Negara anggota UNESCO

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██ Negara anggota UNESCO ██ Negara anggota UNESCO dengan JPK berasingan ██ Anggota bersekutu UNESCO ██ Pemerhati UNESCO

Setakat November 2011, UNESCO memiliki 194 negara anggota dan 8 anggota bersekutu[1][2]. Sesetengah anggota memiliki Jawatankuasa Pengelola Kebangsaan (JPK) tambahan untuk sebahagian kebergantungan jajahan mereka.[3] Anggota bersekutu terdiri daripada negara tidak-bebas.

Negara anggota[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kemasukan Palestin[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pertubuhan Pembebasan Palestin (PLO) telah memiliki status pemerhati di UNESCO sejak 1974. Mengakui pengisytiharan negara Palestin pada 1988, sekumpulan 7 negara menghantar permohonan kemasukannya pada 1989[5] namun Lembaga Eksekutif UNESCO berulang kali menangguhkan membuat keputusan permohonan ini.[6] Pada September 2011, 24 negara menyediakan resolusi meminta permohonan ini dinilai semula memandangkan cubaan Palestin memperolehi keanggotaan penuh di Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu. Draf resolusi ini akhirnya diluluskan pada 5 Oktober 2011, dengan 40 undi setuju daripada 58 negara dalam Lembaga.[7][9]

Pada 31 Oktober 2011, resolusi untuk menerima Palestin sebagai negara anggota penuh diluluskan di Persidangan Umum ke-36nya. Daripada 194 anggota yang layak mengundi, 107 menyokong, 14 membangkang, 52 berkecuali dan 12 tidak hadir.[10][12] Resolusi ini akan berkuatkuasa apabila negara Palestin memeterai perlembagaan UNESCO[13] yang akan menjadikannya anggota ke-195 UNESCO dan yang ketiga bukan negara anggota PBB.[14]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Some of the dependent territories of China, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, United Kingdom are associate members of UNESCO.
  2. 2.0 2.1 The former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) became a Member State on 31 Mac 1950. The participation of Yugoslavia in meetings of governing bodies dan conferences of UNESCO was suspended following Resolution 47/1 adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 22 September 1992, which stated that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia dan Montenegro) could not continue automatically the membership of the former SFRY. Accordingly, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which became a Member State on 20 Disember 2000, could not automatically succeed the former SFRY as a member of the Organization. Following the adoption of the Constitutional Charter of Serbia dan Montenegro by the Assembly of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on 4 Februari 2003, the name of the State of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia has been changed to "Serbia dan Montenegro". Further to the Declaration of Independence adopted by the Parliament of Montenegro on 3 Jun 2006, UNESCO has been informed that the membership of the State Union Serbia dan Montenegro in UNESCO is continued by the Republic of Serbia on the basis of Article 60 of the Constitutional Charter of Serbia dan Montenegro.
  3. Niue does not have a National Organizing Committee established so far.[3]
  4. Persidangan Umum UNESCO meluluskan permohonan Palestin menjadi anggota, dengan 107 undi menyokong dan 14 undi membangkang, dengan 52 berkecuali (mencapai undi majoriti dua pertiga yang diperlukan). [1]
  5. Previously a Member State from 11 Mac 1965 to 31 Disember 1972.
  6. Previously a Member State from 28 Oktober 1965 to 31 Disember 1985.[4]
  7. Previously a Member State from 4 November 1946 (anggota pengasas) to 31 Disember 1956.
  8. Previously a Member State from 4 November 1946 (anggota pengasas) to 31 Disember 1985.
  9. Previously a Member State from 4 November 1946 (anggota pengasas) to 31 Disember 1984.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Tapak rasmi UNESCO: List of the 194 Member States (and the 8 Associate Members) of UNESCO and the date on which they became members (or Associate Members) of the Organization Dicapai 31 Oktober 2011.
  2. Tapak rasmi UNESCO: General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO Member State, 31 Oktober 2011
  3. 3.0 3.1 WADA. "Summary update on Government progress to become a State Party to the UNESCO International Convention against Doping in Sport" (PDF). ms. 2. Diperoleh pada 28 Julai 2011. 
  4. UNESCO. "UNESCO - Singapore - official relations". Diperoleh pada 2011-11-01. 
  5. UNESCO (26 Mei 1989). "Application for the admission of the State of Palestine as a member state proposed by Algeria, Egypt, Indonesia, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal and Yemen". Lembaga Eksekutif. 
  6. UNESCO (10 Julai 2009). "35 C: Request for the admission of Palestine to UNESCO". Lembaga Eksekutif. 
  7. "Kuwait supports Palestine's UNESCO membership". Arabs Today. 7 Oktober 2011. Diperoleh pada 13 Oktober 2011. 
  8. AJC Houston (7 Oktober 2011). "AJC expresses its disappointment with UNESCO". American Jewish Committee. Diperoleh pada 1 November 2011. 
  9. Bersetuju (40): Algeria, Arab Saudi, Argentina, Bangladesh, Belarus, Burkina Faso, Chile, China, Congo, RD Congo, Cuba, Djibouti, El Salvador, Ghana, Grenada, Haiti, India, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mesir, Mongolia, Maghtibi, Niger, Pakistan, Peru, Filipina, Rusia, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Syria, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Tidak bersetuju (4): Jerman, Latvia, Romania, Amerika Syarikat. Berkecuali (14): Barbados, Belgium, Cote d'Ivoire, Denmark, Greece, Itali, Jepun, Monaco, Perancis, Poland, Saint Lucia, Slovakia, Korea Selatan, Sepanyol.[8]
  10. John Irish (31 Oktober 2011). "UNESCO gives Palestinians full membership". Real Clear World. Diperoleh pada 31 Oktober 2011. 
  11. "UNESCO vote to admit Palestine: how the countries voted". UN Watch. 1 November 2011. Diperoleh pada 1 November 2011. 
  12. Menyokong (107): Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Kemboja, Chad, Chile, China, Congo, RD Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Republik Dominika, Ecuador, Filipina, El Salvador, Guinea Khatulistiwa, Finland, Perancis, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Honduras, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Korea Utara, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lubnan, Lesotho, Libya, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Maghribi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Mesir, Qatar, Rusia, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent dan Grenadines, Arab Saudi, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Slovenia, Somalia, Afrika Selatan, Sepanyol, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turki, UAE, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yaman, Zimbabwe. Membantah (14): Australia, Belanda, Republik Czech, Jerman, Israel, Lithuania, Kanada, Palau, Panama, Samoa, Kepulauan Solomon, Sweden, Amerika Syarikat, Vanuatu. Berkecuali (52): Albania, Andorra, Bahamas, Barbados, Bosnia dan Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Colombia, Kepualauan Cook, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Fiji, Georgia, Haiti, Hungary, Itali, Jamaika, Jepun, Kiribati, Korea Selatan, Latvia, Liberia, Macedonia, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro, Nauru, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Portugal, Moldova, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts dan Nevis, San Marino, Singapura, Slovakia, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad dan Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Zambia. Tidak hadir (12): Dominica, Timor Leste, Eritrea, Habsyah, Guyana, Madagascar, Maldives, Mongolia, Niue, Swaziland, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan.[11]
  13. UNESCO (31 Oktober 2011). "General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO Member State". Diperoleh pada 31 Oktober 2011. 
  14. Bradley Klapper; Sarah DiLorenzo (31 Oktober 2011). "Palestine becomes member of UNESCO, US cuts funds". Associated Press. Diperoleh pada 31 Oktober 2011.