Kawasan kejiranan di Seattle

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Seattle, Washington mengandungi banyak kawasan dan kawasan kejiranan. Bekas Seattle walikota Greg sen telah disebut Seattle "sebuah bandar kawasan kejiranan."[1][2][3] Awal penduduk Eropah ditubuhkan tersebar luas penempatan di perbukitan sekitarnya, yang tumbuh ke dalam persekitaran dan bandar-bandar autonomi. Bandar gabungan cenderung tumbuh dari bandar-bandar atau dari daerah unincorporated sekitar berhenti troli dari abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20. Akibatnya, Seattle telah menderita daripada masalah pengangkutan dan jalan-penamaan.[4]

Mentakrifkan kawasan kejiranan Seattle[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Ref improve section

Peta ini 1909 Seattle menunjukkan nama banyak persekitaran yang terus digunakan umum hari ini-misalnya, Ballard, Fremont, Queen Anne Hill, Capitol Hill, Seattle Barat, dan Beacon Hill-tapi juga banyak yang telah jatuh dari penggunaan-contohnya, "Ross" dan "Edgewater" di kedua-dua sisi Fremont, "Brooklyn" untuk hari ini Universiti Kecamatan, dan "Renton Hill" di dekat pertemuan Capitol Hill, First Hill, dan Central District.

Kerana Seattle ditubuhkan selama [boom [dan payudara | boom ekonomi]] dipicu oleh industri kayu[5] (lihat Seattle # Kayu bandar), tahun-tahun awal bandar itu ditandai dengan pengembangan tergesa-gesa dan pembangunan, di mana kawasan perumahan yang longgar ditakrifkan oleh banyak tersebar plat s. tatacara ini kemudian dipadatkan dengan penubuhan komuniti kelab tempatan bermula, perpustakaan awam, sekolah umum, dan taman umum, yang menciptakan rasa komuniti dan penyertaan masyarakat.[petikan diperlukan]

Pada awal abad ke-20, kelab masyarakat Seattle menjadi berpengaruh dalam organisasi pembaikan awam. Ini mempunyai kesan yang signifikan terhadap watak persekitaran mereka dan membolehkan mereka untuk tetap berbeza dari kawasan sekitarnya.[6][7] Beberapa kelab masyarakat yang digunakan keperluan untuk menyekat etnik warga.[8] (Lihat juga Covenants, di bawah ini.)

Membentuk cabang perpustakaan awam boleh mendefinisikan kabupaten serta persekitaran. Perpustakaan umum adalah salah satu bangunan paling banyak digunakan.[9] Seattle telah memilih dewan bandar yang at] besar] sejak 1910, dan masyarakat lobi dewan kelab untuk kepentingan penduduk tempatan-misalnya, untuk cabang perpustakaan. Organisasi masyarakat membina konstituensi suara, dan dengan demikian menentukan sebuah persekitaran. Dengan tidak adanya politik persekitaran, ini dan [dana kempen [ undang-undang dilihat sebagai alternatif yang lebih terbuka. The Greenwood-Phinney Komersial Club terutama aktif dalam menetapkan terhadap cabang Greenwood yang dibuka pada tahun 1928.[10] The Lake City Branch Library dibuka pada tahun 1935 sebagai beberapa rak buku di bahagian bilik di Lake City School, bersama-sama dengan Pekerjaan Pentadbiran Kemajuan (WPA), ditaja oleh kumpulan masyarakat Peningkatan Pacific Club. Perpustakaan berpindah ke bangunan baru pada tahun 1955.[11]

Sekolah Dasar awam secara berkesan pasti banyak persekitaran, yang sering identik dengan nama sekolah dasar ketika persekitaran dan sekolah ditubuhkan. Banyak dari persekitaran mengandungi beberapa persekitaran yang lebih kecil. Mann dan Minor persekitaran di Daerah Tengah, yang dibina di sekitar sekolah mereka. Sekolah Universiti Heights (1903) di utara University Kabupaten bernama untuk persekitaran, seperti Sekolah Latona (1906) dalam Patrick.[12][13]

