Islam dan keganasan

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari

Doktrin-doktrin dan tulisan Islam telah dikaitkan dengan keganasan. Islam juga mengandungi doktrin-doktrin keamanan, dan juga undang-undang memerlukan pemberantasan apa yang dianggap jahat oleh standard dan undang-undang Islam, kadang-kadang menggunakan cara-cara kekerasan. Kedua-dua belah pihak hidup berdampingan dalam tradisi Islam. Artikel ini berkaitan dengan penjajaran dalam undang-undang Islam dan teologi kekerasan dan non-kekerasan oleh kumpulan-kumpulan dan individu. Sikap dan undang-undang terhadap kedua-dua keamanan dan keganasan ada dalam tradisi Islam. Sepanjang sejarah, teks-teks agama Islam atau ajaran telah digunakan untuk mempromosikan kekerasan. Klasik, dan di era moden, Muslim dan pemimpin mereka, termasuk sejumlah besar ahli undang-undang, telah ditegakkan idea-idea Islam, konsep, teks, dan tema untuk membenarkan perang terhadap bukan-Muslim.[1]

Tanggapan Islam[sunting | sunting sumber]

Stereotaip Barat[sunting | sunting sumber]

English to Malay translation Sutton dan Vertigans menggambarkan pandangan Barat terhadap Islam sebagai berdasarkan stereotaip itu sebagai agama agama kekerasan, menggambarkan sebagai 'agama pedang'. Mereka mencirikan citra Islam di dunia Barat sebagai "didominasi oleh konflik, pencerobohan, 'fundamentalisme', dan keganasan keganasan berskala global."[2]

Juan Eduardo Campo menulis bahawa, "Eropah (mempunyai) Islam dilihat dalam pelbagai cara: kadang-kadang sebagai agama mundur, kekerasan, kadang-kadang sebagai fantasi Arabian Nights, dan kadang-kadang sebagai produk yang kompleks dan perubahan sejarah dan kehidupan sosial."[3] Robert Gleave menulis bahawa, "di tengah-tengah konsep popular Islam sebagai agama kekerasan hukuman yang dilakukan oleh rejim berharap untuk meningkatkan baik kepercayaan domestik dan antarabangsa mereka Islam.[4]

Jawaid Quddus menegaskan bahawa "Kutipan dari Al-Quran, dikutip di luar konteks sejarah, yang digunakan untuk membuktikan anggapan bahawa Islam adalah oleh alam dan desain sebuah agama kekerasan."

Serangan 9/11 di Amerika Syarikat dan serangan baru yang lain oleh orang-orang yang seharusnya mengikuti iman Islam, telah menyebabkan banyak bukan-Muslim untuk menuntut Islam sebagai agama kekerasan.[5] Menurut Corrigan dan Hudson, "beberapa pemimpin Kristian konservatif (mempunyai) mengeluh bahawa Islam (adalah) tidak sesuai dengan apa yang mereka diyakini Amerika yang Kristian."[6] Contoh pemimpin Kristian yang menyatakan sentimen tersebut termasuk Franklin Graham dan Pat Robertson.[7] According to a survey conducted by a research group affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention, two out of three Protestant pastors believe Islam is a "dangerous" religion.[8]

Pandangan Islam pada keganasan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sebagai respons terhadap kos, apologis Muslim seperti Ram Puniyani menegaskan bahawa, "Islam tidak membenarkan kekerasan tapi seperti agama-agama lain tidak percaya diri."[9]

Mark Juergensmeyer menggambarkan ajaran Islam sebagai ambigu tentang kekerasan. Dia menegaskan bahawa, seperti semua agama, Islam kadang-kadang membolehkan untuk tenaga sementara menekankan bahawa tujuan rohani utama adalah salah satu tanpa kekerasan dan keamanan.[10] Hood, Hill dan Spika menulis bahawa "walaupun itu akan menjadi suatu kesalahan untuk berfikir bahawa Islam sebagai agama agama kekerasan, itu akan sama-sama tidak pantas untuk gagal untuk memahami keadaan di mana orang percaya mungkin merasa benar dalam melakukan tindakan kekerasan terhadap orang-orang yang tradisi mereka merasa harus menentang."[11]

Demikian pula, Chandra Muzaffar menegaskan bahawa, "(t) ia eksposisi Quran pada melawan pencerobohan, penindasan dan ketidakadilan meletakkan parameter di mana perang atau penggunaan kekerasan yang sah. Adakah ini bermakna bahawa seseorang boleh menggunakan Quran sebagai kriteria untuk apabila kekerasan yang sah dan jika tidak."[12]

Sumber Islam[sunting | sunting sumber]

Al-Qur'an[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Qur'an and violence

ajaran Al-Quran tentang masalah perang dan keamanan telah menjadi topik perbincangan hangat dalam beberapa tahun terakhir. Di satu sisi, beberapa pengkritik mendakwa bahawa ayat-ayat tertentu dari Al-Quran hukuman tindakan ketenteraan terhadap orang-orang kafir secara keseluruhan baik selama masa hidup Muhammad dan selepas. Al-Quran mengatakan "Dan perangilah di nama agama anda dengan mereka yang memerangi kamu."[13] On the other hand, other scholars argue that such verses of the Qur’an are interpreted out of context,[14][15] dan berpendapat bahawa ketika ayat-ayat tersebut dibaca dalam konteks nampak jelas bahawa Al-Quran melarang pencerobohan,[16][17][18] and allows fighting only in self defense.[19][20]

