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Templat:Bibleportal

Ramalan bible adalah ramalan peristiwa yang akan datang berasaskan ayat Bible.[1] Sebarang ayat-ayat diedarkan secara luas di sepanjang Bible, tetapi yang tersering dipetik dari Ezekiel, Daniel, dan Wahyu. Mukmin dalam ramalan bible melibat dalam eksegesis dan hermeneutik kitab yang mereka mempercayai mengandungi penjelasan politik global, bencana alam, masa hadapan negara Israel, ketibaan seorang Masihi dan sebuah Kerajaan Messianik, dan takdir ultimate umat manusia.

Sesetengah ramalan dalam Bible adalah bersyarat, dengan sama ada keadaan dianggap atau dikatakan secara eksplisit. [2] Some prophetic passages are depicted as direct statements from Tuhan sementara penyataan lain dijelaskan sebagai tanggapan diutamakan pengarang bible dianggap menjadi seorang nabi[petikan diperlukan]. Nabi-nabi Bible biasanya dianggap menerima wahyu dari Tuhan, selanjutnya merakam mereka dalam tulisan berkaitan.[3]

Gambaran keseluruhan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nabi-nabi Bible Ibrani sering memberi amaran pada Bani Israel untuk mentaubatkan dosa dan keberhalaan, dengan ugutan hukuman atau anugerah. Blessings dan ruinations are attributed to the deity. Menurut dengan para mukmin pada ramalan Bible[4], banyak dari ramalan ini dilihat sebagai telah dipenuhi dalam lalaun kemudian.

Tema ramalan kedua adalah ketibaan seorang Masihi atau Zaman Masihi: kebanyakan umat Kristian mempercayai bahawa ramalan Masihi ini dipenuhi oleh Al-Masih Yesus sementara umat Yahudi masih menunggu kedatangan Masihi dari keturunan keluarga Daud. (Lihat Kemasihian.)

Suatu lagi tema utama berkenaan "akhir zaman", atau "hari-hari terakhir", khususnya menurut dengan Pendedahan Yahya.

Klasifikasi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Walaupun kegunaan utama istilah bahasa Ibrani dan Greek untuk ramalan dalam Bible adalah ramalan dapat diramal secara tidak bersoalan, tidak semua kenabian adalah diramal. Sesetengah hanya mengilham ulasan pada peristiwa hari ini atau mengilham pujaan.[5]

Ramalan bukan diramal dapat termasuk:

  • Pendedahan benda-benda yang tersembunyi - masa lepas atau kini.
  • Sembah - Ramalan muzikal di kuil, 1 Chronicles 25:1-3, etc.
  • Mengajar di Gereja - Takrifan kemungkinan ini telah dimajukan oleh W.E. Vine tetapi dicanggahkan.

Ramalan diramal dapat dibahagikan ke dalam beberapa kelompok ramalan berkaitan mengongsi suatu tema berpusat.

  • General — ramalan Bible yang mengurus dengan pelbagai tempat dan kaum.
  • Eskatologi — Ramalan-ramalan berkenaan dengan benda-benda yang terakhir.
  • Eskatologi Kristian — subut pandangan Kristian pada peristiwa terakhir.
  • Eskatologi Yahudi - sudut pandangan Yahudi pada peristiwa yang akan datang.
  • Millennialisme — Kepercayaan dalam pemerintahan seribu tahun Masihi di bumi
  • Israel — Ramlan berkaitan dengan Israel, negaranya, rakyatnya dan orangnya.
  • Messianik — Ramalan berkenaan dengan Messiah.

Ramalan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:POV-section

Genesis[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • In Genesis 6, God is quoted as saying "My Spirit will not contend with man forever, for he is mortal; his days will be a hundred and twenty years."(Genesis 6:3) There is uncertainty as whether that refers to man's lifespan or to the amount of time that will elapse before the great flood.[6][7] The oldest undisputed people to have lived are a 122 year old female named Jeanne Calment[8] and a 115 year old male named Christian Mortensen[9]. The Book of Genesis as well as Exodus gives several people living to be older than 120 years after Genesis 6:3 (Genesis 9:29, 11:11-32, 23:1, 25:7, 25:17, 35:28, Exodus 6:16-20).[10]
  • Genesis 15:18 promises Abraham and his descendants the land of Canaan from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates and Genesis 17:8 states:

The whole land of Canaan, where you are now an alien, I will give as an everlasting possession to you and your descendants after you; and I will be their God.

Verses such as Acts 7:4-5 and Hebrews 11:13 indicate this was not accomplished during Abraham's time. F. F. Bruce argues this was accomplished during David's reign. He writes:

David's sphere of influence now extended from the Egyptian frontier on the Wadi el-Arish (the "brook of Egypt") to the Euphrates; and these limits remained the ideal boundaries of Israel's dominion long after David's empire had disappeared.[11]

Christian apologists point to corporate personality here to connect Abraham with the Jewish nation. H. Wheeler Robinson writes:

Corporate personality is the important Semitic complex of thought in which there is a constant oscillation between the individual and the group – family, tribe, or nation – to which he belongs, so that the king or some other representative figure may be said to embody the group, or the group may be said to sum up the host of individuals.[12]

Hebrews 11:15-16 says that the patriaches longed for the heavenly country which explains that Hebrews 11:13 speaks about the promise of the heavenly home.

Exodus, Deuteronomy, Joshua, dan Judges[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • God is represented as guaranteeing that the Israelites would drive out the Amorites, Canaanites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites from their lands, which the Jews wanted to appropriate (Exodus 34:10-11). The same applies to the Girgashites (Deuteronomy 7:1-2).

In Exodus 34:10-27 this is referred to as a covenant, commandments being given. In Judges, the Israelites are described as disobeying the commandment to worship no other god (Judges 3:6) and as a result not being able to drive out the Jebusites (Joshua 15:63). The Israelites did not drive all of the Canaanite tribes out in the lifetime of Joshua. The books of Joshua and Judges (Chapters 1) mention towns that could not be defeated. According to 2 Samuel, the Israelites occupied Canaan but the complete seizure took place only when David defeated the Jebusites in Jerusalem and made it the capital of his empire.(2 Sam 5:6-7), [13].

Diansti Daudiah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tuhan bersabda bahawa rumah, tahta dan kerajaan Nabi Daud dan keturunannya (digelar "yang akan membina sebuah rumah untuk NamaKu" dalam ayat) akan tahan buat selamanya.(2 Sam. 7:12-16, 2 Chronicles 13:5, Psalm 89:20-37) 1 Kings 9:4-7 dan juga 1 Ch 28:5 dan 2 Ch 7:17 berkata bahawa pertubuhan Nabi Sulaiman adalah bersyarat pada Nabi Sulaiman patuh pada perintah Tuhan.

Solomon membina kuil di Jerusalem (2 Chron. 6:7-10, 2 Chronicles 2:1) dan tidak patuh pada perintah Tuhan (1 Kings 11:1-14).

Kebinasaan Kerajaan Yahuda oleh Raja Nebuchadnezzar pada 586 SM membara akhirnya pada rumah diraja Daud.[14]

Sesetengah berkata bahawa Tuhan berjanji suatu dinasti kebadian pada Nabi Daud secara tidak bersyarat.(1 Kings 11:36, 15:4, 2 Kings 8:19) Mereka merasa janji bersyarat 1 Kings 9:4-7 kelihatan undercut this unconditional covenant. Most interpreters have taken the expression "throne of Israel" as a reference to the throne of the United Monarchy. They see this as a conditionalization of the unconditional dynastic promise to David's house expressed in 1 Kings 11:36, 15:4 and 2 Kings 8:19. They argue the presence of both unconditional and conditional promises to the house of David would create intense theological dissonance in the Book of Kings.[15][16][17][18]

Christians believe that the promise is of surviving descendants that could fulfill the role of king rather than a permanent earthly kingship.[19][20][21][22]

Kings[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • According to The Book of Kings God told Zedekiah:

I am about to hand this city over to the king of Babylon, and he will burn it down. You will not escape from his grasp but will surely be captured and handed over to him. You will see the king of Babylon with your own eyes, and he will speak with you face to face. And you will go to Babylon... You will not die by the sword; you will die peacefully. (Jeremiah 34:2-5)

Kings and Jeremiah relate that Zedekiah's eyes were put out after he was taken to the king of Babylon and that he remained a prisoner in Babylon until his death (2 Kings 25:6-7 and Jeremiah 52:10-11). We do not have any other historical record of what happened with Zedekiah in Babylon[23].