Taman juga mendefinisikan beberapa persekitaran. Madrona Pantai dan Cowen dan Ravenna Taman adalah peribadi ditubuhkan untuk menggalakkan pembangunan perumahan di atas tanah dinyatakan tidak boleh digunakan.[14] Rencana untuk Olmsted Parks memenuhi matlamat dan secara signifikan mempengaruhi watak kawasan kejiranan di sekitar taman dan taman permainan.[15] Phinney Timur dan Barat Meridian persekitaran kadang-kadang disebut Woodland Park, serta Selatan atau Utara Green Lake Patrick untuk Meridian.[16]

Perjanjian dan sekatan bangsa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Perumahan keperluan menjadi umum pada tahun 1920 dan telah diaktifkan oleh AS Mahkamah Agung pada tahun 1926. Minoriti secara berkesan terhad pada Antarabangsa Bahagian dan bahagian dari beberapa persekitaran di Seattle selatan-timur untuk Asia dan Amerika asli, atau [[Central District, Seattle, Washington | Daerah Tengah] ] untuk kulit hitam, yang jelas mendefinisikan persekitaran.[17] Ballard - Sunset Hills, Beacon Hill, Broadmoor, Green Lake, Laurelhurst, Magnolia, Queen Anne, South Lake City, dan lain-lain Seattle persekitaran dan blok mempunyai bangsa atau etnik keperluan perumahan sekatan, seperti contoh berikut:

"Tidak ada orang atau orang-orang dari [salah satu daripada beberapa minoriti] darah, keturunan, atau ekstraksi harus dibenarkan untuk menduduki sebahagian dari kata hotel ... kecuali seorang pembantu rumah tangga atau hamba yang benar-benar mungkin dan dengan niat baik dipekerjakan oleh putih penghuni."[18]

Sekatan lebih lanjut tentang alat angkutan (sewa, sewa, jualan, pemindahan) sering dibekalkan, berkesan mendefinisikan sebahagian besar lingkungan di Seattle selama berdekad-dekad pertama selepas pembentukan.

Mahkamah Agung memutuskan pada 1948 bahawa sekatan bangsa tidak lagi ditegakkan. Seattle Terbuka Perumahan Ordonansi berlaku efektif pada tahun 1968. Walaupun unenforcible, komplikasi undang-undang mencegah sekatan dari yang dihapuskan dari judul dokumen hotel.[18]

Wards and Little City Halls[sunting | sunting sumber]

Seattle pada mulanya menggunakan sistem alam sekitar, namun pada tahun 1910, sistem ini digantikan oleh non-partisan, perwakilan di-besar. Variasi dalam sistem persekitaran yang dicadangkan dan ditolak pada tahun 1914,[19] 1926,[20] 1974, dan 1995,[21] dan keyakinan untuk kempen berkaitan penyeludupan wang berikutnya kempen 1995.[22] Kritik menyatakan bahawa kabupaten-gaya pemilihan dewan bandar akan menghasilkan [Tammany [Hall]] politik gaya. Pada tahun 1973, terinspirasi oleh model Boston, pentadbiran Datuk Bandar Wes Uhlman melaksanakan sistem Little City Halls, dimana Community Service Center (CSCS) dianggap bertanggung jawab untuk melakukan koordinasi perkhidmatan bandar. Pembangkang politik Uhlman yang disebut CSCS sistem bangsal disamarkan tipis yang dirancang untuk mempromosikan pemilihan semula Uhlman.[23] CSC menjadi setting untuk hujah politik antara dewan kota dan wali kota; kontroversi atas akauntabiliti, kronisme, dan politik persekitaran terjadi pada tahun 1974, 1976, dan 1988. Pada tahun 1991 diberi nama Persekitaran CSCS Service Center (NSCs) dan ditempatkan di bawah bidang kuasa Jabatan Alam Sekitar.[23]