Jihad[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Jihad

Jihad, sebuah istilah Islam , merupakan sebuah kewajiban agama dari Muslim. Dalam Bahasa Arab, kata jihad diterjemahkan sebagai kata benda yang bererti "perjuangan". Jihad muncul 41 kali dalam Al dan sering dalam ekspresi idiomatic "berjuang di jalan Allah (al-jihad fi sabil Allah )".[21][22][23] A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is mujahideen. Jihad is an important religious duty for Muslims. A minority among the Sunni scholars sometimes refer to this duty as the sixth pillar of Islam, though it occupies no such official status.[24] In Twelver Shi'a Islam, however, Jihad is one of the 10 Practices of the Religion.

Keganasan rumah tangga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Hubungan antara Islam dan keganasan rumah tangga masih diperdebatkan. Idea-idea yang samar dibenarkan dengan merujuk pada Al-Quran, dalam satu Surah, An-Nisa, 34, yang membahas bentuk pemukulan dalam keadaan tertentu. Beberapa ulama yang membolehkan "memukul" stres bahawa itu adalah pilihan terakhir, discountenanced, dan harus dilakukan enteng begitu banyak sehingga tidak menimbulkan rasa sakit atau kecederaan.[25]

Keganasan moden[sunting | sunting sumber]

Menurut sarjana Islam Khaleel Mohammed, di seluruh dunia, intelektual Muslim dihukum kerana mengkritik pelbagai aspek Islam tradisional dan kontemporari, mengutip kes Muhammad Said al-Ashmawy, yang ditahan di Mesir di bawah tahanan rumah untuk perlindungan dirinya sendiri; Abdel Karim Soroush yang dipukul di Iran untuk meningkatkan suara penyelidikan, dan Mahmoud Taha yang terbunuh di Sudan. Rifat Hassan, Fatima Mernissi, Abdallah sebuah-Na'im, Muhamad Arkoun, dan Amina Wadud semua difitnah oleh imam untuk meminta umat Islam untuk menggunakan intelek mereka.[26]

Contoh lain:

  • Hashem Aghajari, seorang profesor universiti Iran, pada awalnya dihukum mati kerana pidato yang mengkritik beberapa amalan Islam hadir di Iran yang bertentangan dengan amalan-amalan asli dan ideologi Islam, dan khususnya untuk menyatakan bahawa umat Islam tidak "monyet" dan "tidak boleh membabi buta mengikut" ulama. Kalimat itu kemudian diperingan menjadi tiga tahun penjara, dan dia dibebaskan pada tahun 2004 setelah menjalani dua tahun kalimat itu.[27][28][29]
  • Christoph Luxenberg merasa terpanggil untuk bekerja di bawah nama samaran untuk melindungi diri kerana takut bahawa sebuah buku baru mengenai asal usul Al-Quran,[30][31] may make him a target for violence.

[32] [33] dia pergi / pergi dengan nama ini diandaikan untuk melindungi dirinya sendiri.[34]

  • Dalam beberapa kali fatwa s menyeru untuk eksekusi telah dikeluarkan terhadap novelis Salman Rushdie dan aktivis Taslima Nasreen untuk komentar merendahkan tentang Islam.[35]
  • Pada 2hb November 2004, Belanda pembuat filem Theo van Gogh dibunuh oleh Belanda kelahiran Mohammed Bouyeri untuk menghasilkan filem 10-minit Penyerahankritis terhadap perlakuan kasar terhadap wanita oleh kaum Muslim. Surat mengancam penulis senario, Ayaan Hirsi Ali, yang disematkan ke tubuhnya dengan pisau. Hirsi Ali mengadakan bersembunyi akan selepas pembunuhan itu, dan sekarang dilindungi oleh pengawal.[36]
  • Pada 30hb September 2005, surat khabar Denmark Jyllands-Posten menerbitkan kartun editorial, banyak yang karikatur nabi Islam Muhammad. Penerbitan ini bertujuan untuk memberikan sumbangan terhadap perdebatan tentang kritik Islam dan self-sensor;[37] tujuan yang termanifestasi dalam protes awam daripada masyarakat Muslim di Denmark dan permintaan maaf berikutnya oleh kertas. Namun, kontroversi diperdalam ketika contoh lebih lanjut dari kartun adalah dicetak semula di surat khabar di lebih daripada lima puluh negara-negara lain. Hal ini menyebabkan protes di seluruh dunia Muslim, beberapa di antaranya meningkat menjadi kekerasan, termasuk membakar Kedutaan Norway dan Denmark di Syria, dan pencerobohan bangunan Eropah dan penodaan bendera Denmark dan Jerman di Gaza City.[38] Globally, at least 139 people were killed and 823 injured.[39]
  • Pada 19hb September 2006 Perancis penulis dan falsafah guru Robert Redeker menulis editorial untuk Le Figaro , surat khabar konservatif Perancis, di mana ia menyerang Islam dan Muhammad, menulis: "pemimpin perang tanpa belas kasihan, pillager, tukang daging daripada orang Yahudi dan poligami, ini adalah bagaimana Muhammad ini diungkapkan oleh Al-Quran." Dia menerima ancaman mati dan bersembunyi.[40] Guru terpaksa bersembunyi selepas menggambarkan al-Quran sebagai "buku keganasan luar biasa" dan Islam sebagai "agama yang ... mengagungkan keganasan dan kebencian."[41]
  • Pada 4 Ogos 2007, Ehsan Jami diserang di kampung halamannya di Voorburg dalam Belanda oleh tiga orang. Serangan ini dipercayai berkaitan dengan aktivitinya untuk Pusat Jawatankuasa untuk Bekas Muslim. Pejabat Koordinator anti-keganasan nasional, jabatan penuntut umum dan polis memutuskan selama pertemuan pada tarikh 6 Ogos bahawa "langkah-langkah tambahan" yang diperlukan untuk melindungi Jami, yang kemudian menerima keselamatan tambahan.[42]

