Kobogelan dan bantahan

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Running of the Nudes tahunan di Pamplona (2007) adalah suatu contoh kebogelan dalam konteks gerakan politik dan peristiwa budaya.

Kebogelan awam kadang-kadang digunakan untuk menarik perhatian yang lebih kepada awam bantahan, taktik yang digunakan oleh Doukhobor di awal abad ke-20, dan kemudian (terutamanya dari tahun 1960-an dan seterusnya) yang digunakan dengan lebih meluas. Slogan moden termasuk "Disrobe for disarmament", "Nudes, not nukes!", "Naked For Peace", "Less Gas More Ass!" and "I'd rather go naked than wear fur!".

Penerimaan budaya dan undang-undang kebogelan awam berlainan mengikut rantau. Untuk kebogelan di tempat awam, ada dalam banyak negara seperti pantai bogel, secara rasmi dilantik atau ditolerasi. Orang-orang yang tidak disangka-sangka menghadapi kebogelan di tempat awam di luar kawasan-kawasan ini lebih lagi terkejut. Sesetengah pihak lawan mendakwa bahawa ia adalah pendedahan sumbang apabila bogel berlaku dalam konteks (atau sebaliknya diseksualkan) lucah. Khususnya, lawan kadang-kadang membantah bahawa ia tidak sesuai untuk kanak-kanak untuk menghadapi kebogelan awam.

Malah di mana orang awam agak toleran bogel awam, ia masih cukup terkenal untuk digunakan sebagai cara sengaja, sering berjaya untuk menarik publisiti, sama ada oleh orang-orang yang di kalangan bogel sosial tradisional (seperti naturists dan nudists) menggalakkan cara merekanyawa atau oleh orang lain untuk pelbagai tujuan, seperti perdagangan [bogel [pengiklanan]] atau persinggahan acara bogel sebagai forum untuk mesej yang selalunya tidak berkaitan, seperti pelbagai Bikers bogel lawatan (seperti World Naked Bike Ride) menunjukkan punca-punca atau selebriti yang berbeza mendedahkan keadaan semula jadi mereka dengan mengeluarkan kot bulu untuk menyokong kempen terhadap jualan bulu.

Satu lagi perbezaan yang sama, yang juga dianggap oleh pihak berkuasa yang menyensor, bahawa "cuma-cuma" kebogelan dilihat sebagai lebih menyakitkan hati daripada ijazah yang sama pendedahan fizikal dalam "berfungsi" konteks, di mana tindakan itu tidak boleh mudah dilaksanakan berpakaian, sama ada dalam realiti atau dalam senario rekaan dalam seni. Tujuannya juga boleh digunakan: sama ada bogel itu adalah bertujuan untuk memberi kesan kepada pemerhati, contohnya, streaking boleh dianggap tidak boleh diterima provokatif, bogel penyamakan matahari sedikit dilihat sebagai agak yg tdk mengganggu.

Di suatu kemunculan Lollapalooza pada tahun 1993 di Philadelphia, dan bukannya persembahan mereka, ahli-ahli band [Rage Terhadap Mesin]] berdiri di atas pentas telanjang dengan pita salur-mulut mereka dan surat "PMRC"dilukis di dada mereka selama 15 minit dalam bantahan terhadap penapisan oleh Parents Music Resource Center.

Animal rights and welfare[sunting | sunting sumber]

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), an animal rights group, is best known for its highly visible, often controversial campaigns. (See below.) The Lettuce Ladies, young women dressed in bikinis which appear to be made of lettuce, gather in city centers to hand out leaflets about veganism. Every year the Running of the Nudes campaign sees PETA activists run naked through Pamplona, Spain in a parody of the annual Running of the Bulls tradition.[1] Supermodels such as Christy Turlington and Naomi Campbell have posed naked on billboards with the slogan "I'd rather go naked than wear fur" emblazoned across their chests.[2]

Peace and anti-war[sunting | sunting sumber]

Several groups and individuals have used nudity in anti-war demonstrations. Some groups include: Breasts Not Bombs and Artists for Peace/Artists Against War, which later became the Work Less Party of British Columbia in Vancouver, BC, Canada. The latter is known for its Naked Bike Rides which Conrad Schmidt later evolved into World Naked Bike Ride.