Sebuah Daerah Kabupaten Peningkatan (LID) adalah sebuah kaedah yang sekelompok pemilik hotel boleh berkongsi kos pembaikan infrastruktur pengangkutan. Hal ini melibatkan memperbaiki jalan, membangun trotoar dan memasang sistem pengurusan Kecemasan. Tanpa sistem penilaian Seattle LID, bandar ini tidak akan mampu untuk mempertahankan pertumbuhan yang cepat dalam penduduk dan wilayah.[24] LID telah membantu mendefinisikan persekitaran oleh penyetempatan keputusan tentang isu-isu seperti trotoar, vegetasi dan ciri-ciri lain dari ruangan awam, yang membolehkan persekitaran untuk tetap berbeza dari tetangga mereka.[petikan diperlukan]

Angkutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Jalan arteri kecilumumnya terletak di sepanjang batas-batas persekitaran, dengan jalan-jalan dan jalan raya dibina mengikut sistem klasifikasi jalan.[25] Ini secara berkesan membantu mendefinisikan persekitaran.[26]

Pembangunan sesuai dengan sistem klasifikasi jalan mempertahankan kualiti hidup persekitaran bandar dan meningkatkan kecekapan sistem jalan. Sistem klasifikasi menghalang larian tikus melewati jalan-jalan persekitaran tempatan.[27]

Hub pengangkutan, seperti zon perniagaan dan stesen transit, seperti kemudahan Park and Ride, menyediakan focal point untuk kabupaten dari lingkungan dengan cara yang sama keranjang berhenti pasti persekitaran sebelum kereta.[petikan diperlukan]

Kawasan tidak rasmi[sunting | sunting sumber]

University District Neighborhood Service Center (storefront at right)

No official neighborhood boundaries have existed in Seattle since 1910.[28] Districts and neighborhoods are thus informal; their boundaries may overlap and multiple names may exist for a single district. Boundaries and names can be disputed or change over time. In 2002 a Department of Neighborhoods spokeswoman said, "I've seen my area go from the 'CD' to 'Madrona' to 'Greater Madison Valley' and now 'Madrona Park.' "[3] Some neighborhoods, such as northwest Seattle, do not have widely-recognized names for their greater districts.[petikan diperlukan]

Throughout Seattle one can find signs indicating the boundaries of neighborhoods; the locations of these signs have been specified by the city's many community councils. However, the boundaries suggested by these signs routinely overlap and differ from delineations on maps. For example, signs indicate that Lake City Way NE is the southeastern boundary of the Maple Leaf neighborhood,[29][30] while the city clerk's archival map places that district's southern boundary at 85th Street.[31]

Another example of boundary ambiguity is "Frelard," which local residents call the area shared by Fremont and Ballard between 3rd and 8th Avenues NW. Signs facing opposite directions on NW Leary Way reveal the overlap.[32]

Further difficulty in defining neighborhoods can result from residents' identification with neighborhoods different from those marked on signs and maps. After an acrimonious development dispute in 1966, a group of concerned Wallingford citizens enlisted the University of Washington Community Development Bureau to survey their neighborhood; the survey revealed that more residents of southwest Wallingford considered themselves citizens of Fremont than of Wallingford.[12]

List of districts and neighborhoods[sunting | sunting sumber]

Despite complications in Seattle's system of neighborhoods and districts, the names and boundaries in the following list are generally accepted and widely used.[33] They are based on the Seattle City Clerk's Neighborhood Map Atlas,[34] which in turn is based on a variety of sources, including a 1980 neighborhood map produced by the now-defunct Department of Community Development,[35] Seattle Public Library indexes, a 1984-1986 "Neighborhood Profiles" feature series in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer,[36] numerous park, land use and transportation planning studies, as well as records in the Seattle Municipal Archives.