"Kebencian terhadap orang-orang yang mengikuti agama-agama lain seperti Yahudi dan Kristian, serta Hindu dan musyrik yang lain, adalah sebahagian dari ajaran kitab suci Islam, Al-Quran."[43]

Ayatollah[sunting | sunting sumber]

"Perhaps the most resounding call to jihad in modern times occurred on January 21, 1979," suggest authors, as the Ayatollah Khomeini announced a Jihad against the U.S. "The people have absolute confidence in their victory in this holy war (jihad-e moqaddas)," said the Islamic icon.[44]

Ayatollah Khomeini's "Radical Islamic Revolution executed and killed hundreds of thousands of people in the name of Radical Islam."[45]

Iran, under the Ayatollah Khomeini, categorized the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war as a 'Holy war'.[46] "Khomeini's call to jihad incited thousands of Iranian teenagers to volunteer for martyrdom missions."[44] The Basiji movement 'created' child and adult sacrifice as "holy soldiers,"[47] Blessed by Iranian mullahs' regime.[48]

Ideologi Basiji menikmati kebangkitan Iran di bawah Presiden Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.[47] who's a member,[49] and the movement with a nominal strength of 12.6 million, has been present in schools since it was first created in 1979 by the Ayatollah.[50] Basijis digunakan dalam penyelesaian pada tahun 1999, pada tahun 2003[51] and in the brutality of 2009 on protesters in Iran.[52]

The group demands in training intense Quran studies, it calls for “Basij Ethics and Etiquette” and “Major Islamic Commandments.” The Basijis have been known to act in defending a strict Islamic conduct."[53] and enforcing Sharia law.[54] sering "penggabungan" dengan lelaki Ansar-e Hizbullah dalam menegakkan undang-undang Syariah.[51] Dalam satu contoh, HAM aktivis menuduh bahawa Basiji militia Islam telah diperkosa dan murderd 26 tahun Elnaz Babazadeh untuk mengenakan pakaian yang tidak tepat.[55]

Pada 19hb Ogos 1979 Ayatollah mengumumkan jihad melawan Kurdi di Iran. "Setelah jihad dinyatakan, semua lelaki lebih dari 15 harus bergabung memerangi, hotel musuh terbuka untuk rampasan."[56]

"Ayatollah Khomeini dimainkan di nada mesianis keyakinan ini selama revolusi Iran." Ideologi "Dua Belas" dalam Syiah Islam (pulangan 12 Imam - keyakinan) itu dipanggil oleh banyak orang yang percaya bahawa Ayatollah akan "kembali" seperti mereka Mahdi (Islam Mesias). Presiden Iran Mahmoud Ahmadinejad refocuses ini mengembalikan kepercayaan Mahdi oleh kenyataan awam dan tindakan simbolik pelbagai Syiah Iraq al-Sadr tentera disebut tentera Mahdi.[57]

Mujahedin[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada tahun 1979 Afghanistan, pemberontak Muslim tempatan mula memerangi Soviet tentera, menyebut diri mereka 'mujahidin( pejuang suci), mereka menggunakan perang gerila.[58]

Penulis buku perang Kudus Wilhelm Dietl direkodkan bagaimana satu Mujahed pejuang menyuruhnya menuju sebuah serangan bersenjata di Herat: "Kami senang untuk membunuh orang Rusia dan untuk dibunuh."[59]

Taliban[sunting | sunting sumber]

Beberapa Taliban - Afghanistan "pejuang suci," telah berjuang melawan Soviet pada 1980-an. Mereka pertempuran untuk menaklukkan negeri.[60] Many Madrassas (Islamic schools) endorse Jihad in Pakistan and in Afghanistan.[61]

Pada 1980-an,' jihad Afghanistan telah dibiayai oleh orang Saudi.[62]

