Negeri-negeri Gabungan Amerika

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Confederate States of America
Negeri-Negeri Gabungan Amerika
Gabungan
1861–1865
Bendera ke-3 Cop Mohor Gabungan
Moto
Deo Vindice
(Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator)
Lagu kebangsaan
God Save the South (rasmi) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular)
Warna hijau; Negeri di dalam gabungan, manakala hijau muda; Negeri dan wilayah yang didakwa oleh N.G.A. tanpa pemisahan dan/ atau kawalan rasmi.
Ibu negara Montgomery, Alabama
(sehingga 29 Mei 1861)

Richmond, Virginia
(29 Mei 18612 April 1865)

Danville, Virginia
(bermula 3 April 1865)
Bahasa Bahasa Inggeris (de facto)
Agama Kebanyakannya Protestan & Katolik
Kerajaan Republik
Presiden Jefferson Davis (D)
Naib Presiden Alexander Stephens (D)
Sejarah
 - Penubuhan Gabungan 4 Februari 1861
 - Permulaan Perang Saudara 12 April 1861
 - Penyerahan 11 April 1865
Keluasan
 - 18601 1,995,392 km2 (770,425 bt persegi)
Kependudukan
 - 18601 est. 9,103,332 
     Kepadatan 4.6 /km2  (11.8 /bt persegi)
 - Hamba2 (anggaran) 3,521,110 
Mata wang Dolar CSA
(hanya wang kertas dikeluarkan)
1Jumlah luas dan populasi tidak termasuk Missouri & Kentucky dan juga Jajahan Arizona.
Luas perairan:5.7%
2Hamba-hamba termasuk dalam jumlah populasi yang dikira di atas. Bancian 1860

Negeri-Negeri Gabungan Amerika (juga dipanggil Konfederasi, Negeri-Negeri Konfederasi, dan CSA) merupakan kerajaan yang ditubuhkan oleh 11 negeri-negeri selatan di Amerika Syarikat dari 1861 hingga 1865. Tujuh buah negeri mengisytiharkan kemerdekaan dari Amerika Syarikat sebelum Abraham Lincoln menjadi presiden; empat lagi berbuat demikian selepas Perang Saudara Amerika bermula dengan Pertempuran Fort Sumter apabila CSA menyerang USA. Pihak (Kesatuan) atau Kesatuan Amerika Syarikat menolak perpecahan itu dan enggan mengiktiraf kemerdekaan Gabungan. Walaupun tiada kuasa Eropah yang mengiktirafkan CSA secara rasmi, namun Britain mengambil kesempatan komersial dengan menjual kapal perang kepada CSA ini dan membawa kapal bekalan untuk membantu CSA.

Apabila Robert E. Lee serta panglima-panglima lain mengaku kalah pada musim bunga 1865, gabungan negeri ini hancur dan menamatkan peperangan itu tanpa peperangan gerila. Proses pembinaan semula yang sukar dan lama memberi hak sivil secara sementara dan hak mengundi, mengusirkan bekas pemimpin-pemimpin Konfederasi daripada pejabat, dan menerima semula bekas negeri-negeri Konfederasi ke dalam Kongres Amerika Syarikat selama-lamanya.

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Punca-punca pemisahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ahli sejarah mengatakan punca pemisahan adalah kerana ancaman untuk menghad atau menamatkan perhambaan oleh pihak Republikan atau sekatan ke atas hak negeri berhubung pemilikan hamba di dalam jajahan-jajahan menyebabkan negeri-negeri selatan keluar dari Gabungan.


Negeri-negeri pemisah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Peta kronologi yang beranimasi untuk Negeri-Negeri Gabungan Amerika

Tujuh negeri yang berpisah pada Februari 1861 adalah:

Setelah Lincoln mengerah tentera, empat lagi negeri berpisah:

Dua buah negeri lain menubuhkan kerajaan saingan (atau punggung). Gabungan mengakui negeri-negeri tersebut tetapi tidak mengawal negeri-negeri ini dan kerajaan negeri penyokong Gabungan ini dibuang negeri:

Kedua-dua negeri membenarkan perhambaan dan mukimnya bercampur-aduk pihaknya dalam perang, termasuk penyimpan hamba berpihak kepada Kesatuan. Kesahihan hal ini masih diragui sehingga hari ini.

