Pertempuran Corunna

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Pertempuran Corunna
Sebahagian daripada Peperangan Semenanjung
36 214430~death-of-sir-john-moore-(1761-1809)-january-17th-1809,-from-'the-martial-achievements-of-great-britain-and-her-allies-from-1799-.jpg
Keguguran Sir John Moore dalam Pertempuran Corunna
terbitan daripada ukiran kayu oleh Thomas Sutherland dan diwarnakan oleh William Heath]]
Maklumat am
Tarikh 16 Januari 1809
Lokasi Corunna, Galicia
Hasil Kemenangan taktikal British[1][2][3]
French strategic victory[4][5][6]
Pihak yang berperang
United Kingdom United Kingdom Perancis Perancis
Komander dan pemimpin
United Kingdom John Moore Templat:DOW Perancis Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult
Kekuatan
16,000 orang:
15,000 infantri[7]
9 ke 12 meriam[8]
16,000 orang:[9]
12,000 infantri
3,200 askar berkuda
20 meriam
Kerugian dan kehilangan
900 korban atau cedera[10]
300 sick abandoned[11]
600[12] hingga 700 korban atau cedera
200 hingga 300 tawanan
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Pertempuran A Coruña (juga dieja Corunna, A Corunha, La Corunna, La Coruña, Elviña, atau La Corogne) berlangsung pada 16 Januari 1809, apabila sebuah kor Perancis di bawah pimpinan Marsyal Nicholas Soult menyerang tentera British yang dipimpin Leftenan Jeneral Sir John Moore. Pertempuran berlangsung semasa Peperangan Semenanjung, sebahagian daripada Peperangan Napoleon. Pertempuran ini hasilan kempen Perancis, yang diketuai Napoleon, yang telah mengalahkan tentera-tentera Sepanyol dan menyebabkan pengunduran tentera British ke kawasan pantai berikutan kegagalan serangan Moore terhadap angkatan Soult dan melencongkan tumpuan tentera Perancis.

Tentera British membuat pengunduran epik merintasi wilayah utara Sepanyol sambil dikejar angkatan Soult, dan kedua-dua angkatan ini mengalami penderitaan akibat keadaan musim sejuk yang amat teruk. Tentera British mengalami keadaan kucar-kacir dan kehilangan semangat (morale) beberapa kali semas pengunduran. Apabila tiba di pelabuhan Corunna yang terletak di pantai utara Galicia di Sepanyol beberapa hari sebelum ketibaan Perancis, mereka dapati yang kapal-kapal pengangkut mereka masih belum tiba. Armada kapal pengangkut tiba di Corunna beberapa hari kemudian, dan tentera British sedang menaiki kapal apabila angkatan Perancis tiba dan memaksa British untuk bertempur sebelum mereka dapat pulang ke England.[13]

Dalam pertempuran yang berlangsung, pihak British berjaya menangani serangan Perancis dan menaiki kapal pengangkut mereka, lantas menyelamatkan tentera mereka daripada dimusnahkan Perancis, mahupun terpaksa meninggalkan bandar-bandar pelabuhan Corunna dan Ferrol, dan juga kawasan utara Sepanyol. Semasa pertempuran, Sir John Moore, komander British, menerima kecederaan maut dan meninggal dunia selepas kesemua serangan Perancis dipatahkan tenteranya.[14]


Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Haythornthwaite, p. 87;"...the battle could legitimately be regarded as a British victory.".
  2. Sandler, Stanley, Ground warfare: An International Encyclopedia, Vol.1, (ABC-CLIO, 2002), 214; "Costly British victory in the Peninsular War.... Corunna was a British victory only in the sense that Moore was able to prevent Soult form annihilating his men...".
  3. Chandler, p. 657.
    Sarrazin (a former French commander) writes "Whatever Buonaparte may assert, Soult was most certainly repulsed at Corunna; and the English gained a defensive victory, though dearly purchased with the loss of their brave general Moore, who was alike distinguished for his private virtues, and his military talents".
    France militaire states "Ayant neanmoins reunit les troupes a la Corogne, il repousse glorieusement les Francais, et meurt sur le champ de bataille." which translates as "Having nevertheless reunited the troops at Corunna, he [Moore] gloriously repulsed the French and died on the field of battle."
  4. Fremont-Barnes, "Canning strenuously maintained... in the great British tradition of characterizing defeat as victory ...". p.80.
  5. Esdaile, p. 155: "At first sight, then, British intervention had ended in humiliation and disaster. At La Coruna, true, a reverse had been inflicted on the French. However, Sir John Moore was dead, over one fifth of his army were missing, and several thousand more sick or wounded, whilst the retreat had had all the appearances of a rout."
  6. According to The Times, "The fact must not be disguised ... that we have suffered a shameful disaster": Hibbert, p. 188. Carl Cavanaugh Hodge, Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914 (Greenwood, 2007), p. lxxiii: "French Victory at the Battle of Corunna. Britain Forced to Evacuate Spain."
  7. Fortescue, Oman, p. 582, give 15,000; Hamilton 14,500.
  8. Napier, p.121 and Fortescue p. 377 indicate there may have been 12: eight British and four Spanish. Also, Gates p. 112.
  9. Fortescue cites Balagny's numbers over Oman's, p. 380. Balagny, p. 341.
  10. Chandler, p. 656.
  11. Howard, M.R. Medical aspects of Sir John Moore's Corunna Campaign, 1808–1809, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Volume 84, May 1991, p. 300.
  12. Esdaile, gives a total of 2,000 casualties for both sides altogether, p.155. Fortescue states the casualties for both sides were "about equal", p. 388.
  13. Napier, p. 121
  14. Napier, p. 123.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  • Belmas, J. Journaux des sièges faits ou soutenus par les Français dans la péninsule de 1807 à 1814. Tome 1, Paris 1836–1837, OCLC 493456886. [2]
  • Chandler, David G. The Campaigns of Napoleon. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson Ltd, 1996, ISBN 0-297-74830-0.
  • Dunn-Pattison, R.P. Napoleon's Marshals, Boston, 1909. Reprint Kessinger Pub. LLC 2006. ISBN 1428629262.
  • Elleman, Bruce A. editor. Naval Power and Expeditionary Warfare: Peripheral Campaigns and New Theatres of Naval Warfare, Chapter 3, Duffy, Michael. New York, 2011, ISBN 0 203 83321 X
  • Esdaile, Charles. The Peninsular War: A New History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, ISBN 1403962316.
  • Fitchett, William Henry. How England Saved Europe:The story of the Great War, Vol.III, The war in the Peninsula, London, 1900.OCLC 220800886. [3]
  • Fortescue, J. W. A History of The British Army. Vol VI 1807–1809. MacMillan and Co., Limited, 1915, OCLC 312880647. [4]
  • Fremont-Barnes, Gregory. The Napoleonic Wars: The Peninsular War 1807–1814 (Essential Histories, No 17), Osprey, 2002, ISBN 1841763705.
  • Gates, David. The Spanish Ulcer: A History of the Peninsular War, Pimlico, 2002, ISBN 0-7126-9730-6
  • Hamilton, Frederick William. The Origin and History of the First Or Grenadier Guards Vol.II, London 1874. OCLC 59415892. [5]
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  • Haythornthwaite, Philip, Corunna 1809 (Campaign 83), Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2001, ISBN 1 85532 968 9.
  • Hibbert, Christopher. Corunna, London: Batsford, 1961, OCLC 602870980.
  • Hugo, Abel. France militaire: histoire des armées françaises de terre et de mer de 1792 à 1837. Tome 4 / ouvrage réd. par une Société de militaires et de gens de lettres,... ; rev. et publ. par A. Hugo, Paris, 1838, OCLC 769330489. [6]
  • Hugo, Abel. Histoire de L'Empereur Napoleon, Nabu Press, reprint paperback, 2011, ISBN 9781246287554.
  • Napier, William. History of the war in the Peninsula and the south of France, from the year 1807 to the year 1814 (1873) New York : D. & J. Sadlier. [7]
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  • Oman, Charles. A History of the Peninsular War Vol. I 1807–1809, Oxford, 1902–1930, OCLC 1539767. [9]
  • Pococke, Thomas. Journal of a Soldier of the 71st Regiment, Edinburgh, 1819, OCLC 16295400.[10]
  • Richardson, Hubert N.B. A dictionary of Napoleon and his times, New York, 1920, OCLC 154001.[11]
  • Sarrazin, General Jean. History of the War in Spain and Portugal from 1807 to 1814, London, 1815, OCLC 13434746. [12]

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Blakeney, Robert. The retreat to Corunna, edited by Rouse, W.H.D., London, 1905. [13]

Koordinat: 43°21′46″N 8°24′17″W / 43.36278°U 8.40472°B / 43.36278; -8.40472