that the film would be a box office success. "The holy grail of 3-D has finally arrived," said an analyst for Exhibitor Relations. "This is why all these 3-D venues were built: for Avatar. This is the one. The behemoth." The "cautionary estimate" was that Avatar would bring in around $60 million in its opening weekend. Others guessed higher. Some analysts believed the film's three-dimensionality would help its box office performance, given that recent 3-D films had been successful.
Cameron said he felt the pressure of the predictions, but that pressure is good for film-makers. "Ia membuatkan kita berfikir tentang para penonton kita dan apa yang mereka mahu," kata beliau. "Kami berhutang mereka masa yang baik. Kami berhutang mereka secebis hiburan yang baik." Although he felt Avatar would appeal to everyone and that the film could not afford to have a target demographic, he especially wanted hard-core science-fiction fans to see it: "If I can just get 'em in the damn theater, the film will act on them in the way it's supposed to, in terms of taking them on an amazing journey and giving them this rich emotional experience." Cameron was aware of the sentiment that Avatar would need significant "repeat business" just to make up for its budget and achieve box office success, and believed Avatar could inspire the same "sharing" reaction as Titanic. He said that film worked because, "When people have an experience that's very powerful in the movie theatre, they want to go share it. They want to grab their friend and bring them, so that they can enjoy it. They want to be the person to bring them the news that this is something worth having in their life."
After the film's release and unusually strong box office performance over its first two weeks, it was debated as the one film capable of surpassing Titanic's worldwide gross, and its continued strength perplexed box office analysts. Other films in recent years had been cited as contenders for surpassing Titanic, most recently The Dark Knight, but Avatar was considered the first film with a genuine chance to do so, and its numbers being aided by higher ticket prices for 3-D screenings did not fully explain its success to box office analysts. "Most films are considered to be healthy if they manage anything less than a 50% drop from their first weekend to their second. Dipping just 11% from the first to the third is unheard of," relayed Paul Dergarabedian, president of box-office analysis for Hollywood.com. "This is just unprecedented," he said. "I had to do a double take. I thought it was a miscalculation." Analysts predicted second place for the film's worldwide gross, but most were uncertain about it surpassing Titanic because "Today's films flame out much faster than they did when Titanic was released." Brandon Gray, presiden Box Office Mojo, percaya in the film's chances of becoming the highest-grossing film of all time, though he also believed it was too early to surmise because it had only played during the holidays. He said, "While Avatar may beat Titanic's revenue record, it will be tough, and the film is unlikely to surpass Titanic in attendance. Ticket prices were about $3 cheaper in the late 1990s." Cameron said he did not think it was realistic to "try to topple Titanic off its perch" because it "just struck some kind of chord" and there had been other good films in recent years. He changed his prediction by mid-January. "It's gonna happen. It's just a matter of time," he said.
Though analysts have been unable to agree that Avatar's success is attributable to one primary factor, pelbagai penerangan telah dimajukan. Pertama, Januari adalah (dalam sejarah filem) "tempat pembuangan bagi filem-filem terlemah tahun" ("the dumping ground for the year's weakest films"), dan tahun 2010 tidak dikecualikan. Cameron himself said beliau bercadang untuk menayangkan filem pada Disember supaya ia tidak mendapat banyak saingan dari sekarang hingga Januari. Titanic capitalized on the same January predictability, dan mendapat kebanyakan kepulangannya pada tahun 1998. Tambahan pula, Avatar menjadi acara "mesti lihat". Gray said, "At this point, people who are going to see Avatar are going to see Avatar and would even if the slate was strong." Marketing the film as a "novelty factor" also helped. Fox positioned the film as a cinematic event that should be seen in the theatres. "It's really hard to sell the idea that you can have the same experience at home," stated David Mumpower, an analyst at BoxOfficeProphets.com. The "Oscar buzz" surrounding the film and international viewings helped. "Two-thirds of Titanic's haul was earned overseas, and Avatar [tracked] similarly ... Avatar opened in 106 markets globally and was No. 1 in all of them", and the markets "such as Russia, where Titanic saw modest receipts in 1997 and 1998, are white-hot today" with "more screens and moviegoers" than before. Films in 3-D accumulated $1.3 billion in 2009, according to Variety, "a threefold increase over 2008 and more than 10% of the total 2009 box-office gross". The increased ticket price – an average of $2 to $3 per ticket in most markets – helped the film. Likewise, Entertainment Weekly attributed the film's success to 3-D glasses, but also to its "astronomic word-of-mouth". Not only segelintir pawagam mengecajkan harga sehingga AS$18.50 setiket IMAX, tetapi "the buzz" created by the new technology was the possible cause for sold-out screenings. Gray said Avatar having no basis in previously established material makes its performance remarkable and even more impressive. "The movie might be derivative of many movies in its story and themes," he said, "but it had no direct antecedent like the other top-grossing films: Titanic (historical events), the Star Wars movies (an established film franchise), or The Lord of the Rings (literature). It was a tougher sell..."