Kebangkitan dan keruntuhan Gabungan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Perang Saudara Amerika meletus pada bulan April 1861 dengan bermulanya Pertempuran Kubu Sumter di Charleston, Carolina Selatan. Pasukan tentera persekutuan A.S. telah berundur ke Kubu Sumter tidak lama selepas Carolina Selatan mengisthiharkan pemisahannya. Presiden A.S. Buchanan telah cuba untuk memberi bantuan kepada Sumter dengan menghantar Bintang Barat, akan tetapi pasukan tentera Gabungan menembak ke arah kapal dan berjaya mengusirnya. Presiden A.S. Abraham Lincoln juga cuba memberi bantuan kepada Sumter. Lincoln memberitahu Gabenor Carolina Selatan, Francis W. Pickens bahawa "cubaan akan dibuat bagi menghantar bekalan ke Fort Sumter dengan kebenaran sahaja, dan sekiranya cubaan ini tidak dihalang, tiada usaha bagi menghantar tentera, senjata, atau peluru akan dilakukan tanpa notis lanjut, kecuali di mana serangan dibuat ke atas kubu". Sebagai jawapan, kabinet Gabungan memutuskan dalam satu mesyuarat di Montgomery bagi menawan Fort Sumter dalam cubaan untuk memaksanya untuk menyerah diri sebelum ketibaan angkatan bantuan.

Pada 12 April, 1861, pasukan tentera Gabungan, berdasarkan arahan daripada Davis dan Setiausaha Perang beliau, telah melepaskan tembakan ke atas pasukan tentera persekutuan yang menduduki Fort Sumter, dan memaksa mereka menyerah diri. Berikutan daripada Pertempuran Kubu Sumter, Lincoln telah memanggil negeri-negeri yang masih tinggal dalam Kesatuan bagi menghantar pasukan tentera untuk menawan kembali Sumter, kubu-kubu lain dan rumah-rumah kastam[18] di Selatan di mana telah ditawan oleh pasukan tentera Gabungan, beberapa darinya melalui kekerasan. Pengisytiharan ini dibuat sebelum Kongres dapat bersidang mengenainya, dan permintaan asal dari Jabatan Perang memanggil sukarelawan bagi hanya tiga bulan bertugas.[18] Seruan Lincoln bagi tentera menyebabkan empat lagi negeri memilih untuk berpisah, dan bukannya menyediakan pasukan tentera untuk Kesatuan. Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, dan Carolina Utara menyertai Konfederasi untuk menjadikan bilangan sejumlah 11. Setelah Virginia menyertai Gabungan, ibu negeri Gabungan dipindahkan daripada Montgomery, Alabama, ke Richmond, Virginia. Kesemua pertempuran (kecuali dua) berlaku di wilayah Gabungan.

Alexander H. Stephens menegaskan cubaan Lincoln bagi membekal semula Sumter telah memprovokasi perang.[19]

Kentucky merupakan negeri sempadan semasa perang, dan dalam satu ketika, memiliki dua kerajaan, satu pihak menyokong Gabungan manakala satu pihak lagi menyokong Kesatuan. Kerajaan asal kekal berada di dalam Kesatuan selepas cubaan singkat untuk bersikap neutral, tetapi serpihan pesaing dari negeri itu diterima sebagai ahli Negeri-Negeri Gabungan Amerika; ia tidak mengawal mana-mana kawasan. Keadaan lebih kompleks melanda pemisahan Missouri, tetapi dalam sebarang keadaan, Gabungan menganggap Missouri sebagai sebuah Negeri Gabungan Amerika; it did not control any territory. Dengan Kentucky dan Missouri, jumlah negeri-negeri Gabungan boleh dikira sebagai 13 buah.

Lima kerajaan puak Wilayah Indian - yang menjadi Oklahoma pada tahun 1907 - juga menyokong Konfederasi, dengan menyediakan tentera dan seorang Pegawai Jeneral. Ia tidak diwakili dalam Kongres Konfederat.

