Melankolia

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Melencolia I oleh Albrecht Dürer.

Melancholia (dari Greek μελαγχολία - melancholia "kesedihan, harafiah. hempedu hitam"[1]), juga lugubriousness, dari perkataan Latin lugere, berkabung; moroseness, dari Latin morosus, diri sendiri, tabiat cerewet; berharap, dari Inggeris Kuno ingin: berniat, dalam penggunaan semasa, adalah kecelaruan mood perasaan tertekan tidak khusus, dicirikan dengan murung dan kelesuan tidak bersemangan untuk melakukan sebarang aktiviti. Ia adalah kemurungan atau keadaan kesedihan yang keterlaluan sehingga merencatkan kegiatan harian seperti tidur, makan dan fikiran.

Dalam konteks moden, "melankolia" digunakan hanya bagi simptom mental atau emosi kemurungan atau kesediahn; dalam sejarah, "melancholia" mungkin fizikal termasuk fikiran, dan keadaan melancholik dikelaskan sedemikian sebagai punca umum dan bukannya ciri-cirinya.[2]

Samajuga, melancholia dalam kegunaan silam turut merangkumi masaalah mental yang kini dikelaskan sebagai schizophrenia atau kecelaruan bipolar.


Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Taylor MA, Fink M. Melancholia: The Diagnosis, Pathophysiology and Treatment of Depressive Illness. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • Kraepelin E: Manic-Depressive Insanity and Paranoia. Translated by RM Barclay. Edited GM Robertson. Edinburgh: E&S Livingstone, 1921. Reprinted New York: Arno Press, 1976.
  • Shorter E: A History of Psychiatry. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
  • Lewis AJ: Melancholia: a historical review. J Ment Sci 1934;80:1-42.
  • American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Revision III. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1980.
  • American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Revision IV. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
  • Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR et al. Bupropion-SR, Sertraline, or Venlafaxine-XR after failure of SSRIs for depression. N Engl J Med 2006; 354:1231-42.
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  • Carroll BJ, Feinberg M, Greden JF et al. A specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of melancholia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981; 38:15-22.
  • Parker G, Hadzi-Pavlovic D: Melancholia: A Disorder of Movement and Mood. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Robins E, Guze SB. Establishment of diagnostic validity in psychiatric illness: its application to schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 1970; 126(7):983-7.
  • Fink M: Convulsive Therapy: Theory and Practice. New York: Raven Press, 1979.
  • Abrams R: Electroconvulsive Therapy. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press 2002.
  • Kellner CH, Knapp RG, Petrides G., et al. Continuation ECT versus pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention in major depression: a multi-site study from CORE. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63:1337-44..
  • Fink M, Rush AJ, Mueller M, Knapp R, et al. DSM melancholic features are unreliable predictors of ECT response: A CORE publication. JECT 2007; 23:139-146.
  • Petrides G, Fink M, Husain MM. et al. ECT remission rates in psychotic versus non-psychotic depressed patients: A report from CORE. JECT 2001; 17:244-253.
  • Sackeim HA, Prudic J, Devanand DP, et al. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of bilateral and right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy at different stimulus intensities. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000; 57:425-34.
  • Fink M. Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Guide for Practitioners & Their Patients. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Carroll B: Control of plasma cortisol levels in depression: Studies with the dexamethasone suppression test. In Davies B, Carroll BJ, Mowbray RM. Depressive Illness: Some Research Studies. Springfield, IL: C C. Thomas, 1972; 5: 87-149.
  • Fink M: Electroshock revisited. Am Scientist 2000; 88:162-167.
  • Goodwin FK, Jamison KR: Manic-Depressive Illness. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990, pp. 227–244.
  • Bolwig T, Shorter E (Eds.):Melancholia: Beyond DSM, Beyond Neurotransmitters. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2007; 115: Suppl 115,183 pp.
  • Khan A, Kolts RL, Rapaport MH, Krishnan KR, Brodhead AE, Brown WA. Magnitude of placebo response and drug-placebo differences across psychiatric disorders. Psychol Med 2005; 35:743-749.
  • Fink M. Should the dexamethasone suppression test be resurrected? Acta psychiatrica scandinavica 2005; 112:245-9.
  • Fink M, Taylor MA. Resurrecting melancholia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2007; Supplement 433: 14-20.
  • Morelon, Régis; Rashed, Roshdi (1996). Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. Routledge. ISBN 0415124107 
  • Taylor MA, Fink M. Melancholia: The Diagnosis, Pathophysiology and Treatment of Depressive Illness. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.


Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. μελαγχολία, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  2. G E Berrios (1988) Melancholia and depression during the 19th century. A conceptual History. British Journal of Psychiatry 153: 298-304

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