Critical reception[sunting | sunting sumber]
- See also: Tema dalam Avatar untuk lebih ulasan
The film received generally positive reviews from film critics. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes melaporkan bahawa 83% dari 268 kritik profesional telah memberi ulasan positif kepada filem, with a rating average of 7.4 per 10. Among Rotten Tomatoes' Top Critics, which consists of popular and notable critics from the top newspapers, websites, television and radio programs, the film holds an overall approval rating of 95%, based on a sample of 38 reviews. The site's consensus is that "It might be more impressive on a technical level than as a piece of storytelling, but Avatar reaffirms James Cameron's singular gift for imaginative, absorbing filmmaking." Metacritic, which assigns a weighted mean rating out of 100 reviews from film critics, the film has a rating score of 84% based on 35 reviews. CinemaScore polls conducted during the opening weekend revealed the average grade cinemagoers gave Avatar was A on an A+ to F scale. Every demographic surveyed was reported to give this rating. These polls also indicated that the main draw of the film was its use of 3-D.
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times called the film "extraordinary" and gave it four stars out of four. "Watching Avatar, I felt sort of the same as when I saw Star Wars in 1977", he said. Like Star Wars and The Lord of the Rings, the film "employs a new generation of special effects". A. O. Scott of At The Movies also compared his viewing of the film to the first time he viewed Star Wars, and added that although "the script is a little bit ... obvious," it was "part of what made it work". Todd McCarthy of Variety praised the film. "The King of the World sets his sights on creating another world entirely in Avatar, and it's very much a place worth visiting." Kirk Honeycutt of The Hollywood Reporter gave the film a positive review. "The screen is alive with more action and the soundtrack pops with more robust music than any dozen sci-fi shoot-'em-ups you care to mention" he stated. Rolling Stone film critic Peter Travers awarded Avatar three and a half out of four stars and wrote in his print review, "It extends the possibilities of what movies can do. Cameron's talent may just be as big as his dreams." Richard Corliss of Time magazine thought that the film was, "the most vivid and convincing creation of a fantasy world ever seen in the history of moving pictures." Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times felt the film has "powerful" visual accomplishments but "flat dialogue" and "obvious characterization". James Berardinelli, film critic for ReelViews, praised the film and its story, giving it four out of four stars he wrote, "In 3-D, it's immersive — but the traditional film elements — story, character, editing, theme, emotional resonance, etc. — are presented with sufficient expertise to make even the 2-D version an engrossing 2½-hour experience."
Avatar's underlying social and political themes attracted attention. Armond White of the New York Press wrote that Cameron used villainous American characters to misrepresent facets of militarism, capitalism, and imperialism. Evo Morales, Bolivia's first indigenous president, praised the film for its "profound show of resistance to capitalism and the struggle for the defense of nature". Russell D. Moore in The Christian Post concluded that propaganda exists in the film and stated, "If you can get a theater full of people in Kentucky to stand and applaud the defeat of their country in war, then you've got some amazing special effects." Adam Cohen of The New York Times was more positive about the film, calling its anti-imperialist message "a 22nd-century version of the American colonists vs. the British, India vs. the Raj, or Latin America vs. United Fruit". Ross Douthat of The New York Times opined that the film is "Cameron's long apologia for pantheism ... Hollywood's religion of choice for a generation now", while Saritha Prabhu of The Tennessean called the film a misportrayal of pantheism and Eastern spirituality in general. Annalee Newitz of io9 concluded that Avatar is another film that has the recurring "fantasy about race" whereby "some white guy" becomes the "most awesome" member of a non-white culture. Michael Phillips of the Chicago Tribune called Avatar "the season's ideological Rorschach blot", while Miranda Devine of The Sydney Morning Herald felt that, "It is impossible to watch Avatar without being banged over the head with the director's ideological hammer."
Critics and audiences have cited similarities with other films, literature or media. Ty Burr of the Boston Globe called it "the same movie" as Dances with Wolves. Parallels to the concept and use of an avatar are in Poul Anderson's 1957 short story Call Me Joe, in which a paralyzed man uses his mind remotely to control an alien body. Cinema audiences in Russia have noted that Avatar has elements in common with the 1960s Noon Universe novels by Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, which are set in the 22nd century on a forested world called Pandora with a sentient indigenous species called the Nave. Various reviews have compared Avatar to the films FernGully: The Last Rainforest and Pocahontas. NPR's Morning Edition has compared the film to a montage of tropes, with one commentator stating that Avatar was made by mixing a bunch of film scripts in a blender. Some sources noted similarities to the artwork of Roger Dean, which featured fantastic images of floating rock formations and dragons.
Avatar received compliments from fellow filmmakers, with Steven Spielberg praising it as "the most evocative and amazing science-fiction movie since Star Wars" and others calling it "audacious and awe inspiring", "master class", and "brilliant". On the other hand, Duncan Jones said: "It's not in my top three James Cameron films. ... at what point in the film did you have any doubt what was going to happen next?".
Anugerah dan kepujian[sunting | sunting sumber]
Avatar dipilih untuk sembilan Anugerah Akademi, termasuk Filem Terbaik dan Pengarah Terbaik. Filem memenangi anugerah untuk Arahan Seni Terbaik, Sinematografi Terbaik, dan Kesan Visual Terbaik. New York Film Critics Online memuji filem tersebut dengan anugerah Filem Terbaiknya. Filem juga dipilih untuk sembilan Anugerah Pilihan Kritik Broadcast Film Critics Association, menang dalam Filem Aksi Terbaik dan pelbagai kategori teknikal. Ia memenangi anugerah Pengkritik Filem St. Louis: Kesan Visual Terbaik dan Filem Paling Original, Inovatif atau Kreatif. Avatar juga mendapat empat pilihan untuk 67th Golden Globe Awards, memenangi Filem Terbaik – Drama dan Pengarah Terbaik. The film also received eight nominations from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA), termasuk Filem Terbaik dan Pengarah Terbaik, tetapi hanya memenangi anugerah Rekaan Produksi dan Kesan Visual Istimewa. Filem juga telah menerima pelbagai anugerah, pilihan untuk anugerah dan kepujian lain.