Citizens at Mesilla and Tucson in the southern part of New Mexico Territory formed a secession convention and voted to join the Confederacy on March 16, 1861, and appointed Lewis Owings as the new territorial governor. In July, Mesilla appealed to Confederate troops in El Paso, Texas, under Lieutenant Colonel John Baylor for help in removing the Union Army under Major Isaac Lynde that was stationed nearby. The Confederates defeated Lynde at the Battle of Mesilla on July 27. After the battle, Baylor established a territorial government for the Confederate Arizona Territory and named himself governor. In 1862, a New Mexico Campaign was launched under General Henry Hopkins Sibley to take the northern half of New Mexico. Although Confederates briefly occupied the territorial capital of Santa Fe, they were defeated at Glorietta Pass in March and retreated, never to return.

The northernmost slave states (Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware and West Virginia) were contested territory, but the Union won control by 1862. In 1861, martial law was declared in Maryland (the state which borders the U.S. capital, Washington, D.C., on three sides) to block attempts at secession. Delaware, also a slave state, never considered secession, nor did Washington, D.C. In 1861, a unionist legislature in Wheeling, Virginia seceded from Virginia, claiming 48 counties, and joined the United States in 1863 as the state of West Virginia with a constitution that gradually abolished slavery.

Attempts to secede from the Confederate States of America by some counties in East Tennessee were held in check by Confederate declarations of martial law [1] [2].

Penyerahan diri Tentera Virginia Utara oleh Jeneral Lee di Appomattox Court House pada 9 April, 1865, secara umumnya dikira sebagai penamat ke atas negeri-negeri Gabungan. Presiden Davis telah ditawan di Irwinville, Georgia, pada 10 Mei, dan pasukan-pasukan tentera selebihnya telah menyerah diri pada bulan Jun 1865. Bendera Gabungan terakhir telah diturunkan daripada CSS Shenandoah pada 6 November, 1865.-->

Kerajaan dan politik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Perlembagaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Jefferson Davis
Presiden 1861-1865

Perlembagaan Negeri-negeri Gabungan Amerika kebanyakannya sama dengan Perlembagaan Amerika Syarikat. Walaubagaimanpun, terdapat beberapa perbezaan yang penting. Utamanya, hak membeli dan menjual hamba dilindungi, namun perdagangan hamba antarabangsa diharamkan. Perlembagaan ini juga megutamakan falsafah hak negeri. Sejurus ini, kuasa kerajaan pusat dikurangkan. Sebagai contoh, kerajaan pusat dilarang mengutip cukai perlindungan daripada negeri-negeri dalam gabungan. Kerajaan juga tidak dibenarkan menggunakan wang dari suatu negeri untuk membiayai kerajaan di suatu negeri yang lain. Satu lagi adalah perbahasaan dalam perlembagaan, yang menyatakan nama Tuhan beberapa kali serta meminta berkat daripada-Nya.

The constitution did not specifically include a provision allowing states to secede; the Preamble spoke of each state "acting in its sovereign and independent character" but also of the formation of a "permanent federal government". The Southern leaders met in Montgomery, Alabama, to write their constitution.

The President of the Confederate States of America was to be elected to a six-year term and could not be reelected. The only president was Jefferson Davis; the Confederate States of America was defeated by the federal government before he completed his term. One unique power granted to the Confederate president was the ability to subject a bill to a line item veto, a power held by some state governors. The Confederate Congress could overturn either the general or the line item vetoes with the same two-thirds majorities that are required in the U.S. Congress. In addition, appropriations not specifically requested by the executive branch required passage by a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress.

Printed currency in the forms of bills and stamps was authorized and put into circulation, although by the individual states in the Confederacy's name. The government considered issuing Confederate coinage. Plans, dies and 4 "proofs" were created, but a lack of bullion prevented any public coinage.