North End[sunting | sunting sumber]

Neighborhood Service Center (NSC) storefronts cover Lake City-North Seattle, University District-Northeast Seattle, Greenwood-Northwest Seattle, and Ballard has one for itself. NSCs are also called Little City Halls.

Ballard neighborhoods (Ballard map [2], map North [3]), Ballard was a town for 17 years.

  • Adams
  • Loyal Heights
  • Sunset Hill
  • West Woodland
  • Whittier Heights[37]

Lake City neighborhoods (Lake City map [4]), Lake City a former township for 5 years
Lake City neighborhoods are now also known as Sand Point-Magnuson Park and neighborhoods northwest of Sand Point.

  • Cedar Park
  • Matthews Beach
  • Meadowbrook
  • Olympic Hills
  • Victory Heights[38]

Northgate neighborhoods (Northgate map [5])

Northwestern neighborhoods

  • Greenwood
  • Broadview

University District (University District map [6]).

In addition to the central, N, S, E, and W designations for the main campus of the University of Washington, the district has The Ave and now-obscure neighborhoods such as University Heights and University Park.[40]

Central city[sunting | sunting sumber]

NSC storefronts cover Capitol Hill, Downtown, the Central Area, Queen Anne, Magnolia, and Lake Union-Fremont.

Magnolia (Magnolia map [7], Central map [8])

  • Briarcliff
  • Lawton Park
  • Southeast Magnolia

Queen Anne (Queen Anne map [9])

  • East Queen Anne
  • Lower Queen Anne (the Counterbalance)
  • North Queen Anne
  • West Queen Anne

Capitol Hill (Capitol Hill map [10])
North Capitol Hill and Stevens were formerly Renton Hill.[7] Portage and Union bays are convenient boundaries.

  • Broadway
  • Madison Park
  • Montlake
  • Portage Bay (Roanoke or Roanoke Park)
  • Stevens (north Capitol Hill, Interlaken)

Cascade (Cascade map [11])
(Northlake is usually south Wallingford, remote from Old Seattle by Salmon, Portage, and Union bays.)

Central District, Central Area, or "the CD" (Central Area map [12])

Downtown neighborhoods (Downtown map [13])

South End and West Seattle[sunting | sunting sumber]

NSC storefronts cover Southeast Seattle (the Rainier Valley neighborhoods, the South End Lake Shore Communities, and Beacon Hill), West Seattle, Greater Duwamish, and Delridge.

South End Neighborhoods (Rainier Valley map [14], map South [15])

  • Columbia City, formerly a town for 15 years, whose history is well preserved by the Rainier Valley Historical Society, at http://www.rainiervalleyhistory.org/
  • Hillman City (a burgeoning business district with an active business association at http://www.hillmancitybiz.org/)
  • Brighton (the lakeshore next to this neighborhood was once called Brighton Beach, but has since been subsumed into Seward Park by all residents and by the City of Seattle Department of Neighborhoods)
  • Dunlap (Othello)
  • Mount Baker.
  • Seward Park. Northern section sometimes referred to as "Lakewood"; entire neighborhood also sometimes referred to as "Lakewood/Seward Park" after the historic Lakewood Community Club, now called the Lakewood/Seward Park Community Club
  • Rainier Beach (Atlantic City Beach)
    • Rainier View (Lakeridge)[44]

Beacon Hill (Beacon Hill map [16])

  • North Beacon Hill
  • Mid Beacon Hill (term as used by City of Seattle, residents simply say "Beacon Hill")
  • New Holly (or Holly Park per City of Seattle)
  • South Beacon Hill (Van Asselt)

West Seattle (West Seattle map [17]), West Seattle formerly a town for 5 years

Delridge (Delridge map [18])

  • High Point
  • Highland Park
  • North Delridge
  • Riverview (South Seattle Community College)
  • Roxhill
  • Westwood (South Delridge)

Alphabetical list of neighborhoods[sunting | sunting sumber]

Annexation dates follow each name, unless the neighborhood was part of the original Old Seattle, that is, within the area of second incorporation, December 1869.[45]

Date is as of the actual annexation, not the date of the prerequisite enabling city ordinance. Neighborhoods of most of the largest districts are listed under their district, such as West Seattle and Delridge.