Extended theatrical re-release[sunting | sunting sumber]
In July 2010, Cameron confirmed that there would be a limited theatrical re-release of the film on Ogos 27, 2010, exclusively in 3-D theaters and IMAX 3D. Fox also posted the international re-release dates for Avatar: Special Edition on the film's official website. The re-release includes an additional 9 minutes of footage, all of which is CG, including an extension of the sex scene and various other scenes that were cut from the original theatrical film. This extended re-release resulted in the film's run time approaching the current IMAX platter maximum of 170 minutes, thereby leaving less time for the end credits. Cameron stated that the 9 minutes of added scenes cost more than $1 million a minute to produce and finish.
Home media[sunting | sunting sumber]
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20th Century Fox Home Entertainment released the film on DVD and Blu-ray in the US on April 22, 2010 and in the UK on April 26. The US release was not on a Tuesday as is the norm, but was done to coincide with Earth Day. The first DVD and Blu-ray release does not contain any supplemental features other than the theatrical film and the disc menu in favor of and to make space for optimal picture and sound. The release also preserves the film's native 1.78:1 (16:9) format as Cameron felt that was the best format to watch the film. The Blu-ray disc contains DRM (BD+ 5) which some Blu-ray players might not support without a firmware update.
Avatar set a first-day launch record in the U.S. for Blu-ray sales at 1.5 million units sold, breaking the record previously held by The Dark Knight (600,000 units sold). First-day DVD and Blu-ray sales combined were over 4 million units sold. In its first four days of release, sales of Avatar on Blu-ray reached 2.7 million in the United States and Canada - overtaking The Dark Knight to become the best ever selling Blu-ray release in the region. The release later broke the Blu-ray sales record in the UK the following week. In its first three weeks of release, the film sold a total of 19.7 million DVD and Blu-ray discs, a new record for sales in that period. As of Ogos 25, 2010, DVD sales (not including Blu-ray) totaled $142,764,756.
Extended Collector’s Edition[sunting | sunting sumber]
The release date of the Avatar Three-Disc Extended Collector’s Edition on DVD and Blu-ray has been announced as November 16, 2010. Three different versions of the film will be present on the discs; the original theatrical cut, the special edition cut, and a new collector's extended cut. The collector's extended cut will contain 6 more minutes of footage, thus making it 16 minutes longer than the original theatrical cut. Cameron mentioned, "you can sit down, and in a continuous screening of the film, watch it with the Earth opening". Cameron stated the "earth opening" is an additional 4 1/2 minutes of scenes that were in the film for much of its production but were ultimately cut before the film's theatrical release. The release will also include an additional 45 minutes of deleted scenes and other extras.
Blu-ray 3D[sunting | sunting sumber]
Cameron pada mulanya menyatakan bahawa Avatar akan dikeluarkan dalam format 3-D sekitar November 2010, tetapi studio mengeluarkan pembetulan: "3-D masih dalam peringkat conceptual dan Avatar tidak akan dikeluarkan dalam format 3D Blu-ray dalam November." ("3-D is in the conceptual stage and Avatar will not be out on 3D Blu-ray in November.") Pada Mei 2010, Fox menyatakan bahawa versi 3-D akan dikeluarkan pada tahun 2011. Diketahui kemudian bahawa Fox telah memberi lesen eksklusif kepada Panasonic untuk menjual versi 3-D Blu-ray pada 1 Disember, 2010 dengan syarat pembelian sebuah 3DTV Panasonic dan pemain cakera Blu-ray 3D. Tempoh keeksklusifan Panasonic tidak diketahui dan dikatakan "tersangat panjang" ("unusually long").
Sekuel[sunting | sunting sumber]
Pada 2006, Cameron menyatakan jika Avatar berjaya, beliau berharap menghasilkan dua sekuel kepada filem. Pada 2010, beliau berkata kecemerlangan filem widespread success confirmed that he will. Prospek sekual adalah sesuatu yang dirancang daripada mulanya, sehingga memasukkan babak ke dalam filem untuk for future story followups. Cameron said he wants to make the sequel "cheaper and faster" and that the story will be a continuation of the characters introduced in Avatar. When being interviewed by AP on the red carpet of the 82nd Academy Awards, Cameron stated "if I were to start Avatar 2 tomorrow, it would still be three years away." In an August 2010 interview, Cameron stated that his plans are to shoot both sequels in the planned trilogy back-to-back and that he was waiting for deals to be made. He also mentioned, "what I'm working on primarily is the novel" and "presumably, once the novel is nailed down, work will begin in earnest on getting the sequel going." Dalam wawancara Perth's Sunday Times pada 12 September, 2010, Cameron menunjukkan keinginnanya mengfilem gambar untuk sekuel di tempat dalam Mariana Trench. Bagi tujuan ini he has commissioned a deepwater submersible. Pada Oktober 2010, Cameron menandatangani agreement dengan Fox secara rasmi untuk mengarah dua sekuel kepada Avatar, yang dijadualkan penayangannya pada Disember 2014 dan Disember 2015. Kedua-dua sekuel akan diterbitkan oleh syarikat sendiri Cameron iaitu Lightstorm Entertainment sekutu dengan 20th Century Fox.