Kebebasan rakyat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ibu kota[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ibu negara untuk NGA adalah Montgomery, Alabama bermula 4 Februari, 1861, hingga 29 Mei, 1861. Richmond, Virginia, dijadikan ibu negara yang baru pada 6 Mei, 1861. Dalam masa singkat sebelum tamatnya perang, kerajaan Kesatuan telah menduduki Richmond dan merancang untuk meneruskan pendudukan di selatan. Sangat sedikit diketahui berkenaan rancangan ini sebelum Lee menyerah diri di Appomattox Court House. Danville, Virginia menjadi ibu negara terakhir NGA bemula 3 April sehingga 10 April, 1865.

Diplomasi antarabangsa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sebaik sahaja perang dengan Amerika Syarikat bermula, harapan terbaik untuk meneruskan kewujudan NGA adalah dengan campur tangan tentera oleh Britain dan Perancis. Amerika Syarikat sedar akan hal ini dan dengan jelas menyatakan bahawa pengiktirafan ke atas NGA bermakna berperang dengan Amerika Syarikat - dan kesannya Amerika Syarikat akan menghentikan penghantaran makanan ke Britain. Ahli NGA mempercayai bahawa "kapas adalah raja" - bermakna Britain perlu menyokong NGA bagi mendapatkan kapas - anggapan ini telah terbukti salah. Britain, pada hakikatnya mempunyai simpanan kapas yang mencukupi pada tahun 1861 dan bergantung lebih kepada biji-bijian dari negeri-negeri Kesatuan.

Once the war with the United States began, the best hope for the survival of the Confederacy was military intervention by Britain and France. The U.S. realized this as well and made it clear that recognition of the Confederacy meant war with the United States — and the cutoff of food shipments into Britain. The Confederates who had believed that "cotton is king" — that is, Britain had to support the Confederacy to obtain cotton — were proven wrong. Britain, in fact, had ample stores of cotton in 1861 and depended much more on grain from the Union states.

During its existence, the Confederate government sent repeated delegations to Europe; historians do not give them high marks for diplomatic skills. James M. Mason was sent to London as Confederate minister to Queen Victoria, and John Slidell was sent to Paris as minister to Napoleon III. Both were able to obtain private meetings with high British and French officials, but they failed to secure official recognition for the Confederacy. Britain and the United States were at sword's point during the Trent Affair in late 1861. Mason and Slidell had been illegally seized from a British ship by an American warship. Queen Victoria's husband, Prince Albert, helped calm the situation, and Lincoln released Mason and Slidell, so the episode was no help to the Confederacy.

Throughout the early years of the war, both British foreign secretary Lord Russell and Napoleon III, and, to a lesser extent, British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston, were interested in the idea of recognition of the Confederacy, or at least of offering a mediation. Recognition meant certain war with the United States, loss of American grain, loss of exports to the United States, loss of huge investments in American securities, possible war in Canada and other North American colonies, much higher taxes, many lives lost and a severe threat to the entire British merchant marine, in exchange for the possibility of some cotton. Many party leaders and the general public wanted no war with such high costs and meager benefits. Recognition was considered following the Second Battle of Manassas when the British government was preparing to mediate in the conflict, but the Union victory at the Battle of Antietam and Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, combined with internal opposition, caused the government to back away.

In November 1863, Confederate diplomat A. Dudley Mann met Pope Pius IX and received a letter addressed "to the Illustrious and Honorable Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America.” Mann, in his dispatch to Richmond, interpreted the letter as "a positive recognition of our Government," and some have mistakenly viewed it as a de facto recognition of the C.S.A. Confederate Secretary of State Judah P. Benjamin, however, interpreted it as "a mere inferential recognition, unconnected with political action or the regular establishment of diplomatic relations" and thus did not assign it the weight of formal recognition. [3] For the remainder of the war, Confederate commissioners continued meeting with Cardinal Antonelli, the Vatican Secretary of State. In 1864, Catholic Bishop Patrick N. Lynch of Charleston traveled to the Vatican with an authorization from Jefferson Davis to represent the Confederacy before the Holy See.

No country appointed any diplomat officially to the Confederacy, but several maintained their consuls in the South who had been appointed before the war. In 1861, Ernst Raven applied for approval as the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha consul, but he was a citizen of Texas and there is no evidence that Saxe officials knew what he was doing. In 1863, the Confederacy expelled all foreign consuls (all of them British or French diplomats) for advising their subjects to refuse to serve in combat against the U.S.