  • God is also represented as promising Josiah that because he humbled himself before God, he would be "buried in peace" and the book goes on to say he shall not see the disaster to come on Judah (2 Kings 22:19-20).

Josiah fought against the Egyptians although the pharaoh, Necho, prophesied that God would destroy him if he did (2 Chronicles 35:21-22) - probably Josiah was "opposing the faithful prophetic party".[24] Josiah was killed in battle against the Egyptians (2 Kings 23:29-30).

Isaiah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Untuk perincian mengenai topik ini, sila lihat Isaiah 7:14.
  • When the Jews heard that "Aram has allied itself with Ephraim" God is said to have told them:

It will not take place, it will not happen... Within sixty-five years Ephraim will be too shattered to be a people. (Isaiah 7:1-9)

According to 2 Chronicles 28:5-6 God delivered the king of the Jews, Ahaz, into the hands of the king of Syria, who carried away a great multitude of them captives to Damascus. And he was also delivered into the hand of the king of Israel, who smote him with a great slaughter.
In Isaiah 7:9 the prophet says clearly that a prerequisite for the fulfillment of the prophecy is that Ahaz stands firm in his faith. This means that he should trust God and not seek military help in the Assyrians which Ahaz nevertheless did.[25]

The Book of Isaiah also foretold;

Christian apologists state that the prophecy in Isaiah chapter 13 and 21 could possibly have been directed originally against Assyria whose capital Ninive was defeated 612 BC by a combined onslaught of the Medes and Babylonians. According to this explanation the prophecy was later updated and referred to Babylon[26] not recognizing the rising power of Persia. On the other hand it can be mentioned that the Persian king Cyrus after overthrowing Media in 550 BC did not treat the Medes as a subject nation.

Instead of treating the Medes as a beaten foe and a subject nation, he had himself installed as king of Media and governed Media and Persia as a dual monarchy, each part of which enjoyed equal rights.[27]

  • Damascus will become a "heap of ruins. Her towns will be deserted forever and they will be places for flocks". (Isaiah 17:1-2)

The prophecy may date from 735 BC when Damascus and Israel were allied against Judah.[28] Tiglath-Pileser took Damascus in 732,[28] which some apologists point to as a fulfillment of this prophecy, but this campaign never reduced the city to rubble.[petikan diperlukan] Rather, the campaign temporarily forced the inhabitants to flee for a few days before returning.[petikan diperlukan] The city remained intact.[petikan diperlukan] Damascus has never become a heap of ruins and is the oldest standing city in the world.[petikan diperlukan]

The passage is consistent with 2 Kings 16:9, which states that Assyria defeated the city and exiled the civilians to Kir.

  • The river of Ancient Egypt (identified as the Nile in RSV) shall dry up.(19:5).
  • "The land of Judah shall be a terror unto Egypt."(Isaiah 19:17)
  • "There shall be five cities in Ancient Egypt that speak the Canaanite language.(Isaiah 19:18)"
  • "In that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria. The Assyrians will go to Egypt and the Egyptians to Assyria. The Egyptians and Assyrians will worship together. 24 In that day Israel will be the third, along with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing on the earth. 25 The LORD Almighty will bless them, saying, 'Blessed be Egypt my people, Assyria my handiwork, and Israel my inheritance.'"(Isaiah 19:23-25)

Some theologians argue the statement that the "land of Judah" will terrify the Egyptians is not a reference to a large army from Judah attacking Egypt but a circumlocution for the place where God lives. They argue it is God and his plans that will cause Egypt to be terrified. They go on to argue the second "in that day" message from verse 18 announces the beginning of a deeper relationship between God and Egypt which leads to Egypt's conversion and worshiping God (verses 19-21). They say the last "in that day" prophecy (verses 23-25) speaks about Israel, Assyria and Egypt as God's special people, thus, describing eschatological events.[29][30]

There are many scholars, however, who point out that the prophet himself spoke of Cyrus arguing that Deutero-Isaiah interpreted Cyrus' victorious entry into Babylon in 539 BC as evidence of divine commission to benefit Israel. The main argument against the idols in these chapters is that they cannot declare the future, whereas God does tell future events like the Cyrus predictions.[33][34][35][36][37]

Jeremiah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Jeremiah prophesies that;

  • "...all nations will gather in Jerusalem to honor the name of the Lord.".(3:17 (NIV))
  • Hazor will be desolated.(49:33)
  • The Babylonian captivity would end when the "70 years" ended. (Jeremiah 29:10)

It lasted 68 years (605 BCE-537 BCE) from the capture of the land of Israel by Babylon[38] and the exile of a small number of hostages including Daniel, Hananiah, Azariah, and Mishael (Daniel 1:1-4)[39]. It lasted 60 years (597-537 BCE) from the deportation of the 10,000 elite (2 Kings 24:14) including Jehoiachin and Ezekiel[40] though there is a discrepancy with Jeremiah's numbers of exiles (Jeremiah 52:28-30)[41]. It lasted 49 years (586-537 BCE) from the exile of the majority of Judah (2 Kings 25:11) including Jeremiah who was taken to Egypt and leaving behind a poor remnant (2 Kings 25:12)[40].
However, some Christian scholars try to explain the figure in a different way stating that Jeremiah gave a round number.[42]

Christian commentaries have considered the conquering Persian force an alliance between the Persians and the Medes.[43][44] One suggests the use of the term "Medes" is due to earlier recognition among the Jews and because the generals of Cyrus were apparently Medes.[45]

US Marines in front of Babylon as it stood in 2003
  • Jeremiah prophesied that Babylon would be destroyed at the end of the seventy years.(25:12) (Babylon fell to the Persians under Cyrus in 539 BCE (66, 58 or 47 years after the beginning of the Babylonian exile depending on how you count). According to Daniel 5:31, it was the currently unidentified "Darius the Mede" who captured Babylon.)
  • Babylon would never again be inhabited.(50:39) (Saddam Hussein began to reconstruct it in 1985,[46][47] but was abruptly halted by the invasion of Iraq. Iraqi leaders and UN officials now plan to restore Babylon.)[46]
  • "The Levitical priests shall never lack a man in my presence to offer burnt offerings, to burn cereal offerings, and to make sacrifices for ever". (but the destruction of temple in 70 CE brought an end to the Jewish sacrificial system) (33:18) (See Korban)
  • God will make Jerusalem a heap of ruins, a haunt of jackals; and will lay waste the towns of Judah so no one can live there.(9:11)

Daniel[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Details3

Ezekiel[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Ezekiel prophesies the permanent destruction of Tyre.(Ezekiel 26:3-14)

Tyre was an island fortress-city with mainland villages along the shore.[48] These mainland settlements were destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, but after a 13 year siege from 585-573 BC, the king of Tyre made peace with Nebuchadnezzar, going into exile and leaving the island city itself intact.[49]. Alexander the Great used debris from the mainland to build a causeway to the island, entered the city, and plundered the city, sacking it without mercy.[50] Most of the residents were either killed in the battle or sold into slavery.[50][51] It was quickly repopulated by colonists and escaped citizens,[52] and later regained its independence[53]. Tyre did eventually enter a period of decline, being reduced to a small remnant: echoing Ezekiel's words in a book published in 1891[54], historian Philip Myers wrote "The larger part of the site of the once great city is now as bare as the top of a rock—a place where the fishermen that still frequent the spot spread their nets to dry".[55], and older sources often refer to it as a "fishing village". However, it recovered and grew rapidly in the 20th century. The ruins of a part of ancient Tyre (a protected site) can still be seen on the southern half of the island.[56] whereas modern Tyre occupies the northern half and also sprawls across Alexander's causeway and onto the mainland[57]: it is now the 4th largest city in Lebanon[58] with a population in excess of 100,000 people[59] (see Tyre (Lebanon)).