Though plots for future sequels have not been laid out yet, Cameron stated that they are going to widen the universe sambil menjelajahi bulan lain Polyphemus. Sekuel pertama akan menumpukan perhatian terhadap lautan Pandora tetapi juga akan menunjukkan lebih hutan hujan dari filem asal. Ia akan terus mengikuti watak Jake dan Neytiri. Cameron implied bahawa manusia akan pulang sebagai antagonis cerita. "I expect that those nasty humans didn't go away forever," kata beliau. Sam Worthington dan Zoe Saldana have signed on to reprise their roles in future sequels, dan Stephen Lang, yang memainkan Kolonel Miles Quaritch, percaya wataknya akan muncul kembali: "Kamu fikir dua anak panah dalam dadaku akan menghentikan kepulangan aku?" ("You think those two arrows in my chest are going to stop me from coming back?") kata Lang kepada Entertainment Weekly, "Tiada apa yang berakhir selagi mereka masih mempunyai DNAku". ("Nothing's over so long as they've got my DNA.") Pada Februari 2010, Sigourney Weaver, yang memainkan Dr. Grace Augustine, mengumumkan kebarangkalian kepulangan beliau untuk sekual dalam wawancara untuk Le Grand Journal TV Show di Paris.
Semasa CinemaCon 2011 di Las Vegas, James Cameron menyatakan keinginannya mengfilemkan kedua-dua sekuel Avatar dengan kadar gambar yang lebih tinggi daripada piawaian industri iaitu 24 gambar sesaat, in order to add a heightened sense of reality.
Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]
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- Pamela McClintock, Michael Fleming. "Fox shifts 'Avatar,' 'Museum'", Variety, December 11, 2007. Dicapai pada December 12, 2007.
- "James Cameron Q & A Podcast from Aliens / The Abyss Event!", MarketSaw, May 30, 2009. Dicapai pada June 2, 2009.
- "DRM-Chaos verhindert 3D-Vorpremieren von Avatar". www.heise.de. http://www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/DRM-Chaos-verhindert-3D-Vorpremieren-von-Avatar-2-Update-888309.html. Capaian January 28,.
- Gwin, Scott (December 18, 2009). "Cinema Blend: Over 350 Avatar Screenings Already Sold Out". http://www.cinemablend.com/new/Over-350-Avatar-Screenings-Already-Sold-Out-16198.html.
- "'Avatar' dominates int'l boxoffice". December 20, 2009. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/content_display/news/e3ia0d444a2a4b3e35aeacb98430b6004f5.
- "Avatar is king of the world with $165.2m overseas launch". December 20, 2009. http://www.screendaily.com/news/distribution/avatar-is-king-of-the-world-with-1652m-overseas-launch/5009219.article.
- "James Cameron's Avatar Posts Record Opening Weekend Box Office Results in IMAX(R) Theatres", Yahoo!, December 21, 2009. Dicapai pada October 13, 2010.
- "ScreenCrave: Avatar Breaks IMAX's Wide Release Record". December 16, 2009. http://blog.bigmoviezone.com/?p=5080.
- Han Sunhee. "'Avatar' goes 4D in Korea", Variety, February 5, 2010. Dicapai pada February 8, 2010.
- "The Numbers News—Avatar Scores $3.5 Million at Midnight Screenings, Big Opening Day in Australia". The-Numbers. Nash Information Services. http://www.the-numbers.com/interactive/newsStory.php?newsID=4686. Capaian December 21, 2009.
- "Avatar 2009 box office". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=avatar.htm. Capaian January 7, 2010.
- "Weekend Box Office Results for December 25–27, 2009". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://boxofficemojo.com/weekend/chart/?view=&yr=2009&wknd=52&p=.htm. Capaian December 27, 2009.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 2nd Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://boxofficemojo.com/alltime/weekends/moreweekends.htm?page=2&p=.htm. Capaian December 12, 2009.
- "Weekend Box Office Results for January 1–3, 2010". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://boxofficemojo.com/weekend/chart/?view=&yr=2010&wknd=01&p=.htm. Capaian January 3, 2010.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 3rd Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://boxofficemojo.com/alltime/weekends/moreweekends.htm?page=3&p=.htm. Capaian January 11, 2010.
- "Avatar fastest film to break $1 billion mark". Hindustan Times. January 5, 2010. http://www.hindustantimes.com/rssfeed/cinema/Avatar-fastest-film-to-break-1-billion-mark/Article1-494182.aspx. Capaian February 18, 2010.
- "2009 Worldwide Grosses". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart/?view2=worldwide&yr=2009&p=.htm. Capaian January 3, 2010.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 4th Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://boxofficemojo.com/alltime/weekends/moreweekends.htm?page=4&p=.htm. Capaian January 12, 2010.
- Cheng, Andria (January 10, 2010). "Avatar becomes top-grossing U.S. film released in 2009". MarketWatch. Dow Jones & Company. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/avatar-top-grossing-us-film-released-in-2009-2010-01-10?reflink=MW_news_stmp. Capaian January 10, 2010.
- "Top Grossing Movies for Martin Lurther King Holiday Weekends". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://boxofficemojo.com/alltime/weekends/mlk.htm?page=MLK&p=.htm. Capaian January 19, 2010.