Throughout the war most European powers adopted a policy of neutrality, meeting informally with Confederate diplomats but withholding diplomatic recognition. None ever sent an ambassador or official delegation to Richmond. However, they applied international law principles that recognized the Union and Confederate sides as belligerents. Canada allowed both Confederate and Union agents to work openly within its borders, and some state governments in northern Mexico negotiated local agreements to cover trade on the Texas border.

"Kematian hak-hak negeri"[sunting | sunting sumber]

Perhubungan dengan Amerika Syarikat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bendera-bendera Gabungan[sunting | sunting sumber]


Pemimpin-pemimpin politik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Eksekutif[sunting | sunting sumber]

Jawatan Nama Masa penjawatan
Presiden Jefferson Davis 1861-1865
Naib Presiden Alexander Stephens 1861-1865
Setiausaha Robert Toombs 1861
  Robert M.T. Hunter 1861-1862
  Judah P. Benjamin 1862-1865
Bendahara Christopher Memminger 1861-1864
  George Trenholm 1864-1865
  John H. Reagan 1865
Setiausaha Peperangan Leroy Pope Walker 1861
  Judah P. Benjamin 1861-1862
  George W. Randolph 1862
  James Seddon 1862-1865
  John C. Breckinridge 1865
Setiausaha Tentera Laut Stephen Mallory 1861-1865
Ketua Pos Negara John H. Reagan 1861-1865
Peguam Negara Judah P. Benjamin 1861
  Thomas Bragg 1861-1862
  Thomas H. Watts 1862-1863
  George Davis 1864-1865


Perundangan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Kongres Gabungan

Speaker Sementara Kongres Gabungan

President pro tempore

Perwakilan Puak ke Kongres Gabungan

Sesi-sesi Kongres Gabungan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kehakiman[sunting | sunting sumber]

Mahkamah Agong - tidak diwujudkan

Mahkamah Daerah

  • Asa Biggs 1861-1865
  • John White Brockenbrough 1861
  • Alexander Mosby Clayton 1861
  • Jesse J. Finley 1861-1862

Geografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Peta negeri-negeri dan wilayah-wilayah yang dituntut oleh Negeri-negeri Gabungan Amerika

Iklim[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sistem sungai[sunting | sunting sumber]

Semasa aman, sistem sungai yang boleh dilalui dengan banyak membolehkan pengangkutan produk-produk ladang yang mudah dan murah. Sistem jalan keretapi dibina bagi melengkapkan, menyambung kawasan penanaman ke sungai terdekat atau pelabuhan laut. The vast geography made for difficult Union logistics, and Union soldiers were used to garrison captured areas and protect rail lines. But the Union Navy seized most of the navigable rivers by 1862, making its own logistics easy and Confederate movements difficult. After the fall of Vicksburg in July 1863, it became impossible for units to cross the Mississippi since Union gunboats constantly patrolled it. The South thus lost use of its western regions.

Kawasan-kawasan pedalaman[sunting | sunting sumber]


# Bandar Bilangan penduduk pada tahun 1860 Kedudukan di A.S. Dipulangkan kepada kawalan Amerika Syarikat
1. New Orleans, Louisiana 168,675 6 1862
2. Charleston, Carolina Selatan 40,522 22 1865
3. Richmond, Virginia 37,910 25 1865
4. Mobile, Alabama 29,258 27 1865
5. Memphis, Tennessee 22,623 38 1862
6. Savannah, Georgia 22,292 41 1864
7. Petersburg, Virginia 18,266 50 1865
8. Nashville, Tennessee 16,988 54 1862
9. Norfolk, Virginia 14,620 61 1862
10. Augusta, Georgia 12,493 77 1865
11. Columbus, Georgia 9,621 97 1865
12. Atlanta, Georgia 9,554 99 1864
13. Wilmington, Carolina Utara 9,553 100 1865


(Lihat juga Atlanta dalam Perang Saudara, Charleston, SC dalam Perang Saudara, Nashville dalam Perang Saudara, New Orleans dalam Perang Saudara, dan Richmond dalam Perang Saudara).

Ekonomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negeri Gabungan mempunyai ekonomi pertanian dengan mengeksportnya ke pasaran dunia. Produk-produk pertanian seperti kapas, dan kadang kala tembakau dan tebu. Pengeluaran makanan tempatan termasuk bijiran, babi dan lembu. 11 buah negeri ini menghasilkan kira-kira AS$ 155 juta nilai produk pada tahun 1860, terutamanya dari kilang-kilang tempatan seperti tali, balak, produk tembakau, kapas dan stor tentera laut seperti turpentin. NGA menerima cukai rendah 15 peratus, tetapi mengenakannya pada kesemua barangan import yang berasal dari tempat-tempat lain di Amerika Syarikat. [4] Cukai ini tidak memberi kesan; kerana pelabuhan-pelabuhan NGA telah disekat dari lalu lintas komersil disebabkan oleh pengepungan Kesatuan, dan sangat sedikit orang yang membayar cukai ke atas barangan yang diseludup daripada negeri-negeri Kesatuan. Kerajaan telah mengutip kira-kira AS$3.5 juta pendapatan cukai sejak perang bermula menentang Kesatuan sehingga akhir tahun 1864. Kekurangan kewangan yang mencukupi telah menyebabkan NGA membiayai perang dengan mencetak wang, yang mana menyebabkan inflasi yang tinggi.

Pasukan-pasukan bersenjata[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bendera tentera laut Gabungan

Pasukan tentera bersenjata Gabungan terdiri daripada tiga cabang:

Kepimpinan tentera Gabungan terdiri daripada kebanyakkan veteran Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat dan Tentera Laut Amerika Syarikat yang telah meletak jawatan dari tugas persekutuan dan telah dilantik bagi mengisi pangkat kanan dalam pasukan bersenjata Gabungan. Kebayakkan mereka berkhidmat di dalam Perang Mexico-Amerika (termasuk Robert E. Lee dan Jefferson Davis), tetapi yang lain hanya memiliki sedikit atau tiada pengalaman ketenteraan (seperti Leonidas Polk, yang telah menghadiri West Point tetapi tidak lulus). Kor pegawai Gabungan terdiri daripada pemuda yang berasal dari keluarga yang memiliki hamba, but many came from non-owners. The Confederacy appointed junior and field grade officers by election from the enlisted ranks. Although no Army service academy was established for the Confederacy, many colleges of the South (such as the The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute) maintained cadet corps that were seen as a training ground for Confederate military leadership. A naval academy was established in 1863, but no midshipmen had graduated by the time the Confederacy collapsed.

The rank and file of the Confederate armed forces consisted of white males with an average age between 16 and 28. Many thousands of slaves served as laborers, cooks, pioneers and in other non-combat roles. The Confederacy adopted conscription in 1862. Depleted by casualties, the military suffered chronic manpower shortages. After agitation from the Army, and at the demand of General Lee, slaves were enrolled in new combat units in the spring of 1865, with the promise of emancipation; they were in training when the war ended and did not serve in actual combat. [20]

Pemimpin-pemimpin tentera[sunting | sunting sumber]

Para pemimpin tentera Gabungan (dengan negeri kelahiran dan pangkat tertinggi[21]) termasuk:

Jeneral Robert E. Lee, bagi kebanyakkan orang, merupakan ketua tentera Gabungan.

