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Sila perbaiki rencana ini dan bincangkan isu ini di laman perbualan. (June 2011)
In absentia adalah istilah Latin bagi "di dalam ketiadaannya". Di dalam penggunaan undang-undang, ia biasanya bermakna di dalam perbicaraan di mana seorang defendan tidak hadir, dan ia berkaitan dengan hak seorang defendan untuk hadir di dalam right to be present in court prosiding mahkamah di dalam perbicaraan jenayah.
Di dalam sistem-sistem perundangan common law, sabitan seseorang in absentia, iaitu di dalam perbicaraan dalam mana dia tidak menghadirinya untuk menjawab pendakwaan itu, dianggap sebagai perlanggaran keadilan semulajadi. Khususnya, ia melanggar prinsip keadilan semulajadi, audi alteram partem. Sebaliknya di dalam beberapa sistem-sistem perundangan sivil, seperti Itali, perbicaraan in absentia dibolehkan, yang mungkin memerlukan kehadiran peguam defendan bergantung kepada sesebuah negara.
Contoh-contoh[sunting | sunting sumber]
Contoh perseorang yang disabitkan in absentia adalah:
- Cesare Battisti, thriller author and former member of the Italian militant group Armed Proletarians for Communism, dijatuhkan hukuman seumur hidup. (Arrested on March 18, 2007 in Brazil.)
- Krim Belkacem, Algerian Berber resistance fighter and politician. (Assassinated on October 18, 1970 in West Germany.)
- Heinrich Boere, a Dutch or German convicted by a Dutch court in 1949 of murders on the part of the World War II German occupation authorities in the Netherlands. German courts refused to extradite Boere to the Netherlands due to his possibly having German citizenship.
- Martin Bormann, Nazi official and Hitler's private secretary, sentenced to death at the Nuremberg war crimes trials. (Disappeared on May 2, 1945. Remains were uncovered in late 1972 in West Berlin.)
- Dési Bouterse, Suriname's former military leader, sentenced to 16 years in prison and fined $2.18 million in the Netherlands for cocaine trafficking.
- Ahmed Chalabi, former Iraqi oil minister, convicted in Jordan for bank fraud.
- Ira Einhorn, anti-war activist and murderer, who challenged his conviction in Pennsylvania. (Escaped to Europe, but was extradited from France back to the US on July 20, 2001.)
- John Factor, a British-born American gangster and con man, charged with securities fraud in England and tried and sentenced to 24 years in prison in absentia after fleeing back to the United States.
- Charles de Gaulle, sentenced first to four years in prison and later to death in 1940 for treason against the Vichy Regime.
- Boļeslavs Maikovskis, Latvian Nazi collaborator sentenced to death by a Soviet court in 1965 (while living in the United States).
- Mengistu Haile Mariam, former dictator sentenced to death in Ethiopia for genocide.
- Jamal Jafaar Mohammed, sentenced to death by a Kuwaiti court for the 1983 Kuwait bombings. He is currently serving in Iraq's parliament as a member of Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki's Islamic Dawa Party.
- Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, sentenced to death in Jordan. (Killed on June 7, 2006 in Iraq.)
- Andrew Luster, convicted of date rape after fleeing mid-trial.
- Filiberto Ojeda Ríos, convicted in the US after fleeing.
- Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, bekas presiden Tunisia, dijatuhkan penjara 35 tahun bersama-sama isterinya, Leïla Ben Ali.
- Bernardo Provenzano, Sicilian Mafia boss convicted of numerous murders during his 42 years as a fugitive.
- Michael Townley, Chilean DINA agent, has been convicted in 1993 by an Italian court in carrying out the 1975 Rome murder attempt on Bernardo Leighton. (Currently living under the United States Federal Witness Protection Program.)
- Shalom Weiss, sentenced to the longest federal prison term in United States history for fraud, money laundering and other crimes. (Extradited by Austria on June 20, 2002.)
- Irakli Okruashvili, Defense Minister of Georgia from 2004 to 2006 and a personal friend of Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili. Okruashvili returned to prominence when he formed an opposition party to the Georgian government and accused it of corruption and plotting assassinations. He was arrested days later on charges of extortion, bribe taking, and abuse of power, and released on $6 million bail pending trial. He flew to Europe, supposedly to seek medical treatment, but tried to find political asylum. He was denied asylum in Germany, but received it in France, which refused an extradition request from Georgia. He was tried in absentia, found guilty, and sentenced to 11 years imprisonment.
Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Senarai frasa Latin
- Hak untuk mendapatkan perbicaraan adil
- Kematian in absentia
- Default judgment (a civil counterpart)
Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]
- Thomas, Robert McG. "Boleslavs Maikovskis, 92; Fled War-Crimes Investigation". The New York Times. 8 May 1996. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- U.S. military: Iraqi lawmaker is U.S. Embassy bomber
- "Agent of Chilean Secret Service Convicted of Murder Attempt", UPI, 11 March 1993.
- From CNN Correspondent Michael Ware (22 February 2007). "U.S. military: Iraqi lawmaker is U.S. Embassy bomber". CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/meast/02/05/iraq.lawmaker/index.html. Capaian 8 November 2010.
- Blair, David (12 April 2008). "Embassy bomber given Iraq coalition seat". Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/02/06/wiraqmp106.xml. Capaian 8 November 2010.
- Russia Today – Georgian ex-minister gets 11 year sentence (28 March 2008)