Cukai karbon

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Sebuah loji elektrik tenaga arang batu di Luchegorsk, Rusia. Cukai karbon akan menyukai pengeluaran elektrik menggunakan arang batu.

Cukai karbon adalah suatu cukai persekitaran yang dikenakan pada kandungan bahan api karbon.[1] Ia sejenis bentuk harga karbon. Atom karbon disampaikan dalam setiap bahan bakar fosil (arang batu, minyak bumi, dan gas semulajadi) dan ditayangkan sebagai karbon dioksida (CO2) ketika mereka dibakar. Sebaliknya, pembakaran bukan-sumber tenaga-angin, sinar matahari, hidroelektrik, dan nuklear-tidak menukarkan hidrokarbon ke karbon dioksida. Cukai karbon dapat dilaksanakan dengan mengenakan cukai pembakaran bahan bakar fosil-arang batu, minyak bumi produk seperti gasolin dan bahan bakar penerbangan, dan gas semulajadi-berkadaran kandungan karbon mereka.

Akademi sains Negara[2] dan Laporan Penilaian Panel Antara Kerajaan tentang Perubahan Iklim[3] have pointed to the potential impacts of human-induced climate change. Carbon taxes are one of the policy measures that can be used in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels.[4] A number of countries have implemented carbon taxes or energy taxes related to carbon content.[5]

Cukai karbon menawarkan kos berkesan berpotensi cara mengurangkan pembebasan gas rumah kaca.[6] Dari perspektif ekonomi, cukai karbon adalah jenis cukai Pigovian.[7] Mereka membantu untuk mengatasi masalah pembebasan gas rumah kaca yang tidak menghadap ke ( sosial) kos penuh daripada tindakan mereka. cukai karbon adalah cukai regresif, dalam erti bahawa mereka tidak hanya sangat mempengaruhi kumpulan berpendapatan rendah. Sifat regresif dari cukai karbon dapat diatasi dengan menggunakan pendapatan cukai untuk menyokong kumpulan berpendapatan rendah.[8]

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Templat:Ibid

  1. Hoeller, P. and M. Wallin (1991). "OECD Economic Studies No. 17, Autumn 1991. Energy Prices, Taxes and Carbon Dioxide Emissions". OECD website. Diperolehi pada 2010-04-23. 
  2. Science academies of the G8 countries, plus Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa (May 2009). "G8+5 Academies’ joint statement: Climate change and the transformation of energy technologies for a low carbon future" (PDF). Climate Change at the National Academies. Website of the US National Academy of Sciences, 500 Fifth St. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20001. Diperolehi pada 2011-04-08. 
  3. IPCC (2007). 3. Projected climate change and its impacts. In (section): Summary for Policymakers. In (book): Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K and Reisinger, A. (eds.)). Print version: IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. This version: IPCC website. Diperolehi pada 2011-03-30. 
  4. Bashmakov, I. et al. (2001). "6.2.2.2.1 Collection Point and Tax Base. In: Policies, Measures, and Instruments". Dalam B. Metz et al. Climate Change 2001: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Print version: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y., U.S.A.. This version: GRID-Arendal website. Diperolehi pada 2011-04-08. 
  5. Bashmakov, I. et al. (2001). "6.2.2.2.2 Association with Trade, Employment, Revenue, and Research and Development Policies. In: Policies, Measures, and Instruments". Dalam B. Metz et al. Climate Change 2001: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Print version: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y., U.S.A.. This version: GRID-Arendal website. Diperolehi pada 2011-04-08. 
  6. Gupta, S. et al. (2007). 13.2.1.2 Taxes and charges. In (book chapter): Policies, instruments, and co-operative arrangements. In (book): "Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (B. Metz et al. Eds.). Print version: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York, N.Y., U.S.A.. This version: IPCC website. Diperolehi pada 2010-03-18. 
  7. Helm, D. (2005). "Economic Instruments and Environmental Policy". The Economic and Social Review 36 (3): 4–5. Diperolehi pada 2011-04-08. 
  8. IPCC (2001). 7.34. Dalam (seksyen): Soalan 7. Dalam (buku): Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report. A Contribution of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Third Assessment Report of the Integovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Watson, R.T. and the Core Writing Team (eds.)). Print version: Cambridge University Press, UK. This version: GRID-Arendal website. p. 122. Diperolehi pada 2011-03-29. 

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