Groups also started to use nudity to protest the Iraq War. Groups using their bodies to form words and symbols to convey their message included Baring Witness, US-based/founded by Donna Sheehan, which inspired other groups on all seven continents to stage similar events, including Bare Witness, based in the UK.

Clothing-optional bike rides[sunting | sunting sumber]

See Clothing-optional bike rides.
Protesters gathered outside a courthouse on 17 Feb 2005 to protest against the arrest of Simon Oosterman (second from left), Auckland's 2005 WNBR organiser.

World Naked Bike Ride (WNBR) is an international clothing-optional bike ride in which participants plan, meet and ride together en masse on human-powered transport (the vast majority on bicycles, and fewer on skateboards, rollerblades, roller skates) to "protest oil dependency and celebrate the power and individuality of our bodies".[1] This represents one of the few events that combines elements that could be described as pro nudity and pro cycling (as well as environmental).

Many of the political rides have their roots from Critical Mass and are often described or categorized as a form of political protest, street theatre, party-on-wheels, streaking, public nudity and clothing-optional recreation and thus attracts a wide-range of participants. Since 1996 Critical Tits has been hosting a "raucous topless bicycle joyride" on Friday afternoon at the annual Burning Man Festival in Nevada.

Manifestación Ciclonudista Mundial has had rides predating WNBR (since 2001) in Spain and has since spread to other Spanish and Italian speaking countries in Europe.

Public nudity movements[sunting | sunting sumber]

Activists Terri Sue Webb and Daniel Johnson are being handcuffed and led away by police after a protest in Bend, Oregon on 2 May 2002

Not all people who engage in public nudity see themselves as nudists or naturists or belong to traditional naturist or nudist organizations. Several activists, such as Vincent Bethell, claim that associations with naturism or nudism are unnecessary. Others will point out that many people who participate in events such as clothing-optional bike rides or visit clothing-optional beaches do so casually and without association or formal affiliation to groups or movements. Activist Daniel Johnson believes that labels and affiliations overly complicate a relatively simple phenomenon, alienate others from a fear of over-commitment or undesirable stereotypes, and thus get in the way of integrating nudity into everyday life.

The Freedom to be Yourself[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Freedom to be Yourself campaign (TFTBY) or (FTBY) was founded in 1998 by Vincent Bethell. The group, according to Vincent Bethell is about "the right to be naked in public". Supporters of the TFTBY organized several grassroots naked protests in public in London; there have also been protests in Brighton, Bristol, Birmingham, Coventry, and some in the United States.

Terri Sue Webb is an activist living in Bend, Oregon, who was one of few activists in the United States active in The Freedom to be Yourself (TFTBY) or (FTBY) campaign. She has been imprisoned and released multiple times for public nudity. On several occasions she has remained fully nude while incarcerated, often resulting in a much longer jail sentence. There has been quite a bit of media coverage of her activities. Daniel Johnson went nude with her in public on two occasions in 2001 and 2002.

UK activism[sunting | sunting sumber]

Vincent Bethell made legal history[3][4] in January 2001 by being the first defendant to stand trial naked in a UK court. The trial was at Southwark Crown Court London. Vincent was naked throughout this court case, furthermore he was found unanimously not guilty.[5][6] Stephen Gough, also known as "Steve Gough" and "the naked rambler", is an activist from Eastleigh, Hampshire, famous for walking the length of Great Britain from Land's End to John o' Groats in 2003–2004 and again in 2005-2006 (that year accompanied by his girlfriend Melanie Roberts), with nothing on except boots, socks, rucksack and sometimes a hat. He has been arrested several times and put in prison in the course of his rambles. In his last walk he was only arrested twice in England, and released almost immediately, but due to the different legal system and laws in Scotland, he was arrested many more times after crossing the border and spent time in HMP Edinburgh, then moved to HMP Barlinnie Glasgow in June 2008.[7]

Richard Collins has been cycling naked through his home town of Cambridge, England for some time. He has been organizing several protests on the TFTBY Stop Segregation discussion group (no longer in existence). Richard has been arrested numerous times and released, although he was convicted of an offence under section 5, Public Order Act 1986, in Bournemouth, England, on 13 June after his nude cycling attracted complaints approximately 12-months earlier. Richard says: "My outings are NOT protests as such but 'activities'. Simply me having fun! And exercising my right to nude freedom!"[petikan diperlukan]

German movements[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Wald-FKK – German movement for the liberalisation of public nudity. Founder Peter Niehenke was fined several times for indecent exposure because he went running nude in public spaces Homepage in German
  • Nacktwandern – German movement for the freedom to hike in the nude. Homepage in German
  • Integral Nactiv - Nacktiv is a combination of the German word "nackt" (naked) and "aktiv" (active).[8]

Liberia, Africa[sunting | sunting sumber]

In Liberia, the end of the Second Liberian Civil War came about as a result of Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace threatening to strip their clothes[9] in a protest.