  • Ezekiel then prophesies the conquest of Egypt, the scattering of its entire population (it was to be uninhabited for 40 years), and Nebuchadnezzar plundering Egypt (Ezekiel 29:3 - Ezekiel 30:26).

This includes the claim that God will make Egypt so weak that it will never again rule over other nations[60]. Pharaoh Amasis II (who drove off Nebuchadnezzar) also conquered Cyprus[61], ruling it until 545 BC[62]. Despite being a powerful nation in ancient times, Egypt has since been ruled by the Persians, Macedonians, Romans, Byzantine Empire, Ottomans, British and the French,[63] and has also enjoyed periods of independence from external rule. During the Hellenistic period, the break-up of the empire of Alexander the Great left the Ptolemaic Dynasty (of Macedonian/Greek origin) as rulers of Egypt: the Ptolemies then conquered and ruled Cyrenaica (now northeastern Libya), Palestine, and Cyprus at various times.[64] (see also History of Ptolemaic Egypt and Ptolemaic kingdom).

There is some uncertainty among modern scholars regarding when (and by whom) various portions of the Book of Ezekiel were written[65], making the timing of prophecies difficult to unravel (see Book of Ezekiel).

Nebuchadnezzar invaded Egypt around 568 BC. However, the armies of Pharaoh Amasis II defeated the Babylonians (though the author did not elaborate and there are no known detailed accounts of this invasion)[66]. Herodotus reports that this Pharaoh had a long and prosperous reign.[67] The Egyptians were conquered by the Persians in 525 BC.[68]

Minor prophets[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Amos prophesied that when Israel is restored they will possess the remnant of Edom.(9:12)
  • Obadiah prophesied that Israel will destroy the house of Esau in the day of the Lord.(18)
  • Zechariah prophesied; "Never again will an oppressor overrun my people, for now I am keeping watch."[69]
  • The river of Ancient Egypt (identified as the Nile in NIV, NASB, and RSV) shall dry up.(Zechariah 10:11)
  • Haggai prophesied; "In a little while God will shake the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and the dry land."(2:6)
  • Malachi prophesied that God would send Elijah before "the great and dreadful day of the LORD" in which the world will be consumed by fire.(3:1, 4:1, 5) (In Mark 9:13 and Matthew 17:11-13, Jesus states that John the Baptist fulfilled the prophecy, despite John the Baptist's denial in John 1:21.)

Gospels[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Details3

  • In Matthew 10, when Jesus sent forth the twelve disciples, he told them:

"When you are persecuted in one place, flee to another. I tell you the truth, you will not finish going through the cities of Israel before the Son of Man comes."(Matthew 10:23)

The Christian response is varied:

Moffatt puts it “before the Son of man arrives” as if Jesus referred to this special tour of Galilee. Jesus could overtake them. Possibly so, but it is by no means clear. Some refer it to the Transfiguration, others to the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, others to the Second Coming. Some hold that Matthew has put the saying in the wrong context. Others bluntly say that Jesus was mistaken, a very serious charge to make in his instructions to these preachers. The use of ἑως [heōs] with aorist subjunctive for a future event is a good Greek idiom.[70]

Preterist scholars explain this verse as referring to the destruction of the Jerusalem temple in 70 AD with the phrase "before the Son of Man comes" meaning before judgment comes upon the nation of Israel and the city of Jerusalem for rejecting Jesus Christ as The Messiah. They reject to refer Matthew 10:23 to the second coming of Jesus because Jesus speaks to his disciples about the towns of Israel:

Such a view completely divorces the passage from its immediate and localized context, such as the fact that this was an admonition to the apostles - and not directed to a generation several millenia removed from the first century.[71]

The Wycliffe Bible Commentary disagrees with this view:

In the similar context of Mt 24:8-31 the great tribulation and the second advent are in view. Hence, the "coming of the Son of man" is probably eschatological here also. This would have been more readily understood by the disciples, who would hardly have thought to equate this "coming" with the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70.[72]

  • In Matthew 12:40 Jesus says; "as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth." (See also Matthew 16:21, 20:19, Mark 8:31, 9:31, 10:34, Luke 11:29-30 and John 2:19) According to Mark 15:42-46, Jesus was buried in Friday night and according to Matthew 28:1-6 and John 20:1, Jesus' tomb was found empty on Sunday dawn.

It is customary for eastern nations to count part of a day as a whole 24 hour day.[73]

  • Jesus prophesies in Matthew 16:27-28:

For the Son of Man is going to come in his Father's glory with his angels, and then he will reward each person according to what he has done. I tell you the truth, some who are standing here will not taste death before they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom.

Christian responses have been varied:

Some of them that stand here (τινες των ὁδε ἑστωτων [tines tōn hode hestōtōn]). A crux interpretum in reality. Does Jesus refer to the transfiguration, the resurrection of Jesus, the great day of Pentecost, the destruction of Jerusalem, the second coming and judgment? We do not know, only that Jesus was certain of his final victory which would be typified and symbolized in various ways.[74]

Preterists respond that Jesus did not mean his second coming but a demonstration of his might when He says "coming in his kingdom". In this view, this was accomplished by the destruction of the Jerusalem temple in 70 AD when some of the Apostles were still living and thus fulfilling the word of Jesus that only some will not have died.[75] Others argue it refers to the transfiguration.[76][77] The Wycliffe Bible Commentary states:

This coming of the Son of Man in his kingdom is explained by some as the destruction of Jerusalem and by others as the beginning of the Church. But referring it to the Transfiguration meets the requirements of the context (all Synoptists follow this statement with the Transfiguration, Mk 9:1; Lk 9:27). Furthermore, Peter, who was one of those standing here, referred to the Transfiguration in the same words (II Pet 1:16-18). Chafer calls the Transfiguration a “preview of the coming kingdom on earth” (L. S. Chafer, Systematic Theology, V, 85).[78]

  • He also prophesies to Caiaphas (Matthew 26:64, KJV):

Hereafter you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power, and coming on the clouds of heaven.

It is a misunderstanding that Jesus meant Caiphas. The word "you will see" is in Greek "ὄψεσθε" [opheste, from the infinitive optomai][79] which is plural. Jesus meant that the Jews, and not just the high priest, will see his coming.

  • Jesus declared in Matthew, Luke and John that Peter would deny him three times before cock-crow. Mark states that the cock crowed after the first denial as well as after the third denial. (First crow is not found in the NIV version)

Christians argue that the first cock-crow is simply missing from Matthew, Luke, and John. In Matthew (Templat:Bibleref2), Luke (Templat:Bibleref2), and John (Templat:Bibleref2), Jesus foretells three denials of Peter before cock-crow. Templat:Bibleref2, Templat:Bibleref2, Templat:Bibleref2 report the fulfilment of this prophecy. In Templat:Bibleref2, Jesus speaks of two cock-crows, which is mentioned in Templat:Bibleref2 as having taken place. Christians argue that Matthew, Luke, and John removed the first cock-crow and diminished (Luke even eliminated) the partial exit by Peter after the first denial (which Mark reports).[80] If Mark was the "interpreter of Peter"[81], he would have gotten his information directly and thus would be considered the more reliable source.