Annexations[sunting | sunting sumber]

Seattle annexed eight municipalities between 1905 and 1910, nearly doubling the area size of the city. Annexations by law were begun by the annexee and had to be approved by the Seattle City Council. The appeal of the inexpensive and accessible electric power and water system services of the public utilities were the primary motivations for the annexation movements.

Ballard was its own incorporated town for 17 years, annexed as its own ward. West Seattle incorporated in 1902, then annexed Spring Hill, Riverside, Alki Point, and Youngstown districts. It was the largest of the incorporated towns to be annexed. Southeast Seattle merged with the towns of Hillman City and York, then incorporated for the only reason of being annexed. Georgetown was the last of the small incorporated cities (towns, actually) to be annexed to Seattle before 1950.

  • Town of South Seattle, annexed 20 October 1905,
    • Neighborhoods of the Duwamish Valley, mostly industrial, except Georgetown
    • (Remaining enclave adjacent with Georgetown, 1921)
  • Town of Southeast Seattle
    • Rainier Valley neighborhoods except Columbia City
    • Hillman City
    • York[59] incorporated July 1906, annexed 7 January 1907
  • Town of Ravenna, annexed 15 January 1907
  • City of Columbia (Columbia City), incorporated 1892, annexed 3 May 1907
  • Town of South Park, incorporated 1902, annexed 3 May 1907.
  • City of Ballard, incorporated January 1890, annexed 29 May 1907
  • City of West Seattle, incorporated April 1902, annexed 24 July 1907
  • City of Georgetown, incorporated 1904, annexed 4 April 1910[55][60]
  • Lake City, incorporated township 1949, annexed January 1954[61]

Towns annexed 1905–1910[sunting | sunting sumber]

The following towns were annexed by Seattle from 1905 to 1910:

Future[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Ref improve section Because of the cost of providing city services, low-density residential neighborhoods represent a net revenue loss for municipalities.[63] Because vehicle-license revenue is no longer used to subsidize unincorporated areas, these neighborhoods have become increasingly orphaned.[petikan diperlukan]

In April 2004, the City Council voted to defer a decision on Mayor Nickels' proposal to designate the West Hill and North Highline neighborhoods, part of unincorporated King County, as potential annexation areas (PAAs) for at least a year. Because of the tax revolt that took place in Washington in the late 1990s and early 21st century, the county's budget has been reduced and the county has said it is unlikely to be able to maintain adequate levels of funding for urban services in unincorporated areas. The nearby city of Burien, however, has issued a 2004 draft report for its own annexation of all or part of North Highline.

North Highline, which adjoins SeaTac, Burien, and Tukwila in addition to Seattle, consists of the Boulevard Park neighborhood and part of White Center. West Hill, which abuts Tukwila and Renton as well as Seattle, consists of Skyway, Bryn Mawr, Lakeridge, and Earlington. Its population is 32,000.

On December 11, 2006, the Seattle City Council agreed to designate North Highline a "potential annexation area".[44][64]

See also[sunting | sunting sumber]