FEMEN protest against Ukrainian Prime Minister Azarov (March 2010)

Ukrainian movement[sunting | sunting sumber]

In Ukraine the protest group FEMEN (founded in 2008) regularly stages topless protests against sex tourists, international marriage agencies, sexism and other social ills.[10][11][12][13] These protest got worldwide press coverage.[12][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] The group comprises some 20 topless activists and 300 fully clothed members.[20][21] FEMEN justifies its provocative methods stating "This is the only way to be heard in this country. If we staged simple protests with banners, then our claims would not have been noticed".[22] FEMEN receives small financial backing by individuals.[21][23][24]

Netherlands[sunting | sunting sumber]

Robbert Broekstra (now deceased) was involved in a group called "Friends of Nature". The would often go for naked excursions on public lands, sometimes in urban areas, often taking pictures. He was also involved in INIC (International Naturist Information Center). He authored the book Robbert Broekstra's Nude World (1997) and his group appeared in "Naked Travels 1", by Charles MacFarland.

Urbanudista[sunting | sunting sumber]

There is a group led by Avril X called UrbaNudismo that has led several casual nudity excursions in high visibility public urban environments in Brazil as well as some Western European countries.[25]

APNEL[sunting | sunting sumber]

APNEL is the French Naked Activities Group.[26]

NAKTIV[sunting | sunting sumber]

Naktiv.net is a generic Naked Activities site [27]

FKK, Nudism, Naturism, Free Beach movement[sunting | sunting sumber]

In 1969, in Denmark, 300 individuals participated in a massive naked "wade-in" at a Danish beach. The event helped push forward dramatic reformation in public policy. It is now possible and allowed to be naked at any public beach in Denmark with only two major exceptions: Holmsland Klit and Hennestrand. The remaining 4,700 kilometers of Danish coast are clothing-optional.

United States[sunting | sunting sumber]

Australia[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • [2] Save Sandon Point Nude Installation Protest

Topfreedom[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Topfreedom

Although exposure of women's breasts is considered perfectly acceptable in some western countries in appropriate settings, such as while suntanning, in the United States of America exposure of female nipples is still considered criminal by many states and not usually allowed in public (see Public indecency). Public breastfeeding, since the exposure it involves is functional, may be looked upon more mildly, but still it is sometimes considered problematic. Courts in some US jurisdictions where legal challenges have arisen, and other North American jurisdictions like Ontario have legalized the exposure of women's nipples, but not on equal protection grounds (see United States Constitution/Amendment Fourteen). Those grounds are the basis of the movement of "topfree equality," which promotes equal rights for women to have no clothing above the waist; the term "topfree" rather than "topless" is used to avoid the latter term's sexual connotations.

Topfree Equal Rights Association (TERA)[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Topfree Equal Rights Association (TERA)[29] is a Canadian organization for helping women who have legal troubles exercising their rights to go 'topfree' where men are able to. Their Web site states that they serve both Canada and the United States.

The organization also aims to inform and educate the public about topfreedom. They campaign to change laws against topfreedom which exist in most North American jurisdictions, which laws they see as sex discrimination and inhibiting to breastfeeding.

Transgender Rights[sunting | sunting sumber]

In November, 2011, a transgender woman from Morristown Tennessee was arrested and jailed for 21 days by Tennessee police for indecent exposure after removing her top in the parking lot of her local DMV after they refused to alter the gender designation on her driver’s license from male to female, despite the fact that the US federal government Social Security office aleady had[30]. As it is legal for a man to go topless in public and since the Tennessee Department of Public Safety refused to recognise her as female[31], Ms Jones decided to protest her treatment by going topless, stating "if I was a male, I had the right to, when I stepped out the door, take off my shirt... It's not right for the state to ask me to be both male and female. A choice needs to be made. They cannot hold me to both standards[32].