  • Matthew 24:1-2 states (and Luke 21:6 mirrors):

Jesus left the temple and was walking away when his disciples came up to him to call his attention to its buildings. "Do you see all these things?" he asked. "I tell you the truth, not one stone here will be left on another; every one will be thrown down."

Preterists claim these verses are metaphorical.[82] Others claim that the destruction of the temple in A.D. 70[83] fulfilled this despite the existence of the wailing wall.[84][85] The IVP Bible Background Commentary states:

Some stones were left on others (e.g., part of one wall still stands), but this fact does not weaken the force of the hyperbole: the temple was almost entirely demolished in A.D. 70.[86]

  • Matthew 24:7-8 is part of Jesus response to the disciples in verse 5 asking, "when will this happen, and what will be the sign of your coming and of the end of the age?" It states:

Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be famines and earthquakes in various places. All these are the beginning of birth pains.

The famines part of this verse has often been associated with the third seal of Revelation (Rev. 6:5-6), and the pestilences and earthquakes aspect has often been associated with the fourth seal of Revelation (Rev. 6:7-8).[87][88] The presence of the term birthpains could be representative of better times ahead.[87] Scholars point out that these events have always been on earth, so the verse must refer to a significant increase in the intensity of them.[88]

There are also several instances of erroneous or untraceable quotation of the prophets by the early Christians:

  • Matthew 27:9 paraphrase Zechariah 11:12 and 13 in relation to buying a field for 30 pieces of silver, but attributes it as a saying of Jeremiah. Jeremiah is described as buying a field in Jeremiah 32:6-9 for seventeen shekels of silver.

Christians have given several responses. First is that the use of Jeremiah is meant to refer to all the books of prophecy. Second is Jeremiah said this, but any recording of such have not survived to today. Third is this was the result of a scribal error because of the single letter difference in the abridged versions of the names.[89]

  • Matthew 2:23 refers to a prophecy being fulfilled by Jesus living in Nazareth which is not found in the Old Testament.

Christians have given several responses. First is that this prophecy has not survived to the present day. Second is the Greek word nazaret does not mean Nazarene but is related to the Hebrew word netzer which can be translated branch. Third is that the verse is not a prophetic saying but simply reflects an Old Testament requirement for the Messiah to be held in contempt, (Psalm 22:6-8; 69:9-11, 19-21; Isaiah 53:2-4, 7-9) which they argue Nazarenes were (John 1:46; John 7:52).[90]

Some scholars respond that this is because the Malachi reference was just an introduction,[91] which made it significantly less important than Isaiah 40:3, leading to the whole being attributed to the prophet Isaiah. Other reasons given are Isaiah's authority was considered higher than Malachi and the Isaiah text was better known.[92][93]

Letters of Paul[sunting | sunting sumber]

...we tell you that we who are still alive, who are left till the coming of the Lord, will certainly not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so we will be with the Lord forever. (1 Thessalonians 4:15-17)

Christians argue that Paul speaks about his own presence at the last day only hypothetically.[94] They point out Paul later states the Day of the Lord comes like a thief (1 Thessalonians 5:1-2) which is a word Jesus uses himself (Matthew 24:43-44) expressing the impossibility of predicting His second coming (Matthew 24:36).[95]

  • Paul prophesied in 1 Thessalonians 5:2-11: "For you know very well that the day of the Lord will come like a thief in the night. While people are saying, Peace and safety, destruction will come on them suddenly, as labor pains on a pregnant woman, and they will not escape."
  • In Templat:Bibleref2, Paul prophesied that the Man of sin would sit in the temple of God declaring himself as God. The Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 CE.

There are different attempts to explain the term "to take his seat in the temple of God". Some understand it as a divine attribute which the man of lawlessness arrogates to himself and hence no conclusion can be drawn for time and place.[96] Many in the early Church, such as Irenaeus, Hippolytus of Rome, Origen and Cyril of Jerusalem, believed a literal Temple would be rebuilt by the Antichrist before the Lord's Second Coming whereas Jerome and John Chrysostom referred the Temple to the Church.[97] Also some today's scholars refer the phrase "God's temple" to the Church pointing out that Paul used this term five other times outside 2 Thessalonians and does not refer it to a literal temple.[98]

  • 1 Timothy 4:1-3 says "in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils; Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron; Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth".

The church fathers like St. Chrysostom who lived at the time of Gnostics, the Marcionites, the Encratites, the Manicheans, who rejected Christian marriage and meat-eating because they believed that all flesh was from an evil principle, asserted this text referred to such sects and that they were therefore "in the latter times".[99][100] The Protestant theologian John Gill[101] believed that this refers to the Canon law of the Roman Catholic Church, particularly priestly celibacy and Lent as promulgated by the medieval church. (see Great Apostasy)

  • Paul wrote in Romans 13:11-12: "...our salvation is nearer now than when we first believed. The night is nearly over; the day is almost here."

Many Christian scholars believe the verses 11-14 refer to the era of salvation beginning with Christ's resurrection[102] and its coming fulfillment on the last day.[103] Thus, they think that the claim Paul makes here about salvation is a claim every Christian and not only Paul in his time can affirm.[104] Some see this verse as indicating that there are no prophesied or salvation events before the Lord comes.[105] Those holding the belief that Paul has a longer timespan in view point to its context after Romans 11, which describes the repentance of all of Israel in future.[105] They also point to Paul's plan to visit Rome and more wester places in Romans 15 as indicating that he did not believe Christ's return would be soon enough to simply wait for it.[105]

Other New Testament books[sunting | sunting sumber]

Revelation[sunting | sunting sumber]

The word "soon" (other translations use "shortly" or "quickly") does not have to be understood in the sense of close future. The Norwegian scholar Thorleif Boman explained that the Israelites, unlike Europeans or people in the West, did not understand time as something measurable or calculable according to Hebrew thinking but as something qualitative:

We have examined the ideas underlying the expression of calculable time and more than once have found that the Israelites understood time as something qualitative, because for them time is determined by its content. [109]

...the Semitic concept of time is closely coincident with that of its content without which time would be quite impossible. The quantity of duration completely recedes behind the characteristic feature that enters with time or advances in it. Johannes Pedersen comes to the same conclusion when he distinguishes sharply between the Semitic understanding of time and ours. According to him, time is for us an abstraction since we distinguish time from the events that occur in time. The ancient Semites did not do this; for them time is determined by its content.[110]

In this way, the use of "soon" may mean this will be the next significant event which will take place with certainty.[111]

Messianic prophecies in Judaism[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Jewish messianism

The following are the scriptural requirements in Judaism concerning the Messiah, his actions, and his reign. Jewish sources insist that the Messiah will fulfill the prophecies outright. Some Christians maintain that some of these prophecies are associated with a putative second coming while Jewish scholars state there is no concept of a second coming in the Hebrew Bible.

