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Pertempuran Myriokephalon, juga dikenali sebagai Myriocephalum, atau Miryakefalon Savaşı di dalam Turki, merupakan satu pertempuran yang berlaku di antara Empayar Byzantine dan Seljuk Turki di Phrygia pada 17 September, 1176. Ia merupakan satu kekalahan serius bagi pasukan tentera Byzantine dan menjadi yang terakhir tanpa kejayaan, dalam usaha pihak Byzantines bagi mengambik balik Anatolia daripada pegangan Seljuk Turki.
- ↑ Treadgold, p. 635
- ↑ The battle was decisive in that it saved the Seljuk Sultanate but the military balance between the two belligerents was not greatly affected by its outcome. The bulk of Byzantine Asia Minor was retained for more than a century after the battle. Magdalino p. 99. "Whatever he [Manuel] said in the moment of defeat, it was not a disaster on the scale of Manzikert...Even Choniates admits that the frontier in Asia Minor did not collapse."
- ↑ J. Haldon, The Byzantine Wars, 198
- ↑ Alongside indications of heavy Byzantine losses, other sources (see the body of text) emphasise that most of the losses fell on only two of the six divisions of the Byzantine army (and also on the baggage and siege train). Niketas Choniates (p. 107), the main primary source for the battle, also states that when the Byzantines moved back through the pass after the battle they found that the heads and genitals (to disguise Moslem circumcision) of the dead had been mutilated to prevent them being identified. This strongly suggests that Seljuk casualties had been significant.
- ↑ Niketas Choniates (p. 107 - see note above).
- ↑ Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143-1180, p. 98. "The defeat which it suffered in the narrows of Tzibritze, a day's march from Konya, near the ruined fort of Myriokephalon, was correspondingly humiliating. The Turks made great slaughter, took great quantity of booty, and came close to capturing the Emperor himself who gratefully accepted the sultan's offer of a truce in return of demolishing Dorylaion and Sublaion."
- ↑ Bradbury, The Routledge companion to medieval warfare, p. 176. "With Manuel were Hungarian allies and his brother-in-law Baldwin of Antioch. Baldwin charged but was killed. The Byzantines suffered heavy losses. Kilij Arslan offered terms and the Byzantines were allowed to withdraw."
Sumber utama [sunting]
- Choniates, Niketas. Historia. English translation: Magoulias, H. (O City of Byzantium: Annals of Niketas Choniates). Detroit, 1984. ISBN 0-8143-1764-2
Sumber kedua [sunting]
- Angold, Michael (1997). The Byzantine Empire, 1025–1204. Longman. ISBN 0-582-29468-1.
- Bradbur, Jim (2004). The Routledge companion to medieval warfare. Routledge.
- Finlay, George (1877). A History of Greece Vol III. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Haldon, John (2001). The Byzantine Wars. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-1777-0.
- Magdalino, Paul (1993). The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143-1180: 1143 - 1180. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52653-1.
- Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-804-72630-2.