- "Top Grossing Movies in Their 5th Weekend at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://boxofficemojo.com/alltime/weekends/moreweekends.htm?page=5&p=.htm. Capaian January 19, 2010.
- "Top Weekends – 6th". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://boxofficemojo.com/alltime/weekends/moreweekends.htm?page=6&p=.htm. Capaian February 1, 2010.
- "Top Weekends – 7th". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://boxofficemojo.com/alltime/weekends/moreweekends.htm?page=7&p=.htm. Capaian February 1, 2010.
- Deprez, Esme E.. "‘Avatar’ Tops Box Office, Passes $2 Billion Worldwide (Update1)", Business Week, Bloomberg L. P., January 31, 2010. Dicapai pada April 22, 2010. Diarkibkan drpd. yang asli di April 22, 2010.
- "Avatar (2009) – Dail Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?page=daily&id=avatar.htm. Capaian September 6, 2010.
- "Weekend Report: 'Avatar' Reigns with Record MLK Gross". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://boxofficemojo.com/news/?id=2646&p=.htm. Capaian January 19, 2010.
- Gray, Brandon (March 1, 2010). "Weekend Report: ‘Shutter Island’ Hangs On, ‘Cop Out,’ ‘Crazies’ Debut Decently". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/news/?id=2683&p=.htm. Capaian March 2, 2010.
- "Avatar (2009) – Release Summary". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Ogos 27, 2010. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?page=releases&id=avatar.htm. Capaian Ogos 27, 2010.
- "Avatar (2009) – International Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Ogos 4, 2010. Diarkibkan dari yang asal on Ogos 28, 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5sKmHbbLk. Capaian Ogos 27, 2010.
<ref>tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan
Ralat petik: Tag
- Cieply, Michael. "He Doth Surpass Himself: ‘Avatar’ Outperforms ‘Titanic’", The New York Times, January 26, 2010. Dicapai pada January 27, 2010.
- "All Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/alltime/world/. Capaian January 3, 2010.
- Gray, Brandon (February 3, 2010). "‘Avatar’ Claims Highest Gross of All Time". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/news/?id=2667&p=l.htm. Capaian February 20, 2010.
- "‘Avatar’ passes ‘Titanic’ in domestic earnings", MSNBC, February 3, 2010. Dicapai pada March 2, 2010.
- Gray, Brandon (January 26, 2010). "'Avatar' Is New King of the World". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/news/?id=2657&p=.htm. Capaian January 26, 2010.
- Gray, Brandon (February 8, 2010). "Weekend Report: ‘Dear John’ Delivers, ‘Avatar’ Flies High Again". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/news/?id=2670&p=.htm. Capaian January 14, 2010.
- Gray, Brandon (February 21, 2010). "Weekend Report: ‘Shutter Island’ Lights Up". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/news/?id=2682&p=.htm. Capaian February 22, 2010.
- Hutton, Michelle (February 28, 2010). "AVATAR Becomes Biggest Blockbuster Ever in Korea". Alt Film Guide. http://www.altfg.com/blog/box-office/avatar-biggest-blockbuster-korea-43432/. Capaian February 28, 2010.
- Irish Film and Television Network (March 2, 2010). "'Avatar' Sinks 'Titanic' To Take Irish Box Office Crown". Irish Film Research. http://www.iftn.ie/?act1=record&only=1&aid=73&rid=4282897&tpl=archnewshome. Capaian March 8, 2010.
<ref>tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan
Ralat petik: Tag
- Strowbridge, C. S.. "IMAX: Avatar Reaches International Milestone", The Numbers, April 20, 2010. Dicapai pada May 10, 2010.
- Corliss, Richard. "Another Avatar Weekend: Pandorans Defeat Vampires", TIME Magazine, Time Inc., January 10, 2010. Dicapai pada January 10, 2010.
- "*Adjusted to the estimated 2010 average ticket price of $7.46""All Time Box Office Adjusted for Ticket Price Inflation". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/alltime/adjusted.htm?adjust_yr=2010&p=.htm. Capaian May 2, 2010.
- Subers, Ray (April 21, 2010). "'Avatar' Strikes DVD on Earth Day". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. http://www.boxofficemojo.com/news/?id=2728&p=.htm. Capaian April 21, 2010.
- Segers, Frank (February 22, 2010). "'Avatar' Top Film Overseas for 10th Weekend". Reuters News Service. ABC News. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE61L0XF20100222. Capaian February 25, 2010.
- Levin, Josh (December 10, 2009). "Here Come the Cats With Human Boobs. Is Avatar destined to flop?". Slate. The Washington Post Company. http://www.slate.com/id/2238079/. Capaian December 20, 2009.
- Carroll, Jason. "CNN's Jason Carroll interviews director James Cameron about his new film "Avatar". (Video.)", CNN, Turner Broadcasting System, November 23, 2009. Dicapai pada December 20, 2009.
- Engber, Daniel (Ogos 22, 2009). "Avatar = "Apocalypto" + George Lucas". Slate. The Washington Post Company. http://www.slate.com/blogs/blogs/browbeat/archive/2009/08/22/i-avatar-i-i-apocalypto-i-george-lucas.aspx. Capaian December 22, 2009.
- Rosenberg, Adam (December 17, 2009). "How Will 'Avatar' Fare At The Box Office? Experts Weigh In. One box-office analyst says James Cameron's 3-D epic has a shot to break $100 million this weekend.". MTV. Viacom. http://www.mtv.com/movies/news/articles/1628513/story.jhtml. Capaian December 20, 2009.