  • The Sanhedrin will be re-established. (Isaiah 1:26)[112]
  • Once he is King, leaders of other nations will look to him for guidance. (Isaiah 2:4)[112]
  • The whole world will worship the One God of Israel. (Isaiah 2:17) [112][113]
  • Jews will return to full Torah observance and practice it.[112]
  • He will be descended from King David. (Isaiah 11:1) via Solomon (1 Chron. 22:8-10)[114]
  • The Messiah will be a man of this world, an observant Jew with "fear of God". (Isaiah 11:2)[112]
  • Evil and tyranny will not be able to stand before his leadership. (Isaiah 11:4)[112]
  • Knowledge of God will fill the world. (Isaiah 11:9)[112]
  • He will include and attract people from all cultures and nations. (Isaiah 11:10)[112]
  • All Israelites will be returned to the Land of Israel. (Isaiah 11:12)[112]
  • Death will be swallowed up forever. There will be no more hunger or illness, and death will cease. (Isaiah 25:8) [112]
  • All of the dead will rise again. According to the Zohar this will happen forty years after the arrival of the Messiah. (Isaiah 26:19) [112]
  • The Jewish people will experience eternal joy and gladness. (Isaiah 51:11)[112]
  • He will be a messenger of peace. (Isaiah 52:7) [112]
  • Nations will end up recognizing the wrongs they did to Israel. (Isaiah 52:13-53:5)[112]
  • The peoples of the world will turn to the Jews for spiritual guidance. (Zechariah 8:23)[112]
  • The ruined cities of Israel will be restored. (Ezekiel 16:55)[112]
  • Weapons of war will be destroyed. (Ezekiel 39:9) [112]
  • The Temple will be rebuilt. (Ezekiel 40) resuming many of the suspended 613 commandments.[112]
  • He will rebuild the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. (Micah 4:1)[113][114]
  • He will gather the Jewish people from exile and return them to Israel. (Isaiah 11:12, 27:12-13)[114]
  • He will bring world peace. (Isaiah 2:4, Isaiah 11:6, Micah 4:3)[113][114]
  • He will influence the entire world to acknowledge and serve one God. (Isaiah 11:9, Isaiah 40:5, Zephaniah 3:9) [114]
  • He will then perfect the entire world to serve God together. (Zephaniah 3:9) [112]
  • He will give you all the worthy desires of your heart. (Psalms 37:4) [112]
  • He will take the barren land and make it abundant and fruitful. (Isaiah 51:3, Amos 9:13-15, Ezekiel 36:29-30, Isaiah 11:6-9)[112]

Jesus[sunting | sunting sumber]

While Christians have cited the following as prophecies referencing the life, status, and legacy of Jesus, Jewish scholars maintain that these passages are not messianic prophecies and are based on mistranslations/misunderstanding of the Hebrew texts.

  • Deuteronomy 18:18
  • Isaiah 7:14 - Matthew 1:22-23 states "The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and they will call him Immanuel" — which means, "God with us". However the Jewish translation of that passage reads "Behold, the young woman is with child and will bear a son and she will call his name Immanuel."[114] Isaiah chapter 7 speaks of a prophecy made to the Jewish King Ahaz to allay his fears of two invading kings (those of Damascus and of Samaria) who were preparing to invade Jerusalem, about 600 years before Jesus’ birth. Isaiah 7:16: "For before the boy will know enough to refuse evil and choose good, the land whose two kings you dread will be forsaken."
  • Isaiah 53 - According to the Bible commentator Rashi, the suffering servant described in Isaiah chapter 53 is actually the Jewish people; sometimes Isaiah mentions groups of people as if they were one person.
  • Isaiah 9:1-2 - In Isaiah, the passage describes how Assyrian invaders are increasingly aggressive as they progress toward the sea, while Matthew 4:13-15 has re-interpreted the description as a prophecy stating that Jesus would progress (without any hint of becoming more aggressive) toward Galilee. While Matthew uses the Septuagint rendering of Isaiah, in the Masoretic text it refers to the region of the gentiles rather than Galilee of the nations.
  • Daniel 9:24-27 - King James Version puts a definite article before "Messiah the Prince". (Daniel 9:25) The original Hebrew text does not read "the Messiah the Prince," but, having no article, it is to be rendered "a mashiach, a prince". The word mashiach["anointed one," "messiah"] is nowhere used in the Jewish Scriptures as a proper name, but as a title of authority of a king or a high priest. Therefore, a correct rendering of the original Hebrew should be: "an anointed one, a prince." [115]
  • Hosea 11:1 - Matthew 2:14 states, "So he got up, took the child and his mother during the night and left for Egypt, where he stayed until the death of Herod. And so was fulfilled what the Lord had said through the prophet: 'Out of Egypt I called my son.'" However, that passage reads, "When Israel was a child, I loved him, and out of Egypt I called my son."
  • Psalm 22:16 - The NIV renders this verse as "they have pierced my hands and my feet", based on the Septuagint. However, there is some controversy over this translation, since the Hebrew Masoretic Text reads כארי ידי ורגלי ("like a lion my hands and my feet").[116]
  • Psalm 16:10
  • Psalm 34:20
  • Psalm 69:21
  • Isaiah 9:6 - The verse reads: "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace."
  • Psalm 110:1 - Matthew 22:44 states "The Lord said to my Lord: Sit at my right hand until I put your enemies under your feet." Although Hebrew has no capital letters, the Hebrew translation of that passage reads "The Lord said to my lord" indicating that it is not speaking of God.[117]
  • Micah 5:2 - Matthew 2:6 quotes this prophesy as fulfillment of the prophesy: "But you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, are by no means least among the rulers of Judah; for out of you will come a ruler who will be the shepherd of my people Israel." The verse in the Old Testament reads "But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are small among the clans of Judah, out of you will come for me one who will be ruler over Israel, whose origins are from of old, from ancient times." It describes the clan of Bethlehem , who was the son of Caleb's second wife, Ephrathah. (1 Chr.2:18, 2:50-52, 4:4)
  • Zechariah 9:9 - The Gospel of Matthew describes Jesus' triumphant entry on Palm Sunday as a fulfillment of this verse in Zechariah. Matthew describes the prophecy in terms of a colt and a separate donkey, whereas the original only mentions the colt. Matthew 21:1-5 reads:
Saying unto them, Go into the village over against you, and straightway ye shall find an ass tied, and a colt with her: loose them, and bring them unto me. All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass

. The Hebrew translation of the prophecy reads:

Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Zion!/Shout, Daughter of Jerusalem/See, your king comes to you/righteous and having salvation/gentle and riding on a donkey/on a colt, the foal of a donkey.

The gospels of Mark, Luke, and John state Jesus sent his disciples after only one animal. (Mark 11:1-7, Luke 19:30-35, John 12: 14-15) Critics claim this is a contradiction with some mocking the idea of Jesus riding two animals at the same time. A response is that the text allows for Jesus to have ridden on a colt that was accompanied by a donkey, perhaps its mother.[118]

  • - Matthew 2:17-18 gives the killing of innocents by Herod as the fulfillment of a prophecy in Jeremiah 31:15-23: "A voice is heard in Ramah, weeping and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children and refusing to be comforted because they are no more. (The phrase "because her children are no more" refers to the captivity of Rachel's children. The subsequent verses describe their return to Israel.)
  • II Samuel 7:14 - Hebrews 1:5 quotes this verse as, "I will be his Father, and he will be my Son.". The Old Testament verse is referring to Solomon.[114][119]

Muhammad[sunting | sunting sumber]

Laluan ini telah diterjemahkan oleh para cendekiawan Bible sebagai rujukan kenabian pada Muhammad.

