Perlombongan di Australia

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Lombong emas Super Pit di Kalgoorlie di Australia Barat adalah perlombongan lombong terbuka terbesar Australia

Perlombongan di Australia adalah suatu industri utama dan penyumbang pada ekonomi Australia dan mengalakkan imigrasi ke Australia. Pelbagai bijih dan galian dilombong di seluruh negara ini.

Sejarah ringkas[sunting | sunting sumber]

Perlombongan disumbang secara penting untuk mencegah kemuflisan pada tanah jajahan Australia awal. Perak dan kemudian tembaga ditemui di Australia Selatan pada 1840an, mendorong ke ekspot bijih dan imigresen pelombong dan pelebur bermahir.

Galiran-galiran ekonomi pertama ditemukan di Australia adalan perak dan plumbum pada Februari 1841 di Glen Osmond, kini sebuah subbandar Adelaide di Australia Selatan. Perlombongan termasuk Wheal Gawler dan Wheal Watkins dibuka tidak lama kemudian. [1]

Harga-harga perlombongan ini telah kemudian dibayangi oleh penemuan tembaga di Kapunda (1842), [2] Burra (1845) [3] dan di kawasan Copper Triangle (Moonta, Kadina dan Wallaroo) di bahagian atas Semananjung Yorke (1861).[4]

Pada 1851, emas ditemu berhampiran Ophir, New South Wales. Berminggu-minggu kemudian, emas ditemu di tanah jajahan Victoria. Buruan emas Australia, khususnya Buruan Emas Victoria, mempunyai suatu kesan kelamaan utama pada Victoria, dan di seluruh Australia. Buruan emas mewarnai setiap aspek masyarakat Australia dan elemen-elemennya masih jelas dilihat hari ini. Kemasukan ramai-ramai kekayaan yang emas membawa tidak lama kemudian membuat Victoria tanah jajahan terkaya, dan bandar terbesar pulau Melbourne.

Penduduk Australia berubah secara dramatis disebabkan buruan emas: pada 1851 penduduk adalah 437,655 dan suatu dekad kemudian ia adalah 1,151,947; pembesaran pintas adalah secara utama disebabkan new chums (pendatang baru dari United Kingdom dan negara-negara Komanwel lain) yang menyumbangkan 'buruan'.[5] Walaupun padang-padang emas Victoria berhausan pada akhir abad ke-19, dan walaupun kebanyakan keuntungannya dikirim balik ke United Kingdom, kekayaan cukup dikekalkan untuk mendana pembangunan cukup besar industri dan infrastruktur.

Broken Hill, NSW, salah satu pekan perlombongan ikonik Australia, dibelakangi oleh longgokan mullock buatan manusia dari Baris Lode
Broken Hill, NSW, salah satu pekan perlombongan ikonik Australia, dibelakangi oleh longgokan mullock buatan manusia dari Baris Lode

Galian dan sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

Jumlah-jumlah galiran dan sumber adalah cabutan dari landskap Australia. Ini termasuk:

  • bijih besi (Pembekal terbesar ketiga pada 2006 dengan 270 juta ton metric selepas China dan Brazil.)
  • nikel (penghasil terbesar ketiga selepas Rusia dan Kanada)
  • bauksit/aluminium
  • tembaga
  • emas (Terbesar ke-4 selepas China, Afrika Selatan dan Amerika Syarikat)
  • perak
  • uranium (22% dari penghasilan dunia. Pembekal kedua besar dunia selepas Canada.)
  • berlian (ketiga di belakang Russia dan Botswana dari segi simpanan emas viable secara komersil. Australia juga mendabik dada paip diamondiferous dengan hasilan memuncak tingkat 42 metrik tons (41 LT/46 ST) tiap tahun pada 1990an
  • baiduri
  • zink (kedua hanya dengan China pada hasilan Zinc dan hanya di bawah 14% hasilan dunia)
  • batu arang (pengekspot arang batu terbesar dunia dan penghasil ke-4 besar arang batu di belakang China, AS dan India)
  • minyak syal
  • petroleum (penghasil petroleum ke-28 terbesar)
  • gas asli

