Perang Pasifik

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Perang Pasifik
Sebahagian daripada Perang Dunia Kedua
US landings.jpg
Kawasan utama konflik dan pendarat Puihak Berikat di Pasifik, 1942–45.
Maklumat am
Tarikh 7 Julai 19379 September 1945
Lokasi Asia, Lautan Pasifik, pulau-pulaunya dan negara berhampiran
Hasil Kemenangan Pihak Berikat, kejatuhan Empayar Jepun
Pihak yang berperang
Pihak Berikat

 China
Bendera United Kingdom United Kingdom
 United States
 Australia
 New Zealand
 Kesatuan Soviet

Kuasa Paksi

 Empayar Jepun
 Thailand
Manchukuo Manchukuo
Flag of the Mengjiang.svg Mengjiang
1931 Flag of India.svg Kerajaan Wiliayah India Bebas

Komander dan pemimpin
Republik China Chiang Kai-shek
Amerika Syarikat Franklin D. Roosevelt
Amerika Syarikat Harry S. Truman
United Kingdom Winston Churchill
Australia John Curtin
Kesatuan Republik Sosialis Soviet Joseph Stalin
Jepun Hirohito

Thailand Plaek Pibulsonggram
Manchukuo Zhang Jinghui
1931 Flag of India.svg Subhas Chandra Bose

Kerugian dan kehilangan
China: 3.8 juta askar terbunuh, 17+ juta orang awam terbunuh[perlu rujukan]

A.S.: 106,207 terbunuh, 248,316 cedera dan hilang[1]
Filipina: 57,000 terbunuh Australia: 17,501 terbunuh [perlu rujukan]
Kesatuan Soviet: 12,031 terbunuh dan hilang, 24,425 cedera dan sakit[2]
United Kingdom & Tanggungan Mahkota:

  • Empayar India: 86,838 terbunuh
1,740,955 askar maut
393,000 orang awam maut[perlu rujukan]
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Lihat pendokumenan templat ini

Perang Pasifik, juga dikenali dengan nama Perang Asia-Pasifik, ialah medan pertempuran Perang Dunia Kedua yang berlaku di Lautan Pasifik dan Asia Timur. Perang di kawasan ini meliputi kawasan yang luas merangkumi Lautan dan Kepulauan Pasifik, Pasifik Barat Daya, Asia Tenggara dan di China (termasuk konflik Soviet-Jepun 1945).

Kebiasaannya, Perang Pasifik dikatakan bermula pada 7/8 Disember 1941, ketika mana Jepun menakluk Thailand dan menyerang kawasan jajahan British iaitu Tanah Melayu, Singapura dan Hong Kong, serta pengkalan-penglakan tentera Amerika Syarikat di Hawaii dan Filipina. Sesetengah ahli sejarawan mengatakan konflik di Asia boleh dijejak kembali sehingga 7 Julai 1937 dan permulaan Perang China-Jepun Kedua antara Empayar Jepun dengan Republik China, atau mungkin pada 19 September 1931 ketika bermulanya penjajahan Jepun di Manchuria. Namun, awal Disember 1941 lebih diterima meluas sebagai tarikh permulaan Perang Pasifik, dan Perang China-Jepun adalah sebahagian daripadanya sebagai satu teater Perang Dunia Kedua yang lebih besar.

Dalam Perang Pasifik, kuasa-kuasa Berikat bertempur melawan Empayar Jepun. Jepun dibantu sedikit oleh sekutunya Thailand dan lebih sedikit oleh sekutu kuasa Paksinya, Jerman dan Itali. Perang di rantau ini sampai ke kemuncaknya dengan pengeboman atom Hiroshima dan Nagasaki, dan serangan pengeboman udara besar yang lain oleh Pasukan Udara Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat, diikuti oleh penjajahan Manchuria oleh Kesatuan Soviet pada 8 Ogos 1945, lantas menjurus kepada pengumuman hasrat menyerah diri oleh Jepun pada 15 Ogos 1945. Jepun menyerah kalah secara formal dan rasmi di atas kapal perang USS Missouri di Teluk Tokyo pada 2 September 1945. Selepas kekalahan Jepun, Maharaja Jepun yang berpandukan Shinto menuruni takhtanya sebagai pemerintah ketuhanan Arahan Shinto kerana kuasa Berikat percaya inilah sebab politik utama yang menyebabkan keganasan ketenteraan Jepun dan proses dekonstruksi kerajaan Jepun segera berlaku untuk membina perlembagaan liberal-demokratik kepada penduduk Jepun yang menjadi Perlembagaan Jepun pada hari ini.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

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