  • Genesis 21:13,18 - Tuhan berjanji akan memberikan Nabi Ismail a.s. sebuah negara yang hebat. Nabi Ismail adalah saudara sebapa kepada Ishak, bapa orang Yahudi. Nabi Ismael adalah datuk moyang Muhammad, dan, menurut tradisi, adalah datuk moyang orang Arab.[120]
  • Deuteronomy 18:18 and 33:1-2 - Tuhan berjanji untuk menaikkan seorang nabi yang akan menjadi kalangan saudara kepada orang Yahudi dan seperti Musa. PAra cendekiawan Islam menterjemahkan "saudara" sebagai suatu rujukan pada Ishmaelites, datuk moyang Muhammad. [120]. Umat Islam berfikir bahawa Nabi Muhammad mencerminkan Nabi Musa sebagai seorang bapa yang sudah berkahwin; panglima; pemberi undang-undang; yang dipaksa untuk berhijrah; dan dibesarkan oleh orang yang bukan ibu bapa sedarah. [121].
  • Habakkuk 3:3 - Kehijrahan Muhammad dari Mekah ke Madinah.[120] Sejak menurut dengan Genesis 21:21 tasnah gersang Paan adalah tempatnya di mana Nabi Ismail menetap (iaitu Semenanjung Arab, khususnya Mekah).[122]
  • Song of Solomon 5:16 - Nama "Mahammadim", dijamakkan dengan "im" untuk hormat, diramalkan dalam sebutan bahasa Ibrani[123]. Sesetengah umat Kristian suatu ramalan untuk Nabi Isa[124]
  • Isaiah 21:13-17 - Arabia adalah tanah yang dijanjikan [120][123]
  • Isaiah 29:12 selaras engan cara Muhammad pertama kali menerima wahyunya dari malaikat Jibril[125]
  • John 1:19-25[126] telah menyebabkan Nabi Yahya ditanya jika dia adalah "Nabi pilihan" selepas menyangkal dia adalah Masihi atau Elijah. Sarjana Islam Ahmed Deedat berkata ini adalah suatu ramalan Muhammad.[120][127]
  • John 14:16, 15:26, 16:7 dan John 18:36[128] - Ayat-ayat ini menjelaskan seorang Paraclete atau penawar hati. John 14:26[129], mengenalinya sebagai Roh Kudus, namun cendekiawan Islam bersangsi makna disebalik istilah itu.[120][120][130]
  • John 16:12-14 - Penawar hati akan membawa ajaran yang lengkap[123]
  • Matthew 21:42-44 - Batu ditolak menurut dengan kefahaman Islam pada laluan ini adalah negara keturunan Ismail yang telah berjaya terhadap semua kuasa besar pada zamannya. "Kerajaan Tuhan akan diambil dari kamu, dan diberikan kepada sebuah negara membawa hadap buah-buahan dari itu. Dan sesiapa yang jatuh pada batu ini akan patah: tetapi pada sesiapa yang ia akan jatuh, ia akan mengisarnya ke serbuk."[120]
  • Acts 3:20-22 - Muhammad mendatang sebelum kemunculan kedua Nabi Isa[123]

Literalisme vs. skeptikisme[sunting | sunting sumber]

Biblical prophecy is believed to be literally true by a number of conservative Christians[nyatakan menurut siapa?]. Interpreters uphold this principle by providing details of prophecies that have been fulfilled[petikan diperlukan]. In this view it is usually maintained that no Bible prophecy has ever failed, or ever will[petikan diperlukan]. It is therefore up to the interpreter to find a meaning in the words that is true. They[nyatakan menurut siapa?] also dispute the legitimacy of non-biblical prophets and psychics.[131] Professor Peter Stoner and Dr. Hawley O. Taylor, for example, believed the Bible prophecies were too remarkable and detailed to occur by chance.[petikan diperlukan] Arthur C. Custance maintained that the Ezekiel Tyre prophecy (Ezek. 26: 1-11; 29:17-20) was remarkable.[petikan diperlukan]

These interpretive issues are related to the more general idea of how passages should be read or interpreted - a concept known as Biblical hermeneutics. Bible prophecy is an area which is often discussed in regard to Christian apologetics. Traditional Jewish readings of the Bible do not generally reflect the same attention to the details of prophecies. Maimonides stated that Moses was the greatest of the prophets and only he experienced direct revelation.[132] Concern with Moses' revelation involves law and ethical teaching more than predictive prophecy. According to Maimonides' Guide for the Perplexed the prophets used metaphors and analogies and, except for Moses, their words are not to be taken literally.

According to the Talmud, prophecy ceased in Israel following the rebuilding of the second temple. Nonetheless Maimonides held that a prophet can be identified if his or her predictions come true. Some Orthodox Jews believe that a future prophet, perhaps a returned Elijah, will identify the future Messiah, the correct location of the Holy of Holies, and other matters essential for the restoration of Jewish worship.[petikan diperlukan]

Many academic scholars and historians who read the Bible today maintain that it contains no accurate predictions of any past or future events. Transcribers of the scriptures may have inserted prophecies or attributed work that was written much later to earlier authors. The neo-Platonist Porphyry of Tyros argued, for example, that the eleventh chapter of Daniel was written around 165 B.C. rather than at the time of the Babylonian exile period of 6th century B.C. when the book was purported to have been written (a view now shared by many modern scholars: see Book of Daniel). Gustave Holscher maintained that certain passages of the Book of Ezekiel were not written by a pre-Exilic prophet of Israel but were later added in the Persian period. In other cases readers of the Bible create what they see as "prophecy", a tendency known as postdiction. In the last century this view has been accepted by some more liberal theologians. Some have maintained that prophetic verses are ambiguous enough to allow flexibility of interpretation. Others say that there are prophecies which were not or could not be fulfilled within time frames which have already expired.

Masa hadapan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Akhir zaman[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Akhir zaman

Among most Christian denominations, the prophecy that Jesus will return to Earth (see second coming) is a major doctrine, which can be seen by its inclusion in the Nicene Creed. Many specific timeframes for this prediction have been declared by individuals and groups, although many of these dates have expired without the occurrences predicted.[133] An official statement of the Vatican, issued in 1993, asserted, "we are already in the last hour".[134]

Biblical references claimed to prophecy the end times include:[petikan diperlukan]

  • Isaiah 2:2-3 The Old Testament prophet Isaiah prophesied that in the end times the Kingdom of God would be established in Jerusalem, as chief among the nations.
  • Hosea 3:4-5 The Old Testament prophet Hosea indicated that in the end times Israel would return to their land and seek the Lord their God.
  • Acts 2:17-20 The Apostle Peter said that in the end times, God would pour out His spirit on all people and show signs in the heaven and on the earth before the coming great and dreadful Day of the Lord.
  • 2 Timothy 3:1-5 The Apostle Paul wrote that there would be terrible times in the end times. People would have a form of godliness but denying its power.
  • Hebrews 1:2 The author of Hebrews wrote that the world was already in the end times.
  • James 5:3-5 James wrote that people would hoard wealth in the end times to their destruction.
  • 2 Peter 3:3-4 The Apostle Peter indicated that in the end times even religious people would dismiss the idea of Christ's return.