Notes and references[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Greg Nickels (July 2005). "Nickels Newsletter - July 2005". http://www.seattle.gov/mayor/about/nicnewsJul05.htm. Capaian 2007-10-11. [pautan putus]
  2. There is a book about Seattle by Arthur J O'Donnell, In the City of Neighborhoods, iUniverse, Inc., 2004), ISBN 0595337929.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Jack Broom. "New Seattle map: There goes the neighborhood", Seattle Times, 2002-10-05. Dicapai pada 2007-10-11. 
  4. Phelps, p. 34; Chapter 16, "Street Names and House Numbering", pp. 225-235; Chapter 15, "Annexation", pp. 216–224, map "to 1921", p. 217; map "to 1975", p. 224, map key table pp.222-3.
  5. Speidel (1967, 1978)
  6. Wilma (21 May 2001, Essay 3198)
  7. 7.0 7.1 Wilma, (1 April 2001, Essay 3157)
  8. Wilma, (1 April 2001, Essay 3158)
  9. Wilma, (5 July 2002), Essay 3879)
  10. David Wilma (October 8, 2002). "Greenwood Branch, The Seattle Public Library - HistoryLink.org Essay 3980". HistoryLink.org Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History. http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&File_Id=3980. Capaian 6 May 2009. 
  11. Wilma, (5 December 2002, Essay 4031)
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 (1) Dorpat (1994), ch. 42, 58, 64 (Fremont); 36, 37, 42, 64, 71 (Latona); 36, 37, 42, 71 (University).
    (2) Dorpat (24 July 2001, Essay 3461){
  13. Dorpat (1986), ch. 52
  14. Wilma (20 August 2001, Essay 3502)
  15. Williams
  16. "Lake Union". Seattle Neighborhoods. n.d.. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2006-02-24. http://web.archive.org/web/20060224062202/http://www.historylink.org/I-map/LU.htm. Capaian 2006-05-21. 
  17. Hatt, Schmid, Nobbe, & Mitchell
  18. 18.0 18.1 (1) Gregory (2) Chardoul-Sutter et al.
  19. Wilma, David (May 1, 2002). "Seattle voters reject a city manager and district elections on June 30, 1914". HistoryLink.org Essay 3761. http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&File_Id=3761. Capaian May 4, 2009. 
  20. Wilma, David (May 11, 2002). "Seattle voters reject district city council elections and Rich Man's Charter on November 2, 1926". HistoryLink.org Essay 3768. http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=3768. Capaian May 4, 2009. 
  21. Kit Oldham and David Wilma (September 7, 2006). "Washington voters reject property rights, casino gambling, and other ballot measures on November 7, 1995". HistoryLink.org Essay 7916. http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&File_Id=7916. Capaian May 4, 2009. 
  22. Jake Batsell, Jack Broom, Barbara A. Serrano. "Stewart Case: $5 Million Fine", Seattle Times, March 18, 1998. Dicapai pada May 4, 2009. 
  23. Phelps, pp. 82–84
  24. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) standards for urban areas having more than 50,000 people
  25. (1) "Planned Arterials Map Legend Definitions" (PDF). "Street Classification Maps". Seattle Department of Transportation. 2004-01-02. http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/streetclassmaps/arterialslegend.pdf. Capaian 2006-04-21. 
    (2) "Street Classification Maps". Seattle Department of Transportation. 2005. http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/streetclassmaps.htm. Capaian 2006-04-21. 
    http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/streetclassmaps/plan.pdf High-Resolution Version], PDF format, 16.1 MB
    Medium-Resolution Version, PDF format, 1.45 MB 12 January 2004.
    Low-Resolution Version, PDF format, 825 KB 12 January 2004.
    "Planned Arterials Map Legend Definitions", PDF format. 12 January 2004.
    The high resolution version is good for printing, 11 x 17. The low and medium resolution versions are good for quicker online viewing. [Source: "Street Classification Maps, Note on Accessing These PDF Files"]
  26. "Street Classification Maps, Note on Accessing These PDF Files". "Street Classification Maps". Seattle Department of Transportation. 2005. http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/streetclassmaps.htm#pdfnote. Capaian 2006-04-21. 
