Medan Barat (Perang Dunia II)

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Barisan Barat
Sebahagian daripada Perang Dunia Kedua
Western Front collab.png
Dari atas kiri mengikut jam: Rotterdam selepas Blitz, Pesawat pengebom Heinkel He 111 Jerman sewaktu Pertempuran Britain, tentera paracut Bersekutu dalam Operasi Market Garden, tentera Amerika berlari merentasi Wernberg, Jerman, Pengepungan Bastogne, tentera Amerika mendarat di Pantai Omaha semasa Operasi Overlord
Maklumat am
Tarikh 1939–1945
Lokasi Utara dan Eropah Barat
Hasil 1939–40: Kemenangan muktamad Paksi

1944–45: Kemenangan muktamad Bersekutu

Perubahan wilayah Pembahagian Jerman (1945)
Pihak yang berperang
Pihak Bersekutu
 Amerika Syarikat(1942-45)
 United Kingdom
Perancis Perancis
 Canada
Poland Poland
 Netherlands
 Belgium
 Norway
 Denmark
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia
 Australia
 New Zealand
Afrika Selatan Afrika Selatan
 Luxembourg
Greece Greece
 Brazil
Kuasa Paksi
Bendera Jerman Nazi Jerman Nazi
Bendera Kerajaan Itali (1861–1946) Itali (1940–43)
Komander dan pemimpin
1939–1940
Perancis Paul Reynaud
United Kingdom Winston Churchill
Perancis Maurice Gamelin
Perancis Maxime Weygand
United Kingdom Lord Gort
United Kingdom Lord Cork
Belanda Henri Winkelman
Belgium Leopold III
Norway Otto Ruge
1944–1945
Amerika Syarikat Franklin D. Roosevelt
Amerika Syarikat Dwight D. Eisenhower
United Kingdom Arthur Tedder
United Kingdom Bernard Montgomery
Amerika Syarikat Omar Bradley
Amerika Syarikat Jacob L. Devers
Amerika SyarikatGeorge Patton
Amerika Syarikat Courtney Hodges
Amerika Syarikat William Simpson
Amerika Syarikat Alexander Patch
United Kingdom Miles Dempsey
United Kingdom Trafford Leigh-Mallory
United Kingdom Bertram Ramsay
Perancis Charles de Gaulle
Perancis Jean de Tassigny
Kanada Harry Crerar
1939–1940
Jerman Nazi Adolf Hitler
Jerman Nazi Walther von Brauchitsch
Jerman Nazi Gerd von Rundstedt
Jerman Nazi Heinz Guderian
Jerman Nazi Fedor von Bock
Jerman Nazi Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb
Jerman Nazi Nikolaus von Falkenhorst
Kerajaan Itali (1861–1946) H.R.H. Umberto di Savoia
1944–1945
Jerman Nazi Adolf Hitler
Jerman Nazi Heinrich Himmler
Jerman Nazi Hermann Goering
Jerman Nazi Gerd von Rundstedt
Jerman Nazi Gunther von Kluge
Jerman Nazi Walter Model
Jerman Nazi Albert Kesselring
Jerman Nazi Erwin Rommel
Jerman Nazi Johannes Blaskowitz
Jerman Nazi Hermann Balck
Jerman Nazi Paul Hausser
Jerman Nazi Friedrich Schulz
Jerman Nazi Kurt Student
Jerman Nazi Ernst Busch
Kekuatan
1939–1940
  • 2,862,000 anggota tentera

1944–1945

  • 5,412,219 anggota tentera[1]
1939–1940
  • 3,350,000 anggota tentera

1944–1945

  • 1,500,000 anggota tentera
Kerugian dan kehilangan
1940

1944–1945

  • 783,860 terkorban/tercedera[nb 3]

Total:

  • 2,905,420–3,043,860 terkorban/tercedera
1940

1941–1945

Total:

  • 997,386–1,000,256 terkorban/tercedera
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Barisan Barat atau Perbatasan Barat dalam Kancah Eropah Perang Dunia Kedua merangkumi negara-negara dan wilayah-wilayah Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Perancis, dan barat Jerman.[10] Pertempuran-pertempuran Perang Dunia Kedua di Selatan Eropah dan tempat-tempat lain di Eropah biasanya dibincangkan di bawah topik-topik lain. Barisan Barat ditandai oleh dua fasa operasi tempur besar-besaran. Fasa pertama melihat penyerahan kalah Netherlands, Belgium dan Perancis dalam bulan-bulan Mei dan Jun 1940 berikutan kekalahan negara-negara ini di wilayah Negeri-Negeri Pamah dan wilayah di sebelah utara Perancis, dan bersambung dengan peperangan udara antara Jerman dan Britain yang berkemuncak dengan Pertempuran Britain. Fasa kedua pula melibatkan pertempuran darat besar-besaran yang bermula dalam bulan Jun 1944 dengan pendaratan Bersekutu di Normandy dan yang berterusan sehingga kekalahan Jerman (Hari VE) dalam bulan Mei 1945.

Walaupun majoriti kematian tentera Jerman berlaku di Barisan Timur, kerugian Jerman di Barisan Barat hampir tidak boleh ditukar ganti, kerana kebanyakan sumber Jerman telah diperuntukkan ke Barisan Timur. Ini bermakna, namun kerugian hanya dapat diganti dalam skala kecil, sedikit penggantian atau tentera bantuan telah dihantar ke barat bagi menghentikan kemaraan Sekutu Barat. Pendaratan Normandy merupakan satu tamparan besar psikologi kepada tentera Jerman dan para pemimpinnya, yang takut dengan pengulangan perang dua barisan seperti dalam Perang Dunia I.