Tarikh-tarikh penting[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negeri Bendera Ordinan pemisahan Diterima dalam NGA Di bawah pengaruh
kawalan Kesatuan
Diterima kembali dalam Kesatuan
Carolina Selatan SC-SovFlag.svg 20 Disember, 1860 8 Februari, 1861 1865 9 Julai, 1868
Mississippi Mississippi 1861.svg 9 Januari, 1861 8 Februari, 1861 1863 23 Februari, 1870
Florida Florida Provisional 1861.svg (tidak rasmi) 10 Januari, 1861 8 Februari, 1861 1865 25 Jun, 1868
Alabama Alabama 1861 Obverse.svg Alabama 1861 Reverse.svg 11 Januari, 1861 8 Februari, 1861 1865 13 Julai, 1868
Georgia Seal of Georgia.svg 19 Januari, 1861 8 Februari, 1861 1865 Tarikh pertama 21 Julai, 1868;
Tarikh kedua 15 Julai, 1870
Louisiana Louisiana Feb 11 1861.svg 26 Januari, 1861 8 Februari, 1861 1862 9 Julai, 1868
Texas Flag of Texas.svg 1 Februari, 1861 2 Mac, 1861 1865 30 Mac, 1870
Virginia Flag of Virginia.svg 17 April, 1861 7 Mei, 1861 1865;
(1861 untuk Virginia Barat)
26 Januari, 1870
Arkansas 6 Mei, 1861 18 Mei, 1861 1864 22 Jun, 1868
Carolina Utara Flag of North Carolina (1861).svg 20 Mei, 1861 21 Mei, 1861 1865 4 Julai, 1868
Tennessee 8 Jun, 1861 2 Julai, 1861 1862 24 Julai, 1866
Missouri Seal of Missouri.svg 31 Oktober, 1861 28 November, 1861 1861 Kerajaan tak terpilih pro Kesatuan bermula 1861
Kentucky (Konvesyen Russellville) 20 November, 1861 10 Disember, 1861 1861 Pro-Kesatuan & NGA bermula 1861
Jajahan Arizona (kerajaan Mesilla) 16 Mac, 1861 14 Februari, 1862 1862 Bukan sebuah negeri sehingga tahun 1912

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Teks Ordinan Pemisahan Karolina Selatan.
  2. Teks Ordinan Pemisahan Mississippi.
  3. Teks Ordinan Pemisahan Florida.
  4. Teks Ordinan Pemisahan Alabama.
  5. Teks Ordinan Pemisahan Georgia.
  6. Teks Ordinan Pemisahan Louisiana.
  7. Teks Ordinan Pemisahan Texas.
  8. Teks Ordinan Pemisahan Virginia.
  9. Virginia tidak menyerahkan tenteranya kepada Gabungan sehingga 8 Jun, 1861 dan Perlembagaan Negeri-negeri Gabungan diratifikasi pada 19 Jun 1861.
  10. Teks Ordinan Pemisahan Arkansas.
  11. Teks Ordinan Pemisahan Carolina Utara.
  12. Teks Ordinan Pemisahan Tennessee.
  13. Perundangan Tennessee meratifikasi persetujuan untuk menyertai liga ketenteraan dengan Gabungan pada 7 Mei 1861. Pengundi Tennessee merestui persetujuan ini pada 8 Jun, 1861.
  14. Teks Ordinan Pemisahan Missouri.
  15. Ahli politik penyokong Gabungan cuba bersidang di Neosho, Missouri, lalu dibuang negeri.
  16. Teks Ordinan Pemisahan Kentucky.
  17. Konvensyen Russellville
  18. 18.0 18.1 Pengisytiharan Lincoln memanggil pasukan tentera dari baki negeri-negeri (bawah laman); Jabatan Perang memperincikan Negeri-negeri (atas)
  19. Alexander H. Stephens A Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States (1870), Vol. 2, p. 36. 75 MB PDF file "I maintain that it was inaugurated and begun, though no blow had been struck, when the hostile fleet, styled the "Relief Squadron," with eleven ships, carrying two hundred and eighty-five guns and two thousand four hundred men, was sent out from New York and Norfolk, with orders from the authorities at Washington, to reenforce Fort Sumter peaceably, if permitted "but forcibly if they must."
  20. Ervin L. Jordan, Jr. Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia (1995)
  21. Eicher, Civil War High Commands

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Eicher, John H., & Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Wilentz, Sean, The Rise of American Democracy, W.W. Norton & Co., ISBN 0-393-32921-6.