  27. Wilma (01 May 2002, Essay 3761), (20 March 2006, Essay 4246)
  28. Maple Leaf: Neighborhood is another one of Seattle's best-kept secrets
  29. MLCC - Neighborhood Map
  30. ""Maple Leaf", map". Seattle City Clerk's Neighborhood Map Atlas. n.d., map .jpg 2002-06-17. http://clerk.ci.seattle.wa.us/~public/nmaps/html/NN-1038S.htm. Capaian 2009-04-27. 
  31. Dorpat, Paul (July 24, 2001). "Seattle Neighborhoods: Wallingford -- Thumbnail History". HistoryLink Essays. HistoryLink.org. http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=3461. Capaian 2006-07-30. 
  32. Other well-documented interpretations of names and boundaries of Seattle's neighborhoods can be found in the following:
    • "Seattle Neighborhoods" from the HistoryLink Encyclopedia of Washington State History (particularly their "Thumbnail Histories", many of which reference records of neighborhood organizations and public library branches).
    • Myra Phelps, A Narrative History (a history of Seattle through Engineering Department records and notes).
    • The "Neighbors" project of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer (1996-2000), currently updated as the "Webtowns" section of the online Post-Intelligencer.
    • Neighborhood articles in the archives of the Post-Intelligencer,[1] The Times, and local district newspapers. (Post-Intelligencer archives before 1986 are not available online. The Seattle Times archives before 1990 are not available online.)
    • "Street Classification Maps" from the Seattle Department of Transportation. The Transportation Department has built and designated secondary arterials (officially called minor arterials) predominantly along neighborhood boundaries.
  33. "List of Neighborhoods". Seattle City Clerk's Neighborhood Map Atlas. http://clerk.ci.seattle.wa.us/~public/nmaps/neiglist.htm. Capaian 2009-04-29. 
    Shenk, Pollack, Dornfeld, Frantilla, and Neman (authors of the Seattle Atlas) drew largely upon primary sources. Phelps is also a high quality secondary source, since much of her sources were Department archives of official documents and reports, in addition to professional journal articles, as well as books and articles back to the early 20th century. Phelps and Shenk et al. have complete citations in this article's Bibliography.
    The Seattle City Clerk's Neighborhood Map Atlas was "not designed or intended as an 'official' City of Seattle neighborhood map... [but] to define neighborhood district names and boundaries in a way that improves document indexing and retrieval." As such, some of its designations have no existence outside of the city's map and indexing system, such as Pike Market (Pike Place Market in actuality), Mann, Minor, and Mid Beacon Hill. In addition, the map's attempt to reduce the number of top-level districts has led to certain discrepancies from facts on the ground, such as Harrison/Denny-Blaine being included in the Central District and Madison Park being included in Capitol Hill.
  34. Cline, Scott, City Archivist (n.d., ~2006; second edition). "Department of Community Development (1600)". "Seattle Municipal Archives Record Descriptions", A Guide To The Archives Of The City Of Seattle. http://www.ci.seattle.wa.us/leg/clerk/guide/1600.htm. Capaian 2006-04-21. 
  35. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer's "Neighborhood Profiles" are not available online. The concept has been revisited 1996-2000 as the "Neighbors" project, currently updated as the "Webtowns" section.
  36. ""Ballard", map". Seattle City Clerk's Neighborhood Map Atlas. n.d., map .Jpg [sic] c. 2002-06-17. http://clerk.ci.seattle.wa.us/~public/nmaps/html/NN-1170S.htm. Capaian 2006-04-21. 
    Maps "NN-1120S", "NN-1130S", "NN-1140S".Jpg [sic] dated 13 June.
  37. ""Lake City", map". Seattle City Clerk's Neighborhood Map Atlas. n.d., map .jpg 2002-06-17. http://clerk.ci.seattle.wa.us/~public/nmaps/html/NN-1040S.htm. Capaian 2006-04-21. 