Sekali dicabut, bahan mentah diproses ke suatu hasil yang berguna. Contohnya, minyak mentah digunakan hilir untuk menghasil sederetan hasil halus. Kebanyakan bahan mentah Australia diekspot ke luar negeri ke negara seperti China. Dua per tiga ekspot Australia diekspot ke China adalah tenaga dan galiran, dan lebih daripada setengah bijih besi pergi ke China. [6]

Kawasan perlombongan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Australia mempunyai aktiviti perlombongan dalam semua negeri dan wilayahnya. Khususnya kawasan-kawasan penting kini termasuk kawasan-kawsan Goldfields dan Pilbara Australia Barat, Hunter Valley di NSW, Bowen Basin di QLD dan Lembah Latrobe di VIC dan pelbagai bahagian di Outback.

Perlombongan aktif utama di Australia termasuk:

Untuk sebuah senarai yang lebih komprehensif di Australia, lihat Perlombongan di Australia

Perlombongan arang batu[sunting | sunting sumber]

Arang batu dilombong di setiap negeri australia. Ia digunakan untuk menghasilkan elektrik dan diekspot. 75% dari arang batu dilombong di Australia diekspot, kebanyakannya ke Asia timur. Pada 2000/01, 258.5 juta ton arang batu dilombong, dan 193.6 juta ton diekspot. Arang batu memberikan sekurang-kurangnya 85% dari hasilan elektrik Australia.[7]

Ekonomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

A number of large multinational mining companies including BHP Billiton, Newcrest, Rio Tinto, Alcoa, Chalco, Alcan and Xstrata operate in Australia. There are also a lot of small mining and mineral exploration companies listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (ASX). Overall, the resources sector represents almost 20% of the ASX market by capitalisation, and almost one third of the companies listed. [8]

Mining contributes about 5.6% of Australia's Gross Domestic Product. This is up from only 2.6% in 1950, but down from over 10% at the time of federation in 1900. [9] In contrast, mineral exports contribute around 35% of Australia's exports. Australia is the world's largest exporter of coal (35% of international trade), iron ore, lead, diamonds, rutile, zinc and zirconium, second largest of gold and uranium, and third largest of aluminium. [10]

Of the developed countries, perhaps only in Canada and Norway does mining play as significant a part in the economy; for comparison, in Canada mining represents about 3.6% of the Canadian economy and 32% of exports [11], and in Norway mining, dominated by petroleum, represents about 19% of GDP and 46% of exports.[12] By comparison, in the United States mining represents only about 1.6% of GDP[13].

Despite its export importance, the mining sector employs only a small proportion of the workforce - roughly 129,000 Australians, representing only about 1.3% of the total labour force [14].

Teknologi dan perkhidmatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Australia's high labour costs and first-world safety regulations, distinctive geology, and the importance placed on mining research by successive governments and businesses has meant that the Australian mining sector is quite technologically advanced. A large proportion of mines worldwide make use of Australian-developed computer software, such as specialised Enterprise resource planning software by Mincom Limited and geology/mine planning software by Maptek Pty Ltd. Australia's mining services, equipment, and technology exports are over $2 billion annually [15]

Gaya hidup[sunting | sunting sumber]

Many mines in remote areas have a traditional company town (for example Roxby Downs or Leigh Creek), or support towns that used to be company towns such as Broken Hill and Mount Isa.

The town of Mount Isa is surrounded by vast mineral deposits.

Most mines in remote areas are operated on a fly-in-fly-out basis where the miners' "home" and family remains in a major city, and the miners fly out to their mine for two weeks of solid work, then fly home for one week of rest.[perlu rujukan] The roster may vary from site to site. 3 weeks on / 1 week off rosters are not uncommon and the working away period can be for much longer than 2 or 3 weeks. A fly-in-fly-out roster is common on offshore oil platforms, as well as minesites located inland of Australia, such as Century, Challenger and Bronzewing minesites.

Free meals and accommodation are provided for employees as a means to offset the time spent living away from home. Breakfast, lunch and dinner are consumed and collected from the 'mess hall' at the mining camp. Living quarters provided at camp sites range from 2 by 4 metre portable homes to permanent 6 by 8 metre rooms with ensuites. Fridges, single beds, television, electricity and water are also provided with rooms.