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota kaki
  1. Ellis provides no figure for Danish casualties, he places Norwegian losses at 2,000 killed or missing with no information provided on those wounded or captured. Dutch casualties are placed at 2,890 killed or missing, 6,900 wounded, with no information provided on those captured. Belgian casualties are placed at 7,500 killed or missing, 15,850 wounded, and 200,000 captured. French casualties amounted to 120,000 killed or missing, 250,000 wounded, and 1,450,000 taken prison. British losses totalled to 11,010 killed or missing, 14,070 wounded (only those who were evacuated have been counted), and 41,340 taken prisoner.[2] Losses in 1940, according to Ellis’ information, thus amount to 2,121,560.
  2. 360,000 dead or wounded, and 1,900,000 captured[3]
  3. American: 109,820 killed or missing, 356,660 wounded, and 56,630 captured; British: 30,280 killed or missing, 96,670 wounded, 14,700 captured; Canadian: 10,740 killed or missing, 30,910 wounded, 2,250 captured; French: 12,590 killed or missing, 49,510 wounded, 4,730 captured; Pole: 1,160 killed or missing, 3,840 wounded, 370 captured.[4]
    Thus according to Ellis’ information, the Western Allies incurred 783,860 casualties.
  4. 43,110 Germans killed or missing, 111,640 wounded, no information is provided on any who were captured. Italian losses amounted to 1,250 killed or missing, 4,780 wounded, and no information is provided on any who were captured.[5]
  5. Germany: 157,621 casualties (27,074 dead (The final count of the German dead is possibly as high as 49,000 men when including the losses suffered by the Kriegsmarine, because of additional non-combat causes, the wounded who died of their injuries, and the missing who were confirmed as dead.[6] However this higher figure has not been used in the overall casualty figure), 111,034 wounded, 18,384 missing,[6][7][8] as well as 1,129 aircrew killed.[9] Italy: 6,029 casualties (1,247 dead or missing, 2,631 wounded, and 2,151 hospitalised due to frostbite[petikan diperlukan]; Italian forces were involved in fighting in the French Alps, where severe sub-zero temperatures is common even during the summer.)
  6. German losses between June 1941 and 10 April 1945, on the Western Front for the army only, amounted to 80,820 killed, 490,260 missing, and 265,526 wounded.[4]
  7. Total German casualties between September 1939 to 31 December 1944, on the Western Front for both the army, Waffen SS, and foreign volunteers amounts to 128,030 killed, 399,860 wounded, and 7,614,790 captured (including 3,404,950 who were disarmed following the surrender of Germany)[4]
Petikan
  1. MacDonald, C (2005), The Last Offensive: The European Theater of Operations. University Press of the Pacific, p.478
  2. Ellis, p.255
  3. Hooton 2007, p. 90.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Ellis, p. 256
  5. Ellis, p. 255
  6. 6.0 6.1 Frieser (1995), p. 400
  7. L'Histoire, No. 352, April 2010 France 1940: Autopsie d'une défaite, p. 59.
  8. Shepperd (1990), p. 88
  9. Hooton 2010, p. 73.
  10. German deployments to the Western Front (including North Africa and Italy) reached levels as high as approximately 40% of their ground forces, and 75% of the Luftwaffe. During 1944, there were approximately 69 German divisions in France, in Italy there were around 19. (Approximate data is given because the number of units changed over time as a result of troop transfers and the arrival of new units.) Keegan, John. The Second World War.  According to David Glantz PDF[pautan putus], In January 1945 the Axis fielded over 2.3 million men, including 60 percent of the Wehrmacht’s forces and the forces of virtually all of its remaining allies, against the Red Army. In the course of the ensuing winter campaign, the Wehrmacht suffered 510,000 losses in the East against 325,000 in the West. By April 1945, 1,960,000 German troops faced the 6.4 million Red Army troops at the gates of Berlin, in Czechoslovakia, and in numerous isolated pockets to the east, while four million Allied forces in western Germany faced under one million Wehrmacht soldiers. In May 1945 the Soviets accepted the surrender of almost 1.5 million men, while almost one million more fortunate Germans soldiers surrendered to the British and Americans, including many who fled west to escape the dreaded Red Army.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Clarke, Jeffrey J. & Smith, Robert Ross (1993). Riviera to the Rhine. United States Army in World War II., European theater of operations. Washington D.C.: Center of Military History. ISBN 978-0-16-025966-1. CMH Pub. 7-10. 
  • Ellis, John (1993). The World War II Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for all the combatants. BCA. ISBN 978-1-85410-254-6. 
  • Gootzen, Har and Connor, Kevin (2006). "Battle for the Roer Triangle" ISBN 978-90-902145-5-9.See [1]
  • Hastings, Max. (2004). Armageddon: The Battle for Germany, 1944–1945. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-41433-9.
  • MacDonald, Charles B. (1993) [1973]. The Last Offensive. United States Army in World War II., European theater of operations (edisi Special commemorative). Washington D.C.: Center of Military History. OCLC 41111259. CMH pub. 7-9-1. 
  • Seaton, Albert (1971). The Russo-German War. New York: Praeger Publishers.
  • Weigley, Russell F. (1981). Eisenhower's Lieutenants. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-13333-5.
  • Willis, Frank Roy (1962). The French in Germany, 1945–1949. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Zaloga, Steve, and Dennis, Peter (2006). Remagen 1945: endgame against the Third Reich. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84603-249-0.
  • Murray, Williamson and Millett, Alan R. (2000). A War to be Won: Fighting the Second World War. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00680-1.

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Ellis, L. F. (1968). Victory in the West (Volume II). London: HMSO.
  • Kurowski, Franz. (2005). Endkampf um das Reich 1944–1945. Erlangen: Karl Müller Verlag. ISBN 3-86070-855-4.
  • Young, Peter, editor. World Almanac of World War II. St. Martin's Press.

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