  38. ""Northgate", map". Seattle City Clerk's Neighborhood Map Atlas. n.d., map .jpg 2002-06-17. http://clerk.ci.seattle.wa.us/~public/nmaps/html/NN-1030S.htm. Capaian 2006-04-21. 
    Subsequent districts have so far not been given explicit citations, except as noted. Each district is linked after it is named, data is per the URL map of the Seattle City Clerk's Neighborhood Map Atlas.
  39. (1) University of Washington Computing and Communications, Facilities Services (modified 18 May 2005)
    (2) UW Publication Services & UW Facility Services (revised July 1996)
    (3) University of Washington Publication Services (revised September 1991), from August 1971, revised Sherman (August 1991).
  40. (1) Merritt & Goldsmith
    (2) Judkins Foundation
  41. "Pike Place Market" can refer to just the Main Arcade (1907), the original Main Market. The Pike Market neighborhood of historic buildings (17 acres) is nearly twice the area of the Pike Place Market Historic District (9 acres).
    (1) Lange (2006, Essay 1949)
    (2) Crowley (29 July 1999, Essay 102)
  42. ""Downtown", map". Seattle City Clerk's Neighborhood Map Atlas. Office of the Seattle City Clerk. n.d., map .jpg c. 13–17 June 2002. http://clerk.ci.seattle.wa.us/~public/nmaps/html/NN-1240S.htm. Capaian 2006-04-21. 
    Maps "NN-1030S", "NN-1040S".jpg 17 June 2002, maps "NN-1120S", "NN-1130S", "NN-1140S".Jpg [sic] 13 June.
  43. 44.0 44.1 ""Rainier Valley", map". Seattle City Clerk's Neighborhood Map Atlas. Office of the Seattle City Clerk. n.d., map .jpg c. 13–17 June 2002. http://clerk.ci.seattle.wa.us/~public/nmaps/html/NN-1300S.htm. Capaian 2006-04-21. 
    Maps "NN-1030S", "NN-1040S".jpg 17 June 2002, maps "NN-1120S", "NN-1130S", "NN-1140S".Jpg [sic] 13 June.
  44. (1) The State Legislature incorporated the town of Seattle in January 1865 and December 1869; disincorporated January 1867 after petition. The initial incorporation was with a board of trustees. The corporate-style board began with a tax (resented, and possibly leading to the petition for dissolution), followed by an ordinance "Concerning Swine" that began police regulation, followed by "Prevention of Drunkenness and Disorderly Conduct". The trustees later passed an ordinance calling for the removal of Indians and providing for the punishment of those who might harbor them. Another aimed at preventing "Reckless and Fast Driving Through the Streets" (before cars). The second incorporation was with a mayor and town council.
    (1.1) Lange & Tate
  45. 46.0 46.1 Phelps
  46. 1940, 1954, Phelps
  47. 1952, 1954, Phelps
  48. 1883 and 1891, Phelps
  49. 1891 and 1954, Phelps
  50. E of 15th, N of E Galer, N of E Lynn, 1891, Phelps
  51. See neighborhoods of Northgate; Phelps.
  52. 1950 and 1954, Phelps
  53. 1869, 1883, and 1891, Phelps
  54. 55.0 55.1 55.2 Cline, Scott, City Archivist (n.d., ~2006; second edition). "Annexed Cities (9100)". "Seattle Municipal Archives Record Descriptions", A Guide To The Archives Of The City Of Seattle. Office of the Seattle City Clerk. http://www.ci.seattle.wa.us/leg/clerk/guide/9100.htm. Capaian 2006-04-21. 
  55. 1953, Phelps
  56. 1907, Phelps
  57. Dates in preceding list except as noted are per Phelps.
  58. (1) Rainier Valley neighborhoods south of Hanford Street to Rainier Beach at Kenyon Street, generally east of 24th Avenue S.
    (1.1) Phelps, pp. 216–218, 222–224
  59. Phelps, pp. 216-218, 222-224
  60. Wilma (5 December 2002, Essay 4031)
  61. No sources have been provided for this section. accessdate may be 8 February 2005.
  62. Phelps, pp. 216-224
  63. Angela Galloway (December 12, 2006). "City Council to pursue annexing North Highline". Hearst Seattle Media, LLC. http://www.seattlepi.com/local/295597_city12.html. 

Bibliography[sunting | sunting sumber]

Includes sources used for Seattle neighborhoods lists.

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Seattle neighborhoods