Kod bible[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Bible Code

In the 1990s, a new way to prophetically interpret the Bible was instigated. Proposed by Eliyahu Rips, it was said that words and short phrases were hidden in the Hebrew Bible as skip-letter sequences (every 30th letter, for example). The mathematical probability for several coded words which are related to occur within the same area of the Bible was calculated by Rips to be enormously greater than chance, though mathematicians with formal training in statistical analysis place this figure at 1:2. A comprehensive explanation of how this phenomenon can occur naturally was later published in 1999 by Brendan McKay et al., although the Bible code continues to be explored and debated.[135]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/prophecy?qsrc=2888
  2. http://reformedanswers.org/answer.asp/file/99791.qna/category/ot/page/questions
  3. http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/Biblebasis.html
  4. http://www.clarifyingchristianity.com/m_prophecies.shtml
  5. David E. Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World
  6. http://www.gotquestions.org/age-limit.html
  7. http://bible.cc/genesis/6-3.htm
  8. http://longevity.about.com/b/2007/10/03/jeanne-calment-worlds-longest-lived-person.htm
  9. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/29089771.html?dids=29089771:29089771&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Apr+30%2C+1998&author=Associated+Press.&pub=Chicago+Tribune&desc=CHRISTIAN+MORTENSEN%2C+115%2C+OLDEST+KNOWN+MAN+ACCORDING+TO+GUINNESS&pqatl=google
  10. See Genealogies of Genesis
  11. F.F. Bruce, Israel and the nations, Michigan, 1981, page 32.
  12. "Sidney Greidanus, ''Preaching Christ from the Old Testament'', Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1999, page 198". Books.google.co.in. Diperoleh pada 2009-04-13. 
  13. Siegfried Herrmann, A history of Israel in Old Testament times, London, 1981, SCM Press Ltd, page 155.
  14. JUDAH, KINGDOM OF, Jewish Encyclopedia Online
  15. First and Second Kings By Richard Donald Nelson
  16. The international standard Bible encyclopedia By Geoffrey W. Bromiley
  17. A Short Introduction to the Hebrew Bible By John J. Collins
  18. Major Bible Themes By Lewis Sperry Chafer, John F. Walvoord
  19. Richards, L. O. (1991; Published in electronic form by Logos Research Systems, 1996). The Bible readers companion (electronic ed.) (468). Wheaton: Victor Books.
  20. Henry, M. (1996, c1991). Matthew Henry's commentary on the whole Bible : Complete and unabridged in one volume (Je 33:17). Peabody: Hendrickson.
  21. Smith, J. E. (1992). The Major Prophets (Je 33:14-26). Joplin, Mo.: College Press.
  22. Walvoord, J. F., Zuck, R. B., & Dallas Theological Seminary. (1983-c1985). The Bible knowledge commentary : An exposition of the scriptures (1:1176). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.
  23. Siegfried Herrmann, A history of Israel in Old Testament times, London, 1981, SCM Press Ltd, page 284.
  24. F.F. Bruce, Israel and the nations, Michigan, 1981, page 84.
  25. F.F. Bruce, Israel and the nations, Michigan, 1981, pages 62-67.
  26. New Jerusalem Bible, Standard Edition published 1985, introductions and notes are a translation of those which appear in La Bible de Jerusalem - revised edition 1973, Bombay 2002; footnote to Isaiah 21:1.
  27. F.F. Bruce, Israel and the nations, Michigan, 1981, page 96.
  28. 28.0 28.1 New Jerusalem Bible, Standard Edition published 1985, introductions and notes are a translation of those which appear in La Bible de Jerusalem - revised edition 1973, Bombay 2002; footnote to Isaiah 17:1.
  29. Gary V. Smith, Isaiah 1-39, B&H Publishing Group, 2007, pages 360-363
  30. John N. Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah, Chapters 1-39, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1986, pages 375-381
  31. The Persian Empire: a corpus of sources from the Achaemenid period, By Amélie Kuhrt p. 162
  32. Laato, Antti. "The composition of Isaiah 40-55." Journal of Biblical Literature 109.2 (Sum 1990): 207-228. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials. EBSCO. 22 Feb. 2009 <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0000828552&site=ehost-live>
  33. Paul D. Hanson, Isaiah 40-66, Westminster John Knox Press, 1995, page 99
  34. Abraham Malamat, Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, page 166
  35. John Goldingay, David Payne, A critical and exegetical commentary on Isaiah 40-55, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2007, page 18
  36. John Oswalt, The book of Isaiah, Wm.B.Eerdmans Publishing, 1998, page 196
  37. New Jerusalem Bible, Standard Edition published 1985, introductions and notes are a translation of those which appear in La Bible de Jerusalem - revised edition 1973, Bombay 2002; footnote to Isaiah 45:1-7.
  38. Jehoiakim in Harper Collins' Bible Dictionary
  39. Harbin, Michael A. (2005). The Promise and the Blessing. Grand Rapids: Zondervin. ms. 308–309. ISBN 0-310-24037-2 Check |isbn= value (bantuan). 
  40. 40.0 40.1 Harbin, Michael A. (2005). The Promise and the Blessing. Grand Rapids: Zondervin. ms. 309. ISBN 0-310-24037-2 Check |isbn= value (bantuan). 
  41. Harbin, Michael A. (2005). The Promise and the Blessing. Grand Rapids: Zondervin. ms. 313. ISBN 0-310-24037-2 Check |isbn= value (bantuan). 
  42. New Jerusalem Bible, Standard Edition published 1985, introductions and notes are a translation of those which appear in La Bible de Jerusalem - revised edition 1973, Bombay 2002; footnote to Jeremiah 25:11.
  43. The Wycliffe Bible Commentary: Old Testament
  44. The Bible Reader's Companion
  45. Jeremiah 51:11 in The Pulpit Commentary: Jeremiah (Vol. II)
  46. 46.0 46.1 Unesco intends to put the magic back in Babylon - International Herald Tribune
  47. Monuments to Self | Metropolis Magazine | June 1999
  48. Lorenzi, Rossella (May 21, 2007). Sandbar Aided Alexander the Great. Discovery News. 
  49. Encyclopedia Britannica 43/xxii 452
  50. 50.0 50.1 http://history.boisestate.edu/westciv/alexander/07.shtml
  51. http://joseph_berrigan.tripod.com/ancientbabylon/id34.html
  52. "The city did not lie in ruins long. Colonists were imported and citizens who had escaped returned. The energy of these with the advantage of the site, in a few years raised the city to wealth and leadership again" (The History of Tyre, Wallace B. Fleming, Columbia University Press: New York, 1915, p. 64
  53. 126 B.C. - events and references
  54. http://www.archive.org/details/ageneralhistory00myergoog
  55. Phillip Myers, General History for Colleges and High Schools, Boston, Ginn & Co., 2003, p.49.
  56. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/08/photogalleries/lebanon/photo3.html
  57. Katzenstein, H.J., The History of Tyre, 1973, p.9
  58. Tyre City, Lebanon
  59. Lebanon - City Population
  60. Ezekiel 29:15
  61. http://www.windowoncyprus.com/history_of_cyprus.htm
  62. http://www.boccf.org/main/default.aspx?tabID=46&itemID=113&mid=365
  63. "Egypt - MSN Encarta". Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 2009-10-31. 
  64. "Ptolemaic Dynasty - MSN Encarta". Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 2009-10-31. 
  65. Gustav Hoelscher, "Hesekiel: Der Dicter und das Buch,"BZAW 39 (1924).
  66. Alan B. Lloyd, 'The Late Period' in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (ed. Ian Shaw), Oxford Univ. Press 2002 paperback, pp.381-82
  67. Herodotus, (II, 177, 1)
  68. Alan B. Lloyd, 'The Late Period' in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (ed. Ian Shaw), Oxford Univ. Press 2002 paperback, pp.383
  69. Zechariah 9:8
  70. Robertson, A. (1997). Word Pictures in the New Testament. Vol.V c1932, Vol.VI c1933 by Sunday School Board of the Southern Baptist Convention. (Mt 10:23). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems.
  71. Theodor Zahn, F.F. Bruce, J. Barton Payne, etc. hold this opinion - What is the meaning of Matthew 10:23?
  72. Pfeiffer, C. F., & Harrison, E. F. (1962). The Wycliffe Bible commentary : New Testament (Mt 10:16). Chicago: Moody Press.
  73. http://bible.cc/matthew/12-40.htm
  74. Robertson, A. (1997). Word Pictures in the New Testament. Vol.V c1932, Vol.VI c1933 by Sunday School Board of the Southern Baptist Convention. (Mt 16:28). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems.
  75. Dr. Knox Chamblin, Professor of New Testament Emeritus, Columbia Theological Seminary: Commentary on Matthew 16:21-28 - see last 4 paragraphs