Saddam Hussein[sunting | sunting sumber]

Saddam Hussein amaran perang, jihad suci melawan Amerika Syarikat pada tahun 1991.[63] Pada tahun 2003, selepas Mac 20 US, Inggeris memimpin invasi ke Iraq, Saddam Hussein menyeru perang suci melawan "sebuah pencerobohan di tanah Islam." (memanggil tema Al-Quran: "Perangilah mereka di mana-mana ...")[64] Tkenyataan dia menuduh pasukan koalisi melancarkan perang terhadap Islam. Nya maklumat Menteri menutup: "Oleh kerana itu, jihad adalah sebuah tugas dalam menghadapi mereka ... Mereka yang mati syahid akan dihargai di syurga Manfaatkan kesempatan, saudara-saudaraku .."[65]

Laskar Jihad[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pertubuhan tentera Laskar Jihad disebut "untuk melancarkan perang jihad atau suci" ke Indonesia 's Maluku pulau n, dan melakukan serangan anti-Kristian di Sulawesi,[66] kumpulan yang sama terlibat dalam keganasan pada tahun 1999 terhadap orang Kristian dan Cina[67] in East Timor.[68] It has been categorized as "Indonesia's Dirty Little Holy War Holy Terror.[66]

Hezbollah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Hezbollah's spiritual guidance, Sheik Muhammed Hussein Fadlallah, who witnessing journalist says was behind the hostage crisis in Lebanon in the 1980s,[69] said: "We see ourselves as mujihadeen who fight a Holy War." Justifying bombings, kidnapping, murder.[70]

However British journalist Robert Fisk disputes these claims about Fadlallh:

The Americans put it about that he had blessed the suicide bomber who struck the US marine base in Beirut in 1983, killing 241 service personnel. Fadlallah always denied this to me and I believe him. Suicide bombers, however insane we regard them, don't need to be blessed; they think they are doing God's duty without any help from a marja like Fadlallah.

[71]

Omar al-Bashir[sunting | sunting sumber]

"In the present conflict in Darfur, jihad is usually interpreted as holy war by the government in Khartoum."[72] The Sudanese National Islamic Front declared in 1992 a jihad, or holy war, against all in the Nuba Mountains who supported the SPLA."[73] [74]

Sudan's leader Omar Al-Bashir, in 1997 "declared a jihad (holy war) against" Ethiopia.[75] Accused of genocide he threatened in 2007 "to mount a jihad against United Nations peacekeepers." [76]

Ahli Wahabbi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Para Ahli Whabbi mempunyai sejarah panjang fundamentalisme dan jihad, menyatakan perang suci pada orang lain, untuk memaksa mereka menjadi versi dimurnikan mereka menerima Islam[77]

Pada tahun 2010, sebuah 'kekenyangan fatwa mendorong raja Saudi untuk memaksakan tepi jalan,' penganalisis Saudi politik menjelaskan: "Jika anda menyokong jihad, itu bererti anda cari perang dengan seluruh dunia."[78]

Beberapa gerakan Islam militan Saudi Wahabi mengutip ulama untuk membenarkan keganasan. [79]

Grand Mufti Saudi Ibn Baz menolak keganasan. Dia menyatakan:

Dari apa yang diketahui setiap orang yang mempunyai sedikit sahaja akal sihat adalah bahawa pesawat-pesawat rampasan dan penculikan kanak-kanak dan sejenisnya adalah jenayah sangat besar, di seluruh dunia. kesan jahat mereka jauh dan luas, seperti kerugian besar dan menyebabkan ketidakselesaan yang tidak bersalah, kesan total yang tidak dapat memahami kecuali Allah.

[80]

Terrorism[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Islam and terrorism

Islamic terrorism is terrorism[81] committed by Muslims, and aimed at achieving varying political ends[82] and the advancement of Islamist goals; for example, Osama bin Laden's stated goal of ending American military presence in the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula,[83][83] overthrowing Arab regimes he considers corrupt and insufficiently religious,[83] and stopping American support for Israel.[84] Bombing in London 7/7 are said to be in retaliation for UK's support in the war in Iraq that began in 2003, though it can't be linked as a motive for Islamic terror plots on London, December, 2001.[85][86] The Islamic terrorism attack in Madrid were "explained" as "inspired by al-Qaeda's call to punish Spain's government for supporting the Iraq war," another motive was given that Spain holds a strong appeal to Islamic militants because the southern region of Andalucia was under Muslim control for almost 800 years, and "Al-Qaeda has called on jihadists to reconquer Spain as part of a broader Muslim caliphate, or kingdom under Islamic rule."[87][88]

At the 2008 Mumbai attacks, the Islamic terrorists were told by their handlers in Pakistan "that the lives of Jews were worth 50 times those of non-Jews."[89]

The Qur'an: (8:12): "...cast terror in their hearts and strike upon their necks."[90] The commanded to terrorize the disbelievers have been cited in motivation of Jihadi terror.[91][92][93][94]

A Jihadi cleric:

"Another aim and objective of jihad is to drive terror in the hearts of the [infidels]. To terrorize them. Did you know that we were commanded in the Qur'an with terrorism? ...Allah said, and prepare for them to the best of your ability with power, and with horses of war. To drive terror in the hearts of my enemies, Allah's enemies, and your enemies. And other enemies which you don't know, only Allah knows them... So we were commanded to drive terror into the hearts of the [infidels], to prepare for them with the best of our abilities with power. Then the Prophet said, nay, the power is your ability to shoot. The power which you are commanded with here, is your ability to shoot. Another aim and objective of jihad is to kill the [infidels], to lessen the population of the [infidels]... it is not right for a Prophet to have captives until he makes the Earth warm with blood... so, you should always seek to lessen the population of the [infidels]."[95]

Observers have also argued that the attacks are aimed at propagating Islamic culture, society and values in opposition to perceived political, imperialistic, and/or cultural influences of non-Muslims, and the Western world in particular.[96][97]

There are also historical dimensions to the phenomenon, and the history of Western influence and control after the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, is a common stated reason used within some terrorist groups to justify and explain its use of violence as resistive and retributive against western influences.

World domination[sunting | sunting sumber]

The strive to an 'Islamic Caliphate.' Caliph is translated from the Arabic Khalifa (خليفة ẖalīfä) meaning "successor", "substitute", or "lieutenant". It is used in the Qur'an to establish Adam's role as representative of Allah on earth. Kalifa is also used to describe the belief that man's role, in his real nature, is as khalifa or viceroy to Allah.[98] The word is also most commonly used for the Islamic leader of the Ummah; starting with Muhammad and his line of successors.

ndeed domination's Jihadists' ultimate goal.[99][100] Al-Qaeda revealed its grand plan towards an Islamic caliphate,[101] - global domination.[102] Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's Al-Qaeda in Iraq, has released a statement in which it explains the reasons for its terror campaign:

"We are not fighting to chase out the occupier or to save national unity and keep the borders outlined by the infidels intact," [...] "We are fighting because it is a religious duty to do it, just as it is a duty to take the Sharia [Islamic law] to the government and create an Islamic state."[103]

"Al-Qaeda has called on jihadists to reconquer Spain as part of a broader Muslim caliphate, or kingdom under Islamic rule."[87] Explaining why even Hamas has an eye on Spain.[88] In the early 1990s, the GIA Algerian Armed Islamist Group, which is "well known for its radical positions and the barbaric violence of its operations, announced the restoration of the caliphate and the appointment of a caliph."[104] With Palestinian Islamic party Hamas victory in the 2007 election, a mass gathering followed with Hamas' spokesman calling for a Caliphate.[105] The official said Hamas seeks to create an "Islamic caliphate" in the land.[106][107] Barack Obama said about radical Islamists terrorists:

The terrorists are at war with us... They kill man, woman and child; Christian and Hindu, Jew and Muslim. They seek to create a repressive caliphate. To defeat this enemy, we must understand who we are fighting against, and what we are fighting for.[108]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]


Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. What is New about Al-Qaradawi’s Jihad?, Ikhwanweb, the Muslim Brotherhood's Official English web site
  2. Sutton, Philip W.; Vertigans, Stephen (2005). Resurgent Islam: a sociological approach. Polity. m/s. 7. http://books.google.com/books?id=Jhx1XlbhFhgC&pg=PA7&dq=Islam+%22violent+religion%22&hl=en&ei=QN4FTaL-Jo7msQOepuWODQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDkQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q=Islam%20%22violent%20religion%22&f=false. "Stereotypical views which portray Islam as an inherently violent religion, a 'religion of the sword' and an increasing global threat have thus been reinforced and even extended over recent years." 
  3. Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). [Infobase Publishing, 2009 Encyclopedia of Islam]. Infobase Publishing. m/s. 374. Infobase Publishing, 2009. 
  4. Hinnells, John R.; King, Richard (2007). Religion and violence in South Asia: theory and practice. Taylor & Francis. m/s. 79. http://books.google.com/books?id=wb1OBi3zvdkC&pg=PA79&dq=Islam+%22violent+religion%22&hl=en&ei=ZbcFTb21G4uosAOp3ZiKDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Islam%20%22violent%20religion%22&f=false. 
  5. Puniyani, Ram (2005). Religion, power & violence: expression of politics in contemporary times. SAGE. m/s. 97–98. http://books.google.com/books?id=Fd5Fm79VMk8C&pg=PA98&dq=Islam+%22violent+religion%22&hl=en&ei=X30ETYusGcq-nAfihpnmDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Islam%20%22violent%20religion%22&f=false. 
  6. Corrigan, John; Hudson, Winthrop Still (2004). Religion in America: an historical account of the development of American religious life. Pearson/Prentice Hall. m/s. 444. http://books.google.com/books?id=OVTuAAAAMAAJ&q=Pat+Robertson+Islam+%22violent+religion%22&dq=Pat+Robertson+Islam+%22violent+religion%22&hl=en&ei=TdQFTa6ZAY72tgPb9aDHDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAg. 
  7. "A NATION CHALLENGED: THE RELIGIOUS RIGHT; Islam Is Violent in Nature, Pat Robertson Says", New York Times, February 23, 2002. “The religious broadcaster Pat Robertson has described Islam as a"violent religion that wants to 'dominate and then, if need be, destroy'."” 
  8. "Survey: Two-thirds of Protestant pastors consider Islam 'dangerous'", USA Today, 2009-12-21. Dicapai pada 2010-12-12. 
  9. Puniyani, Ram (2005). Religion, power & violence: expression of politics in contemporary times. SAGE. m/s. 98. http://books.google.com/books?id=Fd5Fm79VMk8C&pg=PA98&dq=Quran+violence&hl=en&ei=794GTZn5O9nRnAf49-24CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDYQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q=Quran%20violence&f=false. 
  10. Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the mind of God: the global rise of religious violence. University of California Press. m/s. 80. http://books.google.com/books?id=lpb1mbaHjGQC&pg=PA80&dq=Qur'an+violence&hl=en&ei=eUsMTZ37PIqcsQON5uCJCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CDwQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage&q=Qur'an%20violence&f=false. 
  11. Hood, Ralph W.; Hill, Peter C.; Spilka, Bernard (2009). The Psychology of Religion: An Empirical Approach. Guilford Press. m/s. 257. http://books.google.com/books?id=ETVk59xbc90C&pg=PA257&dq=Islam+%22violent+religion%22&hl=en&ei=ZbcFTb21G4uosAOp3ZiKDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CE4Q6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=Islam%20%22violent%20religion%22&f=false. 
  12. Muzaffar, Chandra (2002). Taylor & Francis. m/s. 345. http://books.google.com/books?id=MQA02NT6tmAC&pg=PA345&dq=Quran+violence&hl=en&ei=-C8HTdGqOoOusAPNn4DZDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDcQ6AEwBDg8#v=onepage&q=Quran%20violence&f=false. 
  13. Sam Harris Who Are the Moderate Muslims?
  14. Sohail H. Hashmi, David Miller, Boundaries and Justice: diverse ethical perspectives, Princeton University Press, p.197
  15. Khaleel Muhammad, profesor kajian agama di San Diego State University, menyatakan, mengenai perbincangan dengan pengkritik Robert Spencer, bahawa "apabila saya diberitahu ... bahawa Jihad hanya bererti perang, atau bahawa aku harus menerima tafsiran dari Qur 'suatu yang bukan-Muslim (tanpa niat baik atau pengetahuan Islam) berusaha untuk berlaku pada saya, saya melihat agendum tertentu berkembang: satu yang didasarkan pada kebencian, dan aku menolak untuk menjadi sebahagian dari kejahatan intelektual." [1]
  16. Ali, Maulana Muhammad; The Religion of Islam (6th Edition), Ch V "Jihad" Page 414 "When shall war cease". Published by The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement [2]
  17. Sadr-u-Din, Maulvi. "Qur'an and War", page 8. Published by The Muslim Book Society, Lahore, Pakistan.[3]
  18. Article on Jihad by Dr. G. W. Leitner (founder of The Oriental Institute, UK) published in Asiatic Quarterly Review, 1886. ("Jihad, even when explained as a righteous effort of waging war in self defense against the grossest outrage on one's religion, is strictly limited..")
  19. The Qur'anic Commandments Regarding War/Jihad An English rendering of an Urdu article appearing in Basharat-e-Ahmadiyya Vol. I, p. 228-232, by Dr. Basharat Ahmad; published by the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam
  20. Ali, Maulana Muhammad; The Religion of Islam (6th Edition), Ch V "Jihad" Pages 411-413. Published by The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement [4]
  21. Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Islam: a comprehensive guide to belief and practice. ABC-CLIO. m/s. 87. ISBN 0313360251. http://books.google.com/books?id=U94S6N2zECAC&pg=PA87. Capaian 5 January 2011. 
  22. Wendy Doniger, ed (1999). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. ISBN 087-7790442. , Jihad, p.571
  23. Josef W. Meri, ed (2005). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 041-5966906. , Jihad, p.419
  24. John Esposito(2005), Islam: The Straight Path, pp.93
  25. Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi's viewpoint on man beating disobedient wife and original Persian Q&A article.
  26. Mohammed, Khaleel. "To My Fellow Muslims: We Are Our Own Enemies", 6 March 2007. 
  27. "Profile: Hashem Aghajari", BBC News, 2003-07-09. 
  28. "Iran Frees Professor Set to Die for Speech", The New York Times, 2004-08-01. 
  29. "From monkey to man: A call for Islamic Protestantism", The Iranian, 2002-12-04. 
  30. Scholars Are Quietly Offering New Theories of the Koran Alexander Stille, NYTimes.com, March 02, 2002
  31. Op-Ed Columnist - Islam, Virgins and Grapes Nicholas D. Kristof, NYTimes.com Apr 22, 2009
  32. Caldwell, Christopher (2009). Reflections on the revolution in Europe: immigration, Islam, and the West. Random House, Inc.,. m/s. 254. ISBN 0385518269. 
  33. Low profile for German expert challenging the Koranby Tom Heneghan, Religion Editor (Reuters, November 11, 2004)[5]
  34. Sim, Stuart (2006). Empires of belief: why we need more scepticism and doubt in the twenty-first century. Edinburgh University Press. m/s. 144. ISBN 0748623264. 
  35. Davis, Thulani. "Taslima Nasrin Speaks (Still)", The Village Voice, 13–19 November 2002. 
  36. "Muslim row filmmaker 'murdered'", CNN.com, 2004-11-02. Dicapai pada 2007-07-20. Diarkibkan drpd. yang asli di 26 January 2007. 
  37. Rose, Flemming. "Why I Published Those Cartoons", Washington Post, 2006-02-19. Dicapai pada 2008-09-10. 
  38. "Storm grows over Mohammad cartoons", CNN.com, 2006-02-03. Dicapai pada 2007-07-20. Diarkibkan drpd. yang asli di 15 May 2007. 
  39. "Cartoon Body Count", Web, 2006-03-02. Dicapai pada 2008-06-17. Diarkibkan drpd. yang asli di 2006-03-26. 
  40. Arnold, Martin. "Teacher in hiding after attacking Islam", Financial Times, 2006-09-29. Dicapai pada 2006-10-17. 
  41. Teacher forced into hiding after attacking Islam Sunday Times, September 29, 2006
  42. Extra security for Ehsan Jami, Expatica.com, 7 August 2007.
  43. Beyond jihad: critical voices from inside Islam Kim Ezra Shienbaum, Jamal Hasan,p. 89, Academica Press,LLC, 2006. ISBN 1933146192, 9781933146195
  44. 44.0 44.1 Rawshandil, Jalīl; Sharon Chadha (2006). Jihad and international security. Macmillan. m/s. 10. ISBN 1403971927. 
  45. Mandaville, Michael (2009). Citizen-Soldier Handbook: 101 Ways Every American Can Fight Terrorism. Dog Ear Publishing. m/s. 46. ISBN 1598586718. 
  46. Endings: a sociology of death and dying, Michael C. Kearl (1989) p. 187
  47. 47.0 47.1 "Ahmadinejad's Demons, A Child of the Revolution Takes Over," Matthias Küntzel The New Republic, April 24, 2006
  48. "Children at war," Peter Warren Singer, University of California Press, 2006, ISBN 0520248767, p. 22AFT - A Union of Professionals - Child Soldiers(Ian Brown, Khomeini's Forgotten Sons: The Story of Iran's Boy Soldiers, London: Grey Seal, 1990, p. 2. Quoted in Karen Armstrong, The Battle for God, New York: Knopf, 2000, pp. 327–328)
  49. Glucklich, Ariel (2009). Dying for Heaven: Holy Pleasure and Suicide Bombers-Why the Best Qualities of Religion Are Also Its Most Dangerous. HarperCollins. m/s. p. 20. ISBN 0061430811. 
  50. How Schoolchildren Are Brainwashed In Iran, by Hossein Aryan Rferl, May 27, 2010
  51. 51.0 51.1 Mohajerinejad, Reza (2010). Live Generation: Iran's 1999 Student Uprising that Opened the Door for Secular Democracy. iUniverse. m/s. p. 10. ISBN 1450237967. 
  52. Feared Basij militia has deep history in Iranian conflict CNN, June 22, 2009
  53. Iran riots drive stealth militia into the light Neill MacFarquhar, The New York Times, June 19, 2009
  54. The Ideological-Political Training of Iran's Basij [6] Saeid Golca] Crown Center for Middle East Studies, September 2010
  55. IRAN: Judiciary official says woman to be stoned for husband's murder not just adultey.... LATimes, July 2010
  56. "Covertaction information bulletin": Issue 37, Covert Action Publications, Inc, 1984 (Original from the University of California) p. 56
  57. Islam, Terror and the Second Nuclear Age NYtimes, October 29, 2006
  58. Martin, Gus (2009). Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues. SAGE. m/s. 560. ISBN 1412970598. 
  59. Dietl, Wilhelm (1984). Holy war. Macmillan. m/s. 10. ISBN 0025315307. 
  60. Rashid, Ahmed (2002). Taliban: Islam, oil and the new great game in central Asia. I.B.Tauris. m/s. 1. ISBN 1860648304. 
  61. In the Land of the Taliban NYTimes.com Oct 22, 2006
  62. Glles, Kepel (2006). Jihad: the trail of political Islam. I.B. Tauris. m/s. http://books.google.com/books?id=OLvTNk75hUoC&pg=PA205. ISBN 1845112571. 
  63. CONFRONTATION IN THE GULF; More on the Gulf NYtimes, January 12, 1991, "Iraqi Leader Warns Of Plan for Holy War," January 12, 1991