Persekitaran & Politik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Mining has had a substantial environmental impact in some areas of Australia. Historically, the Victorian gold rush resulted in substantial deforestation, consequent erosion, and arsenic pollution. [16] The effects on the landscape near Bendigo and Ballarat can still be seen today. Queenstown, Tasmania's mountains were also completely denuded through a combination of logging and pollution from a mine smelter, and remain bare today.

Uranium mining has been controversial, partly for its alleged environmental impact but more so because of its end uses in nuclear power and nuclear weapons. The Australian Labor Party , one of Australia's two major parties, maintains a policy of "no new uranium mines". As of 2006, the increased world demand for uranium has seen some pressure, both internally and externally on the ALP, for a policy change. [17] Australia is a participant in international anti-proliferation efforts designed to ensure that no exported uranium is used in nuclear weapons. [18]

Bencana perlombongan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Fail:MtKembla coalmine disaster memorial.JPG
Tugu peringatan untuk para pekerja yang kehilangan nyawa mereka di Mt Kembla, 1902

Gunung Kembla[sunting | sunting sumber]

In 1883 a coal mine was opened near Mount Kembla in the Illawarra District of New South Wales. In 1902 there was an explosion in the mine and 96 men and boys lost their lives, either while at work or in the course of trying to save the lives of others. Every family in the village lost a relative. A service of commemoration is held annually on 31 July at the Mt Kembla Soldiers’ and Miners’ Memorial Church. This is the worst mining disaster in Australia’s history. [19]

Balmain Colliery[sunting | sunting sumber]

Balmain Colliery was located in Birchgrove, New South Wales and produced coal from 1897 until 1931 and natural gas until 1945. During this period, 10 miners lost their lives in three separate incidents:

1900

On 17 March 1900, six miners were being lowered down the Birthday shaft. At 1,424 feet the bucket they were travelling in caught on a projection, tipped over and five of the six men fell to their death in the shaft. As a result of this accident, the Mining Act was amended to provide guide rails in shafts to prevent bucket swinging or overturning. [20]

1932

In 1932, a year after the mine closed, a six inch bore was sunk below the Birthday shaft to pipe Natural Gas to the surface. During the sinking of the bore, two men were killed when the gas ignited and exploded. [20]

1945

During the sealing of the Birthday shaft on 20 April 1945, a rudimentary test was being undertaken which ignited escaping gas and caused an explosion below the seal. The company manager and two men were killed in the accident and another two men injured. [20]

North Mount Lyell[sunting | sunting sumber]

On October 12 1912, the North Mount Lyell Fire caused the death of 42 miners, and required breathing apparatus to be transported from Victorian mines at great speed, to rescue trapped miners. The subsequent royal commission was inconclusive as to the cause.

Mount Mulligan[sunting | sunting sumber]

The 1921 Mount Mulligan mine disaster occurred in Far North Queensland. These explosions, caused by using naked flame for lighting, killed seventy-five men.

Moura[sunting | sunting sumber]

Four serious accidents have occurred at mines in the Central Queensland town of Moura, Queensland|Moura. The first accident took the lives of 13 men in September 1975. In July 1986 there was an explosion at Moura Number 4 Mine. 12 coal miners lost their lives in this disaster that sparked controversy after experts claimed the accident was avoidable. Another explosion killed two men in January 1994 and just eight months later another explosion deep underground took the lives of 11 men.[21]

Bronzewing[sunting | sunting sumber]

On the 26th of June 2000, at the Bronzewing mine in Western Australia (400 kilometers from Kalgoorlie), 18,000 cubic meters of sand-slurry, sludge, mud and rock broke through a storage wall. Three men (Timothy Lee Bell, 21, Shane Hamill, 45 and Terrence Woodard, 26) were killed and eight escaped the 'accident'. It took over a month to retrieve the men from the site.

Beaconsfield[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bahagian kepala suatu syaf di lombong emas Beaconsfield di Tasmania.

Pada 25 April 2006, sebahagian dari lombong emas di bawah tanah di Beaconsfield di Tasmania runtuh. Seorang pelombong, Larry Knight, telah dibunuh oleh jatuhan batu, dan dua orang lain, Brant Webb dan Todd Russel, telah diperangkap, yang membawa ke suatu misi penyelamatan yang mengambil dua minggi untuk mendapatkan mereka keluar hidup-hidup.