  76. Blomberg, C. (2001, c1992). Vol. 22: Matthew (electronic ed.). Logos Library System; The New American Commentary (261). Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers.
  77. Walvoord, J. F., Zuck, R. B., & Dallas Theological Seminary. (1983-c1985). The Bible knowledge commentary : An exposition of the scriptures (2:59). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.
  78. Pfeiffer, C. F., & Harrison, E. F. (1962). The Wycliffe Bible commentary : New Testament (Mt 16:28). Chicago: Moody Press.
  79. Online Interlinear New Testament in Greek - Matthew 26
  80. New Jerusalem Bible, Standard Edition published 1985, introductions and notes are a translation of those which appear in La Bible de Jerusalem - revised edition 1973, Bombay 2002; footnote to Mark 14:68
  81. Papias, quoted in Eusebius History of the Church, trans. G.A. Williamson (London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1965). 3.39.15 / pp. 103–4.
  82. John A.T., Robinson, Redating the New Testament, London, 1976, page 20, "it was the temple that perished by fire while the walls of the city were thrown down"
  83. Jos Wars vii. 1.
  84. Pfeiffer, C. F., & Harrison, E. F. (1962). The Wycliffe Bible commentary : New Testament (Mt 24:2). Chicago: Moody Press.
  85. Carson, D. A. (1994). New Bible commentary : 21st century edition. Rev. ed. of: The new Bible commentary. 3rd ed. / edited by D. Guthrie, J.A. Motyer. 1970. (4th ed.) (Mt 24:2). Leicester, England; Downers Grove, Ill., USA: Inter-Varsity Press. "But Jesus’ prophecy of not one stone left on another was to be literally fulfilled; all that survived the Roman assault was part of the platform on which they were built (including the ‘Wailing Wall’)."
  86. Keener, C. S., & InterVarsity Press. (1993). The IVP Bible background commentary : New Testament (Mt 24:2). Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press.
  87. 87.0 87.1 Pfeiffer, C. F., & Harrison, E. F. (1962). The Wycliffe Bible commentary : New Testament (Mt 24:7-8). Chicago: Moody Press.
  88. 88.0 88.1 Wiersbe, W. W. (1997, c1992). Wiersbe's expository outlines on the New Testament (88). Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books.
  89. http://www.lookinguntojesus.net/ata20020113.htm
  90. http://www.lookinguntojesus.net/ata20040118.htm
  91. Steve Moyise, M.J.J.Menken, Isaiah in the New Testament, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005, page 37
  92. James R. Edwards, The Gospel according to Mark, Wm.B.Eerdmans Publishing, 2002, page 27
  93. R.T.France, The Gospel of Mark: A Commentary on the Greek Text, Wm.B.Eerdmans Publishing, 2002, page 63
  94. New Jerusalem Bible, Standard Edition published 1985, introductions and notes are a translation of those which appear in La Bible de Jerusalem - revised edition 1973, Bombay 2002; footnote to 1 Thessalonians 4:15: "Paul includes himself among those who will be present at the parousia: more by aspiration, however, than by conviction."
  95. Witherington, III, The Paul Quest, InterVarsity Press, 2001, pages 141-142
  96. Herman N. Ridderbos, Paul: an outline of his theology, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1997, pages 520-521
  97. T. L. Frazier, A Second Look at the Second Coming, Conciliar Press Ministries, Inc., 2005, pages 141-142
  98. Gregory K. Beale, 1-2 Thessalonians, InterVarsity Press, 2003, pages 207-211
  99. Homily 12 on First Timothy
  100. English (Douay-Rheims)
  101. Exposition of the Entire Bible
  102. J. R. Daniel Kirk, Unlocking Romans, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2008, page 198
  103. New Jerusalem Bible, Standard Edition published 1985, introductions and notes are a translation of those which appear in La Bible de Jerusalem—revised edition 1973, Bombay 2002; footnote to Romans 13:11.
  104. David Lyon Bartlett, Romans, Westminster John Knox Press, 1995, page 120
  105. 105.0 105.1 105.2 Ben Witherington, III, The Paul Quest, InterVarsity Press, 2001, page 140
  106. Harbin, Michael A. (2005). The Promise and the Blessing. Grand Rapids: Zondervin. ms. 569. ISBN 0-310-24037-2 Check |isbn= value (bantuan). 
  107. cf. comparison of texts in Charles, R.H. Book of Enoch with the Greek Fragments, London 1904
  108. Nickelsburg, George W.E., 1 Enoch, Hermeneia
  109. Thorleif Boman, Hebrew Thought compared with Greek, W.W.Norton & Company, New York - London, 1970, page 137
  110. Thorleif Boman, Hebrew Thought compared with Greek, W.W.Norton & Company, New York - London, 1970, page 139
  111. "Commentary on Revelation, Ethelbert William Bullinger, comment to Revelation 22:12". Ccel.org. 2005-06-01. Diperoleh pada 2009-04-13. 
  112. 112.00 112.01 112.02 112.03 112.04 112.05 112.06 112.07 112.08 112.09 112.10 112.11 112.12 112.13 112.14 112.15 112.16 112.17 112.18 112.19 112.20 Jewish Messiah, Moshiach/Mashiach - What is the Jewish Belief About ‘The End of Days’?
  113. 113.0 113.1 113.2 Messiah Truth: A Jewish Response to Missionary Groups
  114. 114.0 114.1 114.2 114.3 114.4 114.5 114.6 http://www.jewsforjudaism.org/web/pdf/EnglishHandbook.pdf English Handbook Page 34
  115. Jews for Judaism FAQ
  116. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Psalm%2022:16&version=31
  117. Outreach Judaism - responds directly to the issues raised by missionaries and cults. Responds to Jews For Jesus
  118. Harbin, Michael A. (2005). The Promise and the Blessing. Grand Rapids: Zondervin. ms. 415+636. ISBN 0-310-24037-2 Check |isbn= value (bantuan). 
  119. 1 Chronicles 22:9-10
  120. 120.0 120.1 120.2 120.3 120.4 120.5 120.6 120.7 Muhammad In The Bible
  121. A Prophet Like Unto Moses
  122. http://www.quransearch.com/paran.htm
  123. 123.0 123.1 123.2 123.3 Hazrat Muhammad SAW In The Bible
  124. song.solomon - Chapter 5
  125. Prophet MUHAMMAD
  126. BibleGateway.com - Passage Lookup: John 1:19-25
  127. YouTube - Islam And Christianity - Ahmed Deedat VS Van Rooy (12/17)
  128. BibleGateway.com - Passage Lookup: John 14:16, 15:26, 16:7, 18:36
  129. BibleGateway.com - Passage Lookup: John 14:26
  130. YouTube - Muhammed in the bible - Ahmed Deedat 4 of 11
  131. "Nostradamus (from Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics, Baker Book House, 1999)". John Ankerberg. 1999. Diperoleh pada 2007-11-08. 
  132. "Moses was superior to all prophets, whether they preceded him or arose afterwards. Moses attained the highest possible human level. He perceived God to a degree surpassing every human that ever existed....God spoke to all other prophets through an intermediary. Moses alone did not need this; this is what the Torah means when God says "Mouth to mouth, I will speak to him." Maimonides' Principles: The Fundamentals of Jewish Faith, in "The Aryeh Kaplan Anthology, Volume I", Mesorah Publications 1994
  133. see Timeline of unfulfilled Christian Prophecy
  134. "Catechism of the Catholic Church, Christ already reigns through the Church, statement 670)". The Vatican. 1993. Diperoleh pada 2007-11-08. 
  135. "Statistical Science publishes Bible Codes Refutation". Australian National University. 1999. Diperoleh pada 2007-11-08. 
  • D. Witztum, E. Rips and Y. Rosenberg, "Equidistant letter sequences in the Book of Genesis", Statistical Science, 9 (1994) 429-438
  • B. McKay, D. Bar-Natan, M. Bar-Hillel, G. Kalai, "Solving the Bible Code Puzzle", Statistical Science, 9 (1999) 150-173
  • Jeffrey, Grant R., Armageddon:Appointment With Destiny, Bantam (1988)

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Amerding, Carl E., and W. Ward Gasque, Handbook of Biblical Prophecy, Grand Rapids, Baker, 1977.
  • Boyer, Paul, When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1992.
  • Cross, F. L., and E. A. Livingstone, eds., The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, "Prophecy," pp. 1132-1133, 2nd ed. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1974.
  • Russell, D. S., Prophecy and the Apocalyptic Dream, Peabury, Mass., Hendrickson, 1994.
  • Stoner, Peter, Science Speaks, Chapter 2: Prophetic Accuracy, Chicago, Moody Press, 1963. (online version available)
  • Taylor, Hawley O., "Mathematics and Prophecy," Modern Science and Christian Faith, Wheaton,: Van Kampen, 1948, pp. 175–183.
  • Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia, (Prophecy, p. 1410, Book of Ezekiel, p. 580), Chicago, Moody Bible Press, 1986.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Books of the Bible