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Current, Richard N., ed. Encyclopedia of the Confederacy (4 vol), 1993. 1900 pages, articles by scholars.
  • Faust, Patricia L. ed, Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War, 1986.
  • Heidler, David S., et al. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War : A Political, Social, and Military History, 2002. 2400 pages (ISBN 0-393-04758-X)
  • Steven E. Woodworth, ed. The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research, 1996. 750 pages of historiography and bibliography

Ekonomi & sejarah sosial[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat Ekonomi Negeri-negeri Gabungan Amerika

  • Black, Robert C., III. The Railroads of the Confederacy, 1988.
  • Clinton, Catherine, and Silber, Nina, eds. Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War, 1992.
  • Dabney, Virginius. Richmond: The Story of a City. Charlottesville: The University of Virginia Press, 1990. ISBN 0-8139-1274-1.
  • Faust, Drew Gilpin. Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War, 1996.
  • Faust, Drew Gilpin. The Creation of Confederate Nationalism: Ideology and Identity in the Civil War South, 1988.
  • Grimsley, Mark. The Hard Hand of War: Union Military Policy toward Southern Civilians, 1861-1865, 1995.
  • Lentz, Perry Carlton. Our Missing Epic: A Study in the Novels about the American Civil War, 1970.
  • Massey, Mary Elizabeth. Bonnet Brigades: American Women and the Civil War, 1966.
  • Massey, Mary Elizabeth. Refugee Life in the Confederacy, 1964.
  • Rable, George C. Civil Wars: Women and the Crisis of Southern Nationalism, 1989.
  • Ramsdell, Charles. Behind the Lines in the Southern Confederacy, 1994.
  • Roark, James L. Masters without Slaves: Southern Planters in the Civil War and Reconstruction, 1977.
  • Rubin, Anne Sarah. A Shattered Nation: The Rise and Fall of the Confederacy, 1861-1868, 2005. A cultural study of Confederates' self images.
  • Thomas, Emory M. The Confederacy as a Revolutionary Experience, 1992.
  • Wiley, Bell Irwin. Confederate Women, 1975.
  • Wiley, Bell Irwin. The Plain People of the Confederacy, 1944.
  • Woodward, C. Vann, ed. Mary Chesnut's Civil War, 1981.

Politik[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Alexander, Thomas B., and Beringer, Richard E. The Anatomy of the Confederate Congress: A Study of the Influences of Member Characteristics on Legislative Voting Behavior, 1861-1865, 1972.
  • Boritt, Gabor S., et al, Why the Confederacy Lost, 1992.
  • Cooper, William J, Jefferson Davis, American, 2000. Standard biography.
  • Coulter, E. Merton. The Confederate States of America, 1861-1865, 1950.
  • William C. Davis (2003). Look Away! A History of the Confederate States of America. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-684-86585-8. 
  • Eaton, Clement. A History of the Southern Confederacy, 1954.
  • Eckenrode, H. J., Jefferson Davis: President of the South, 1923.
  • Gallgher, Gary W., The Confederate War, 1999.
  • Neely, Mark E., Jr., Confederate Bastille: Jefferson Davis and Civil Liberties, 1993.
  • Rembert, W. Patrick. Jefferson Davis and His Cabinet, 1944.
  • Rable, George C., The Confederate Republic: A Revolution against Politics, 1994.
  • Roland, Charles P. The Confederacy, 1960. brief
  • Thomas, Emory M. Confederate Nation: 1861-1865, 1979. Standard political-economic-social history
  • Wakelyn, Jon L. Biographical Dictionary of the Confederacy Greenwood Press ISBN 0-8371-6124-X
  • Williams, William M. Justice in Grey: A History of the Judicial System of the Confederate States of America, 1941.
  • Yearns, Wilfred Buck. The Confederate Congress, 1960.

Sumber utama[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Carter, Susan B., ed. The Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition (5 vols), 2006.
  • Davis, Jefferson, The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government (2 vols), 1881.
  • Harwell, Richard B., The Confederate Reader (1957)
  • Jones, John B. A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital, edited by Howard Swiggert, [1935] 1993. 2 vols.
  • Richardson, James D., ed. A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Confederacy, Including the Diplomatic Correspondence 1861-1865, 2 volumes, 1906.
  • Yearns, W. Buck and Barret, John G.,eds. North Carolina Civil War Documentary, 1980.
  • Confederate official government documents major online collection of complete texts in HTML format, from U. of North Carolina
  • Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861-1865 (7 vols), 1904. Available online at the Library of Congress [5]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

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