Pertempuran Normandie

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Pertempuran Normandie
Sebahagian daripada Perang Dunia Kedua
1944 NormandyLST.jpg
Tarikh 6 Jun, 194425 Ogos, 1944
Lokasi Normandie, Perancis
Hasil Decisive Allied victory
Yang berperang
US flag 48 stars.svg Amerika Syarikat
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom
Canadian Red Ensign 1921-1957.svg Kanada
Flag of Free France 1940-1944.svg Perancis
Flag of Poland.svg Poland
Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Jerman
Komander dan pemimpin
US flag 48 stars.svg Dwight Eisenhower
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Bertram Ramsay (sea)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air)
US flag 48 stars.svg Omar Bradley
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Miles Dempsey
Canadian Red Ensign 1921-1957.svg
Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Gerd von Rundstedt
Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B)
Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Friedrich Dollmann
Kekuatan
1,452,000 (pada 25 Julai) 380,000 (pada 23 Julai)
Kerugian
Amerika Syarikat: 29,000 mati, 106,000 cedera dan hilang;
United Kingdom: 11,000 mati, 54,000 cedera dan hilang;
Kanada: 5,000 mati; 13,000 cedera dan hilang;
Perancis: 12,200 orang rakyat mati dan hilang

Pertempuran Normandie berlaku pada tahun 1944 antara Jerman Nazi di Eropah Barat dan tentera Pihak Berikat yang menyerang sebagai sebahagian daripada knoflik yang lebih besar untuk Perang Dunia Kedua. Operasi Overlord merupakan nama kod untuk serangan Pihak Berikat terhadap Eropah barat laut, yang bermula pada 6 Jun, 1944, dan tamat pada 19 Ogos, 1944, semasa Tentera Berikat merentasi Sungai Seine. Hingga ke enam puluh tahun selepas itu, Pertempuran Normandie ini masih berkekal sebagai penyerangan laut yang terbesar dalam sejarah, melibatkan hampir 3 juta tentera melintasi Selat Inggeris dari England ke Normandie. Operasi Neptune merupakan nama kod untuk fasa serangan permulaan untuk Operasi Overlord; matlamatnya, untuk menambah foothold pada benua itu, bermula pada 6 Jun 1944 (sering dikenali sebagai D-Day) dan tamat pada 30 Jun 1944.

Pembentukan Tentera Berikat yang utama adalah dari Amerika Syarikat, United Kingdom dan Kanada. Tentera Free French dan tentera Poland juga menyertai pertempuran ini selepas fasa serangan itu, dan juga ada kontijen dari Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Yunani, Belanda, dan Norway.


Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • The Longest Day, Cornelius Ryan, Simon & Schuster 2nd ed., 1959, ISBN 0-671-20814-4
  • D-Day, Warren Tute, John Costello, Terry Hughes, Pan Books Ltd, 1975
  • Normandy 1944, Allied Landings and Breakout; Osprey Campaign Series #1; Stephen Badsey, Osprey Publishing, 1990
  • Normandy 1944, German Military Organisation, Combat Power and Organizational Effectiveness; Niklas Zetterling, J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing Inc., 2000, ISBN 0-921991-56-8.
  • D-Day: The Invasion of Normandy, June 6, 1944, Michael J. Varhola, Savas, 2001.
  • Operation Cobra 1944, Breakout from Normandy; Osprey Campaign Series #88; Steven J. Zaloga, Osprey Publishing, 2001
  • D-Day 1944 (3), Sword Beach & the British Airborne Landings; Osprey Campaign Series #105; Ken Ford, Osprey Publishing, 2002
  • D-Day 1944 (4), Gold & Juno Beaches; Osprey Campaign Series #112; Ken Ford, Osprey Publishing, 2002
  • D-Day 1944 (1), Omaha Beach; Osprey Campaign Series #100, Steven J. Zaloga, Osprey Publishing, 2003
  • D-Day 1944 (2), Utah Beach & the US Airborne Landings; Osprey Campaign Series #104, Steven J. Zaloga, Osprey Publishing, 2004
  • Morning: Normandy Invasion (June–August 1944), episode 17 of BBC series The World at War (1974)
  • Montgomery, Bernard Law, Nigel Hamilton, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography O.U.P. (2004)