    Pemimpin Iraq Amaran Dari Rencana Perang Suci Presiden Saddam Hussein mengatakan pada persidangan para pemimpin Islam yang ia sedang mempersiapkan untuk perang suci terhadap perikatan tentera yang dipimpin Amerika di Teluk Parsi yang dapat dihindarkan hanya jika keutamaan yang lebih besar diberikan untuk memecahkan masalah Palestin.

  64. Saddam Hussein calls for holy war | Mail Online
  65. NewsHour Extra: Statement from Saddam Hussein Calls for Jihad PBS, April 1, 2003
  66. 66.0 66.1 TIMEasia.com: Indonesia's Dirty Little Holy War
  67. MY JAKARTA DIARY --II
  68. Who are the Laskar Jihad? BBC News | ASIA-PACIFIC Jun 20, 2000
  69. Sheikh Fadlallah was the terrorist mastermind behind the Lebanon hostage crisis, Daily Telegraph, Con Coughlin, July 5th, 2010
  70. Hoffman, Bruce (2006). Inside terrorism. Columbia University Press. m/s. 314. ISBN 0231126999. 
  71. CNN was wrong about Ayatollah Fadlallah
  72. Frey, Rebecca Joyce (2009). Genocide and international justice Global issues. Infobase Publishing. m/s. 365. ISBN 0816073104. 
  73. Chaos by Design": Khartoum's Patterns of Violence in Darfur, 2008 Eric Reeves ('Concern over a resurgence of Arab supremacism')
  74. Genocide in Sudan: The Role of Oil Exploration and the Entitlement James E. Rogers College of Law
  75. Europa World Year Book 2, Taylor & Francis Group 2004, p. 3966
  76. Sudanese Leader Mounts Charm Offensive NYTimes.com Jul 24, 2008
  77. World Civilizations, Philip J. Adler, Randall Lee Pouwels, Cengage Learning (2005) ISBN 0534599338, p. 502
  78. Glut of fatwas spurs Saudi king to impose curbs - World news MSNBC, Oct. 10 2010
  79. Saudi Arabia - Terrorism Jcpa, Oct 1, 2003
  80. Imaam Ibn Baaz on Hijacking planes and kidnapping
  81. "the Russian counterterrorism law defines terrorism as "the ideology of violence and practice of exerting pressure on decision making by state bodies"" pp. 28, Terrorism in asymmetrical conflict: ideological and structural aspects, by Ekaterina Stepanova, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Oxford University Press US, 2008 ISBN 0199533555, 9780199533558 186 pages).
  82. Scheuer, Michael (2004). Imperial Hubris. Dulles, Virginia: Brassey's, Inc.. m/s. 9. ISBN 0-965-51394-7. "The focused and lethal threat posed to U.S. national security arises not from Muslims being offended by what America is, but rather from their plausible perception that the things they most love and value—God, Islam, their brethren, and Muslim lands—are being attacked by America." 
  83. 83.0 83.1 83.2 Online NewsHour: Al Qaeda's 1998 Fatwa
  84. “Al-Qaeda Blames 9/11 on US Support for Israel – Defense/Middle East – Israel News – Israel National News.” Web. 16 April 2010.
  85. BBC News | MEDIA REPORTS | Al-Qaeda note suggests 'attack on London'
  86. London 9/11 plotter jailed - World - Times Online Sunday Times
  87. 87.0 87.1 Spanish Court to Deliver Verdict in Madrid Train Bombing Case Bloomberg
  88. 88.0 88.1 HAMAS Targets Spain By: Dr. Rachel Ehrenfeld. FP | Monday, January 02, 2006
  89. Mumbai terror attacks: And then they came for the Jews... Times Online Sunday Times
  90. Warrant for terror: fatwās of radical Islam and the duty of jihād, p. 68, Shmuel Bar, 2006
  91. The Osama bin Laden I know: an oral history of al-Qaeda's leader, p. 303, Peter L. Bergen, 2006
  92. Jihad and international security, p. 90, Jalīl Rawshandil, Sharon Chadha, 2006
  93. CNN.com - Transcripts
  94. Commanded to terrorize South Park. Vancouver Sun
  95. Counter terrorism site, May 2010
  96. Dar al-Harb
  97. See ref:"purpose" and ref:"justification"
  98. From the article "Khalifah" in Oxford Islamic Studies Online
  99. p. 110
  100. p. 262
  101. Al-Qaeda reveals grand plan as it tries to rein in Sheikh of Slaughter Sunday Times, October 13, 2005
  102. Al-Qaeda chiefs reveal world domination design theage.com.au, The Age 2005-08-24
  103. http://www.adnki.com/index_2Level.php?cat=Terrorism&loid=8.0.220033018&par=0
  104. Charfi, Mohamed; Patrick Camiller (2005). Islam and liberty: the historical misunderstanding G - Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Zed Books. m/s. 104. ISBN 1842775111, 9781842775110. 
  105. "Over 10,000 Palestinians Attend West Bank Rally to Restore Islamic Caliphate". IHT. 2007-08-11. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/08/11/africa/ME-GEN-Palestinians-Islamic-Movement.php. 
  106. Terrorists claim CIA files seized
  107. Towards a global caliphate :: Damian Thompson , 24 Aug. 2007, "...The goal of a worldwide caliphate is emerging..."
  108. BarackObama.com | Remarks of Senator Obama: The War We Need to Win