- Wells, Jeffery (December 9, 2009). "Avatar Adjustments". Hollywood Elsewhere. http://hollywood-elsewhere.com/2009/12/avatar_adjustme.php. Capaian December 22, 2009.
- Blair, Iain (December 8, 2009). "Avatar's Cameron shrugs off buzz—and promises a sequel". SciFiWIRE.com. Syfy Online Network. http://scifiwire.com/2009/12/avatars-cameron-shrugs-of.php. Capaian January 1, 2010.
- "'Avatar' Hits $1 Billion Mark, Eyes 'Titanic' Record", omg!, Yahoo! News, January 3, 2010. Dicapai pada January 4, 2010. Diarkibkan drpd. yang asli di May 27, 2010.
- "Avatar to sink Cameron's Titanic? Forecast predicts 'Avatar' may beat 'Titanic' as the highest-grossing movie of all time.", inmovies.ca, Bell Canada, January 4, 2010. Dicapai pada January 4, 2010.
- Tramontana, Stephen. "Why Avatar will not beat Titanic", Manolith.com, January 5, 2010. Dicapai pada January 6, 2010.
- Britt, Russ. "Can Cameron break his own box-office record? 'Avatar' unprecedented in staying power, international sales", MarketWatch, Dow Jones & Company, January 4, 2010. Dicapai pada January 4, 2010.
- Ditzian, Eric. "Will 'Avatar' Top James Cameron's 'Titanic' Box-Office Record?", MTV, Viacom, January 4, 2010. Dicapai pada January 8, 2010.
- Jacks, Brian. "EXCLUSIVE: James Cameron Says 'Avatar' Will Beat 'Titanic' To Become Biggest Of All Time", MTV, Viacom, January 16, 2010. Dicapai pada January 17, 2010.
- "Avatar's Cameron: King of the World (Once Again)", Bloomberg Businessweek, The Times of India, January 23, 2010. Dicapai pada Ogos 30, 2010.
- Ball, Sarah. "Why 'Avatar' Could Out-Earn 'Titanic'. James Cameron is king of the box office again, but will his latest eclipse his Titanic success?", Newsweek, The Washington Post Company, January 6, 2010. Dicapai pada January 9, 2010.
- Vary, Adam B.. "Box Office Report: 'Avatar' is No. 1 again, soars past $1 billion worldwide", Entertainment Weekly, Time Warner, January 2, 2010. Dicapai pada January 9, 2010.
- "Avatar". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/avatar/. Capaian Ogos 16, 2010.
- "Rotten Tomatoes FAQ: What is Cream of the Crop". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/pages/faq#creamofthecrop. Capaian March 28, 2010.
- "Avatar Reviews: Top Critics". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/avatar/?critic=creamcrop. Capaian Ogos 16, 2010.
- "Avatar (2009): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. http://www.metacritic.com/film/titles/avatar. Capaian December 29, 2009.
- Miller, Neil (December 21, 2009). "Avatar Opens to Big Returns, But Staying Power is the Key". CraveOnline "FilmSchoolRejects.com". http://www.filmschoolrejects.com/news/avatar-opens-to-big-returns-but-staying-power-is-the-key.php. Capaian January 29, 2010.
- Ebert, Roger. "Avatar", RogerEbert.com, Chicago Sun-Times, December 11, 2009. Dicapai pada December 17, 2009.
- Scott, A. O. (December 20, 2009). "Avatar film review". At The Movies. http://bventertainment.go.com/tv/buenavista/atm/reviews.html?sec=6&subsec=avatar. Capaian May 27, 2010. See parts of video of this television review at 3:00 and 3:52.
- McCarthy, Todd. "Avatar Review", Variety, December 10, 2009. Dicapai pada December 13, 2009.
- Honeycutt, Kirk (December 10, 2009). "Avatar- Film Review". The Hollywood Reporter. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/film-reviews/avatar-film-review-1004052868.story. Capaian December 13, 2009.
- Travers, Peter (December 14, 2009). "Avatar review". Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/reviews/movie/18256153/review/31347207/avatar. Capaian January 3, 2010.
- Corliss, Richard. "Corliss Appraises Avatar: A World of Wonder", Time, December 14, 2009. Dicapai pada January 3, 2010.
- Turan, Kenneth. "Review: 'Avatar'", Los Angeles Times, Tribune Company, December 17, 2009. Dicapai pada December 30, 2009.
- Berardinelli, James (December 17, 2009). "Avatar review". ReelViews.net. http://www.reelviews.net/php_review_template.php?identifier=1931. Capaian January 3, 2010.
- White, Armond (December 15, 2009). "Blue in the Face". New York Press. http://www.nypress.com/article-20710-blue-in-the-face.html. Capaian December 15, 2009.
- See also last paragraph of the above section Avatar Themes and inspirations.
- "Evo Morales Praises Avatar". Huffington Post. January 12, 2010. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/01/12/evo-morales-praises-avata_n_420663.html. Capaian Retrieved 4 Ogos 2010.
- Moore, Russell D. (December 21, 2009). "Avatar: Rambo in Reverse". The Christian Post. http://www.christianpost.com/article/20091221/avatar-rambo-in-reverse/index.html.