Others purposes[sunting | sunting sumber]

In late June 2010, a woman in Ontario bared her breasts to stop ATV noise.[33]

See also[sunting | sunting sumber]

1914 photograph of Doukhobor nude protest.

References[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Runningofthenudes.com (video)
  2. "Fashion and Dress", Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2006.
  3. Millward, David. "Buff justice as naked artist is cleared by jury", Telegraph, 2001-01-11. Dicapai pada 2010-09-01. [pautan putus]
  4. Judd, Terri. "Nudist campaigner walks from court a free (and naked) man - This Britain, UK", The Independent, 2001-01-11. Dicapai pada 2010-09-01. Diarkibkan drpd. yang asli di 2008-04-24. 
  5. "UK | Nudist 'not a public nuisance'", BBC News, 2001-01-10. Dicapai pada 2010-09-01. 
  6. Tania Branigan. "Injustice laid bare by naked campaigner | UK news", The Guardian, 2001-01-11. Dicapai pada 2010-09-01. 
  7. [http://www.law.ed.ac.uk/sln/blogentry.aspx?blogentryref=7521 report in University of Edinburgh School of Law's Scots Law News
  8. Anita & Wolfgang Gramer. "Nackt und aktiv, Bücher über nackte Menschen in der Öffentlichkeit". Nacktiv.de. http://nacktiv.de. Capaian 2010-09-01. 
  9. Bill Moyers Journal, June 19, 2009
  10. Femen wants to move from public exposure to political power, Kyiv Post (April 28, 2010)
  11. High voter turnout in snow, cold shows triumph of democracy, Kyiv Post (January 21, 2010)
  12. 12.0 12.1 Ukraine protest over NZ 'win a wife' competition prize, BBC news (2 March 2011)
  13. Ukraine feminists protest ‘Win a Wife’ competition, Khaleej Times (1 March 2011)
  14. FEMEN, Organisations MySpace page
  15. How they protest prostitution in Ukraine, France 24 (August 28, 2009)
  16. Ukrainian women activists protest against Saknieh execution, Euronews (November 4, 2010)
  17. FEMEN coverage on Kyiv Post, Kyiv Post (May 22, 2009)
  18. Exclusive Interview with FEMEN, (December 22, 2010)
  19. Ukraine's topless protesters gain fame
  20. 20.0 20.1 Ukraine's topless group widens political role, Reuters (November 15, 2010)
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Topless protesters gain fame in Ukraine The Washington Post (November 19, 2010)
  22. “Ukraine is not a bordello”, Russia Today (December 14, 2009)
  23. (Ukraine) Femen: "Ми даємо чиновникам і політикам, проср...тися", Табло ID (September 20, 2010)
  24. (Bahasa Rusia) Бюст героев, Kommersant (September 20, 2010)
  25. "gays hombres bisexuales fotos contactos at". Urbanudismo.com. http://www.urbanudismo.com. Capaian 2010-09-01. 
  26. "Association pour la promotion du naturisme en liberté". APNEL. http://apnel.free.fr/. Capaian 2010-09-01. 
  27. "NAKed and acTIVe - Welcome to the Naktiv website - here to promote Naked Activities!". Naktiv.net. http://www.naktiv.net. Capaian 2010-09-01. 
  28. http://naturistaction.org Naturist Action Committee
  29. http://www.tera.ca Tera.ca
  30. http://www.fightforequalrights.webs.com
  31. http://www.wate.com/story/16039917/morristown-transgendered-woman-says-she-went-topless-to-make-a-statement
  32. [http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/11/16/andrea-jones-transgender_n_1097978.html
  33. Woman bares breasts to silence neighbours

Further reading[sunting | sunting sumber]

Articles[sunting | sunting sumber]

Press coverage[sunting | sunting sumber]

Filmography[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Being Human A film by Lisa Seidenberg, 31 minutes, 2003 Metro Video
  • Taboo - 40 Years of Censorship. Part 1 of 4: Shock of the Nude; BBC2 Television series ran at 9:50 pm (40 mins). Aired Wednesday, 21 Nov 2001.

Videos and pictures[sunting | sunting sumber]

Men protesting China's human rights record in San Francisco.

External links[sunting | sunting sumber]

Videos[sunting | sunting sumber]