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Who won World War II?,Konstantin RozhnovRichard Overy, BBC News, 2005

  • The Struggle For Europe, Chester Wilmot, Wordsworth Editions Ltd, 1997 (Written in part by Christopher Daniel McDevitt.)
  • SOE, M. R. D. Foot, BBC Publications, 1984

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Those who wish to study the Normandy Campaign in more detail will find a number of volumes in the U.S. Army in World War II series, produced by the U.S. Army Center of Military History, particularly useful. Gordon A. Harrison, Cross-Channel-Attack (1951), remains a basic source, but a number of other studies bear heavily upon the operation. They include:
  1. Robert W. Coakley and Richard M. Leighton, Global Logistics and Strategy (1968);
  2. Martin Blumenson, Breakout and Pursuit (1961);
  3. Forrest C. Pogue, The Supreme Command (1954);
  4. Roland G. Ruppenthal, Logistical Support of the Armies (1953); and
  5. Graham A. Cosmas and Albert E. Cowdrey, The Medical Department: Medical Service in the European Theater of Operations (1992).
  • The Historical Division of the War Department produced three volumes on the event. All have been reprinted by the Center of Military History. Classified as the American Forces in Action series, they are:
  1. OMAHA Beachhead (6 June-13 June 1944) (1989);
  2. UTAH Beach to Cherbourg (1990); and
  3. St. Lo (7 July-19 July 1944) (1984).
  • A number of abbreviated summaries have been written. Among the most useful are:
  1. Charles MacDonald, The Mighty Endeavor: American Armed Forces in the European Theater in World War II (1969); and
  2. Charles MacDonald and Martin Blumenson, "Recovery of France," in Vincent J. Esposito, ed., A Concise History of World War II (1965).
  • Memoirs by Allied commanders contain considerable information. Among the best are:
  1. Omar N. Bradley, A Soldier's Story (1951);
  2. Omar N. Bradley and Clay Blair, A General's Life (1983);
  3. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe (1948);
  4. Sir Bernard Law Montgomery, Normandy to the Baltic (1948); and
  5. Sir Frederick Edgeworth Morgan, Overture to Overlord (1950).
  • Almost as useful are biographies of leading commanders. Among the most prominent are:
  1. Stephen E. Ambrose, The Supreme Commander: The War Years of General Dwight D. Eisenhower (1970), and Eisenhower, Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890-1952 (1983);
  2. Nigel Hamilton, Master of the Battlefield: Monty's War Years, 1942-1944 (1983); and
  3. Richard Lamb, Montgomery in Europe, 1943-1945: Success or Failure (1984).
  • A number of general histories also exist, many centering on the controversies that continue to surround the campaign and its commanders. See, in particular:
  1. John Colby, War From the Ground Up: The 90th Division in World War II (1989);
  2. Carlo D'Este, Decision in Normandy: The Unwritten Story of Montgomery and the Allied Campaign (1983);
  3. Max Hastings, Overlord, D-Day, June 6, 1944 (1984);
  4. John Keegan, Six Armies in Normandy: From D-Day to the Liberation of Paris (1982);
  5. Robin Neillands, The Battle of Normandy 1944 (2002);
  6. Stephen T. Powers, "Battle of Normandy: The Lingering Controversy," Journal of Military History 56 (1992):455-71.
  7. Russell F. Weigley, Eisenhower's Lieutenants: The Campaign of France and Germany, 1944-45 (1981); and
  • Pemberita merupakan pemerhati hadapan bagi penjajahan ini. Dua kajian mengenai hasil kerja mereka yang menonjol adalah:
  1. Barney Oldfield, Never a Shot in Anger (1956); and
  2. Richard Collier, Fighting Words: The Correspondents of World War II (1989). CMH Pub 72-18