- Cohen, Adam. "Next-Generation 3-D Medium of 'Avatar' Underscores Its Message", The New York Times, December 25, 2009. Dicapai pada December 26, 2009.
- Douthat, Ross. "Heaven and Nature", New York Times, December 21, 2009. Dicapai pada December 21, 2009.
- Prabhu, Saritha (January 22, 2010). "Movie storyline echoes historical record". The Tennessean. Diarkibkan dari yang asal on January 31, 2010. http://ia700107.us.archive.org/22/items/TheTennesseanMovieStorylineEchoesHistoricalRecord/MovieStorylineEchoesHistoricalRecord_Tennessean.com_TheTennessean.mht. Capaian February 7, 2010.
- Newitz, Annalee (December 18, 2009). "When Will White People Stop Making Movies Like "Avatar"". io9. http://io9.com/5422666/when-will-white-people-stop-making-movies-like-avatar. Capaian December 27, 2009.
- Phillips, Michael (January 10, 2010). "Why is 'Avatar' a film of 'Titanic' proportions?". Chicago Tribune. http://featuresblogs.chicagotribune.com/talking_pictures/2010/01/why-is-avatar-a-film-of-titanic-proportions.html. Capaian January 10, 2009.
- Devine, Miranda. "Hit by the leftie sledgehammer", The Sydney Morning Herald, Fairfax Media, January 2, 2010. Dicapai pada April 7, 2010.
- Burr, Ty. "Avatar", The Boston Globe, NY Times Co, December 17, 2009. Dicapai pada December 23, 2009.
- Davis, Lauren (October 26, 2009) Did James Cameron Rip Off Poul Anderson's Novella? io9. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
- Westfahl, Gary (December 20, 2009). "All Energy Is Borrowed: A Review of Avatar". Locus Publications. LocusMag.com. http://www.locusmag.com/Reviews/2009/12/all-energy-is-borrowed-review-of-avatar.html. Capaian December 29, 2009.
- Harding, Luke. "James Cameron rejects claims Avatar epic borrows from Russians' sci-fi novels", The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, January 13, 2010. Dicapai pada February 25, 2010.
- Chaw, Walter. "Avatar". Filmfreakcentral.net. Diarkibkan dari yang asal on January 1, 2001. http://web.archive.org/web/20010101-*/http://filmfreakcentral.net/screenreviews/avatar.htm. Capaian December 21, 2009.
- "Movie News: Avatar to Follow a Pocahontas Narrative". Reelzchannel.com. Ogos 6, 2009. http://www.reelzchannel.com/movie-news/3537/avatar-to-follow-a-pocahontas-narrative. Capaian December 21, 2009.
- Neda Ulaby, Zoe Chace (January 6, 2010). "'Avatar' And Ke$ha: A Denominator In Common?". NPR Morning Edition. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=122261912. Capaian January 6, 2010.
- "Did Prog Rock's Greatest Artist Inspire Avatar? All Signs Point To Yes". io9. December 14, 2009. http://io9.com/5426120/did-prog-rocks-greatest-artist-inspire-avatar-all-signs-point-to-yes/.
- Handy, Bruce (October 30, 2009). "Avatar's Unexpected Influences: Psychedelic Cover Art, Disney, and ... Furries?". Vanity Fair. http://www.vanityfair.com/online/oscars/2009/10/avatars-unexpected-influences-psychedelic-cover-art-disney-and-furries.html.
- Sciretta, Peter (December 21, 2009). "The Buzz: Filmmakers react to Avatar". http://www.slashfilm.com/2009/12/21/the-buzz-filmmakers-react-to-avatar/. Capaian December 30, 2009.
- Davis, Don (December 14, 2009). "N.Y. Online Critics like 'Basterds'". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118012762.html. Capaian December 15, 2009.
- "Tarantino's Inglourious Basterds dominates Critics' Choice awards", guardian.co.uk, December 15, 2009. Dicapai pada December 15, 2009.
- Robinson, Anna (December 21, 2009). "St. Louis Film Critics Awards 2009". Alt Film Guide. Retrieved December 22, 2009.
- "Golden Globe 2010 Winners". Moviefone. January 17, 2010. http://www.moviefone.com/golden-globes/nominee-winner. Capaian January 17, 2010.
- "2010 BAFTA Awards", chiff.com. Retrieved February 22, 2010.
- Gregg Kilday. "'Avatar: Special Edition' for 3D theaters", The Hollywood Reporter, July 8, 2010. Dicapai pada July 8, 2010.
- "Avatar international release dates". 20th Century Fox. http://www.avatarmovie.com/re-releasedates/. Capaian July 8, 2010.
- Jim Dorey (Ogos 7, 2010). "EXCLUSIVE: James Cameron Interview! Talks AVATAR Re-release, Sequels, 3D Conversions & Working With Del Toro!". MarketSaw. http://marketsaw.blogspot.com/2010/08/exclusive-james-cameron-interview-talks.html. Capaian Ogos 14, 2010.
- Kara Warner (Ogos 11, 2010). "'Avatar' Director James Cameron Talks 'Alien Kink Scene'". MTV. http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1645575/20100811/story.jhtml. Capaian Ogos 14, 2010.
- "Avatar Blu-ray 2 Disc Set". 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment. Diarkibkan dari yang asal on May 27, 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5q2koLSij. Capaian April 8, 2010.
