Kazakh

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Kazakhs
Қазақтар
AbaiPainting 140x190.jpgAbylai khan 140x190.jpgKurmangazy 175 140x190.jpg
Baitursynov 140x190.jpgToktarAwbakirov 140x190.jpgNursultan Nazarbayev 27092007 140x190.jpg
Tokaev 140x190.jpgAssan Bazayev 140x190.jpgAbsattar Derbisali.png
Muhtar Shaxan Kazak poet 140x190.jpgYussupova 140x190.jpg
(kiri ke kanan) A. QunanbayuliAblai KhanS. KurmangazyA. BaitursynovT. AubakirovN. Nazarbayev
Kassym-Jomart TokayevAssan BazayevAbsattar DerbisaliMukhtar ShakhanovRadik ZhaparovAliya Yussupova
Jumlah penduduk
Sekitar 13,800,000
Kawasan ramai penduduk
 Kazakhstan 10,098,600 [1]
 Uzbekistan 800,000 - 1,100,000 [2]
 China 1,400,000 - 1,500,000 [3]
 Rusia 654,000 [4]
 Turkmenistan 40,000 - 90,000 [5]
 Mongolia 140,152 [6]
 Kyrgyzstan 38,900 [7]
 Afghanistan 21,000 [8]
 Turki 19,000-25,000 [8]
 Jerman 890 [8]
 Tajikistan 900 [9]
 Iran 10,000-15,000 [8]
 Ukraine 5,526 [10]
 Belarus 1,239 [11]
Bahasa

Kazakh, Rusia, Turkik
(dan/atau bahasa di negara kediaman)

Agama

Kebanyakannya Islam Sunni

Kelompok etnik berkaitan

Orang Turki lain

Kazakh adalah orang Turki daripada bahagian utara Asia Tengah (sebahagian besar Kazakhstan, tetapi juga ditemui di Uzbekistan, China, Rusia dan Mongolia).

Mereka berasal dari keturunan suku suku Turki (Kipchak dan Naiman, Cuman, Nogai, Qarluq, Kankali), kumpulan Mongol (Kiyat, Kerait, Onggirat, Argyn, Manghud, Jalayir, Dughlat), keluarga Indo -- Iran (Wusun, Sarmatian, Sacae, Scythian, dll) dan Hun yang penduduknya tinggal di wilayah antara Siberia dan Laut Hitam dan metetap di Asia Tengah ketika Turki dan kumpulan Mongolia mula menakluk pada abad ke-15 dan ke-13 M.

Etimologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kazakh bermaksud bebas atau orang bebas. Istilah Turki qaz bermaksud mengembara di kawasan steppe - gurun dengan rumput-rumput keras.

Kebudayaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kebudayaan orang Kazakh adalah pelbagai kerana faktor phenotypical. Bentuk khemah mereka lebih condong kepada Mongoloid. Kulit mereka coklat, hidung bengkok dan tulang pipi tinggi . Nomad ini berkeliaran di Pergunungan Altai di utara Mongolia dan terdapat juga di padang-padang rumput steppe Asia Tengah.

Alat muzik yang popular ialah dombra - memetik kecapi dengan dua senar. Alat ini digunakan ketika nyanyia solo dan berkumpulan.

Mereka mengamalkan sistem perkahwinan exokamous iaitu perkahwinan dengan keturunan nenek moyang dianggap tabu. Dalam perkahwinan, keturunan ayah menentukan.

Bahasa yang digunakan mirip bahasa Turki yang tersebar di Eropah Timur, Asia Tengah, Xinjiang, dan Siberia. Bahasa ini mirip menyamai bahasa Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Uyghur, Turkey, Azerbaijan dan Turkmen.

Agama anutan mereka ialah Islam, yang dibawa oleh orang Arab pada abad ke-8. Awalnya Islam tersebar di Turkistan, kemudian tersebar di utara. Ia ada kaitan dengan mubaligh Samanid di sekitar Taraz di mana ramai orang Turki memeluk agama Islam. Pada peringkat awal, Russia membiarkan agama Islam berkembang di mana ulama Muslim dijemput memberi khutbah. Semangat keagamaan ini membentuk pengikut Pan-Turkisme.

Galeri[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Kazakhstan National Census 2009 preliminary results
  2. Kazakh population share was constant at 4.1% in 1959-1989 (CIA estimates) and declined to 3% in 1996. Official Uzbekistan estimation (E. Yu. Sadovskaya «Migration in Kazakhstan in the beginning of XXI century: main tendentions and perspectives»ISBN 9965-593-01-9) in 1999 was 940,600 Kazakhs or 3.8% of total population. If Kazakh population share was stable at about 4.1% (not taking into account the massive repatriation of ethnic Kazakhs (oralman) to Kazakhstan) and the Uzbekistan population in the middle of 2008 was 27.3 mln, the Kazakh population would be 1.1 mln. Using the CIA estimate of the share of Kazakhs (3%), the total Kazakh population in Uzbekistan would be 0.8 mln
  3. Census 2000 counts 1.25 mln Kazakhs[1], later the Kazakh population had higher birth rate, but some assimilation processes were present too. Estimations made after the 2000 Cesus are claiming Kazakh population share growth (was 0,104 % in 2000), but even if this share value was preserved at 0.104% level it would be no less than 1.4 mln in 2008
  4. 2002 Census ethnic composition data, in 2003-2008 Kazakhstan national statistics noted the oralman (ethnic Kazakhs) repatriation to Kazakhstan
  5. In 1995 Kazakh poulation was 86,987 [2] or 1.94 % population total. Later was a massive pepartriation of ethnic Kazakh population (oralman) to Kazakhstan: 22,000 before 2001 and 38,000-40,000 in 2001—2007. Press reports are claiming [3],[4],[5] the most part of Kazakhs had left Turkmenistan
  6. Ethnic composition of the Mongolian population in 2007, Mongolian government 2007. Retrieved on 6 April 2009
  7. National Statistical Committee of Kyrgyzstan. 2008 estimation
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 The Kazakh Diasporas: Kazakh Ministry of Culture and Information (Bahasa Rusia). Retrieved on 6 April 2009
  9. Results of the 2000 population census in Tajikistan. Retrieved on 6 April 2009
  10. Ukrainian population census 2001: Distribution of population by nationality. Retrieved on 23 April 2009
  11. Belarus population census 1999: National composition of the population. Retrieved on 23 April 2009