Bulli[sunting | sunting sumber]

1887

Pada 2.30 ptg pada 23 Mac 1887, suatu letupan di lombong Bulli di New South Wales membunuh 81 orang. [22] Sebuath jawatankuasa khusus didirikan untuk menyiasat letupan dan menutup bahawa:

..bahawa letupan disebabkan oleh gas marsh atau carbonic hydrate telah dikumpul di muka. Sebab lanjutnya kemungkinan kebakaran dari suatu tembakan lebih gunaan lebih oleh seorang pelombong di arang batu di No. 2 Heading.

Letupan gas propagated suatu letupan debu arang batu terhadap udara segar di permukaan. Jawatankuasa juga telah berpendanat bahawa Wakilnya, Overman dan ke extent yang lebih kurang Pengurusnya, adalah kesemuanya bersalah pada menyumbangkan kelalaian. [23]

1965

On November 9 1965, a pocket of gas ignited in a panel several hundred yards from the main shaft and killed four miners. Ten mining rescue teams and the Southern Mines Rescue Station worked all night to extinguish the fire. [24]

Perlombongan Australia dalam sastera, seni dan filem[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. "The Glen Osmond Mines". South Australian History. Flinders Ranges Research. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-05. 
  2. "Kapunda". South Australian History. Flinders Ranges Research. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-06. 
  3. "Burra". South Australian History. Flinders Ranges Research. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-06. 
  4. "The Moonta Mine". South Australian History. Flinders Ranges Research. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-06. 
  5. Caldwell, J. C. (1987). "Chapter 2: Population". Dalam Wray Vamplew (ed.). Australians: Historical Statistics. Broadway, New South Wales, Australia: Fairfax, Syme & Weldon Associates. ms. 23 and 26. ISBN 0-949288-29-2. 
  6. The Hon De-Anne Kelly MP, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Trade (2006-05-03). "Speech at the Australia China Business Council, Queensland Branch Business Dinner". Diperoleh pada 2006-06-18. 
  7. "The Importance of Coal in the Modern World - Australia". Gladstone Centre for Clean Coal. Diperoleh pada 2007-03-17. 
  8. "ASX and Australian mining". Australian Stock Exchange. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-04. 
  9. "1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2005". 2005-01-21. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-18. 
  10. The Hon Peter Costello, MP, Treasurer of Australia (2002-06-05). "Address to the Minerals Council of Australia, 2002 Minerals Industry Dinner". speech. Government of Australia. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-18. 
  11. Natural Resources Canada. "Canadian Minerals Yearbook, 2004". government of Canada. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-19. 
  12. Statistics Norway. "Statistical Yearbook 2005". Government of Norway. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-19. .
  13. Bureau of Economic Analysis. "Gross-Domestic-Product-by-Industry Accounts". United States government. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-19. 
  14. "6291.0.55.003 Table 04: Employed persons by Industry - Trend, Seasonally adjusted, Original". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2006-03-16. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-18. 
  15. "Mining Capability Overview". Austrade. unknown. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-18. 
  16. "Deforestation - Gold". Special Broadcasting Service. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-19. 
  17. Patrick Walters and Joseph Kerr (2006-04-04). "PM threatens ALP on China uranium deal". The Australian. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-19. 
  18. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (2005). "Weapons of Mass Destruction: Australia’s Role in Fighting Proliferation". Government of Australia. Diperoleh pada 2006-06-19. 
  19. Stuart Piggin and Henry Lee, The Mount Kembla Disaster, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1992
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Peter Reynolds, Balmain Places 2 - The Coal Mine Under The Harbour , Architectural History Research Unit, University of New South Wales, 1996, ISBN 0-908502-54-0
  21. Barwick, John (1999). Australia's worst disasters: mining disasters. Port Melbourne, Victoria: Heinemann Library. ms. 24–25. ISBN 1863918868. 
  22. Wollongong City Library, Bulli - History, Retrieved on 2/11/06.
  23. Illawarra Coal, Bulli Colliery Gas Explosion- 1887, Retrieved on 2/11/06.
  24. Illawarra Coal, Bulli Colliery Underground Fire - 1965, Retrieved on 2/11/06.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]