- "James Cameron's Avatar: Combi Pack (Blu-ray & DVD) (2009) (Blu-ray)". Play.com. http://www.play.com/DVD/Blu-ray/4-/11089484/James-Cameron-Avatar-Combi-Pack/Product.html. Capaian May 25, 2010.
- "Avatar Earth Day RELEASE: James Cameron Film Comes Out On DVD, Inspires 'Home Tree' Earth Day 2010". Huffington Post. April 21, 2010. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/04/21/avatar-earth-day-release_n_546984.html. Capaian May 25, 2010.
- Juan Calonge. "Makers of Avatar Unveil Blu-ray Launch", Blu-ray.com, March 25, 2010. Dicapai pada March 25, 2010.
- "Some 'Avatar' Fans Struggle With Blu-Ray", Yahoo! Movies, April 30, 2010. Dicapai pada April 30, 2010.
- "This is why early adopting sucks: 'Avatar' doesn’t play on some Samsung BR players", CrunchGear, April 23, 2010. Dicapai pada April 30, 2010.
- "'Avatar' shatters sales records -- and inspires an armed heist in Mexico City", Los Angeles Times, April 23, 2010. Dicapai pada April 23, 2010.
- Fritz, Ben. "'Avatar' is already the bestselling Blu-ray ever", LA Times, April 25, 2010. Dicapai pada May 25, 2010.
- King, Mike (April 26, 2010). "Movie Talk:James Cameron, King of DVD sales". Yahoo Movies. http://movies.yahoo.com/feature/movie-talk-james-cameron-king-of-DVD-sales.html. Capaian May 25, 2010.
- "Avatar breaks UK Blu-ray sales record", BBC News, April 28, 2010. Dicapai pada May 2, 2010.
- "Avatar Fastest Selling DVD After Three Weeks", ABC News, May 11, 2010. Dicapai pada May 25, 2010. Diarkibkan drpd. yang asli di May 27, 2010.
- "Avatar - DVD Sales". The Numbers. Ogos 5, 2010. http://www.the-numbers.com/movies/2009/AVATR-DVD.php.
- Fleming, Ryan (October 7, 2010). "Avatar three-disc extended collectors set due in November". Digital Trends. http://www.digitaltrends.com/entertainment/avatar-three-disc-extended-collectors-set-due-in-november/?news=123. Capaian October 11, 2010.
- Russell, Mike (Ogos 26, 2010). "Interview with James Cameron on 'Avatar' re-release, BP oil spill -- and much more". The Oregonian. OreagonLive.com. http://www.oregonlive.com/movies/index.ssf/2010/08/interview_with_james_cameron_o.html. Capaian Ogos 29, 2010.
- "Update: Cameron Talks Avatar Blu-ray/DVD Releases and Sequel". Comingsoon.net. February 19, 2010. http://www.comingsoon.net/news/movienews.php?id=63460. Capaian May 25, 2010.
- Calonge, Juan (September 1, 2010). "Report: Avatar 3D Blu-ray Exclusive for Panasonic in December; Sony Gets Alice". Blu-ray.com. http://www.blu-ray.com/news/?id=5071. Capaian September 1, 2010.
- Carroll, Larry. "'Titanic' Mastermind James Cameron's King-Size Comeback: Two Sci-Fi Trilogies", MTV, June 29, 2006. Dicapai pada October 18, 2006.
- "James Cameron Planning 'Avatar' Trilogy". Yahoo.com. January 14, 2010. http://movies.yahoo.com/feature/movie-talk-avatar-trilogy.html. Capaian January 17, 2010.
- Timothy Sykes. "James Cameron Live On Red Carpet Says Avatar Sequel "3 Years Away If I Start Tomorrow" So I Shorted The Stock", March 7, 2010. Dicapai pada March 10, 2010.
- Adam Rosenberg. "EXCLUSIVE: 'Avatar' Sequels Could Shoot Back-To-Back, Story Hints In Upcoming Novel", MTV, August 7, 2010. Dicapai pada August 7, 2010.
- Harlow, John. "James Cameron commissions deep sea sub to film footage for Avatar sequel", The Australian, News Limited, 2010-09-12. Dicapai pada 2010-09-18.
- Pamela McClintock. "James Cameron sets 'Avatar' 2 & 3 as next films", Variety, October 27, 2010. Dicapai pada October 27, 2010.
- Day, Patrick Kevin. "James Cameron: The 'Avatar' sequel will dive into the oceans of Pandora", Los Angeles Times, April 20, 2010. Dicapai pada April 22, 2010. Archived version April 22, 2010
- Eric Ditzian. "James Cameron Talks 'Avatar' Sequel Plans", MTV, December 21, 2009. Dicapai pada January 2, 2010.
- Eric Ditzian. "James Cameron Says 'Everyone's Highly Motivated' For 'Avatar' Sequel", MTV, February 18, 2010. Dicapai pada February 21, 2010.
- Peter Sciretta. "Sigourney Weaver Returning for Avatar 2?", /Film, February 26, 2010. Dicapai pada March 2, 2010.
- Carolyn Giardina. "James Cameron 'Fully Intends' to Make 'Avatar 2 and 3' at Higher Frame Rates", The Hollywood Reporter, March 30, 2011. Dicapai pada April 4, 2010.
Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Tapak sesawang rasmi
- Official AVATAR website
- Avatar di Pangkalan Data Filem Internet
- Avatar di Allmovie
- "Avatar Wiki". Wikia. http://jamescameronsavatar.wikia.com.