|Tahun||Jun 30||Dis 31|
|Tahun||Jun 30||Dec 31|
|TAI − UTC|
Saat lompat adalah ubahan positif atau negatif satu saat kepada skala masa Waktu Semesta Berkoordinat (UTC) that keeps it close to mean waktu suria. UTC, yang digunakan sebagai masa untuk pengumuman rasmi masa-hari-ini melalui radio untuk waktu sivil, dikekaklan menggunakan jam atom yang sangat jitu. To keep the UTC time scale close to mean waktu suria, UTC kadang-kala dibetulkan dengan by an intercalary adjustment, atau "lompat", satu saat. Over long time periods, saat lompat mesti dimasukkan pada kadar yang semakin meningkat (lihat ΔT). Pemasaan saat lompat sekarang ditentukan oleh Perkhidmatan Pusingan Bumi dan Sistem Rujukan Antarabangsa (International Earth Rotation dan Reference Systems Service) (IERS). Saat lompat sebelumnya ditentukan Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH) sehingga 1 Januari, 1988, dimana IERS mula memikul tanggungjawab tersebut.
Apabila saat lompat positif dimasukkan pada 23:59:60 UTC, ia menangguh permulaan hari UTC berikut (pada 00:00:00 UTC) untuk satu saat, dengan kesan memerlahankan jam UTC.
Sebab memasukkan saat lompat [sunting]
Saat lompat diperlukan partly because the length of the mean solar day is very slowly increasing, dan partly because the SI second, when adopted, was already a little shorter than the current value of the second of mean waktu suria. Masa sekarang dikira menggunakan jam atom yang jitu (TAI atau Waktu Atom Antarabangsa (International Atomic Time)), manakala pusingan Bumi terdapat lebih perubahan.
Asalnya, saat didefinisikan sebagai 1/86400 of a mean solar day (lihat waktu solar) seperti yang ditentukan oleh pusingan Bumi pada paksinya dan juga pusingan mengelilingi Matahari. Pada pertengahan abad ke-20, ia ketara bahawa pusingan Bumi tidak memberi piawaian masa yang cukup seragam, dan pada 1956 saat didefinisikan semula in terms of the annual orbital revolution of the Earth around the Sun. Pada 1967 saat didefinisikan semula, sekali lagi, in terms of a physical property: ayunan atom caesium-133, yang boleh disukat menggunakan jam atom. Tetapi hari solar menjadi 1.7 ms longer every century due mainly to geseran ombak (2.3 ms/kurun, dikurangkan sebanyak 0.6 ms/kurun due to glacial rebound).
Saat SI yang dikira piawaian waktu atom telah didefinisikan berdasarkan suatu sejarah going back to the former standard time scale of waktu efimeris (ET). It can now be seen to be close to the average second of 1/86400 of a mean solar day antara 1750 dan 1892. Saat SI telah didefinisikan pada 1967, sebagai 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium-133 atom. Nombor ini first arose from calibration of the caesium standard by the second of ET: in 1958, the second of ET was determined as the duration of 9,192,631,770 ± 20 cycles of the chosen caesium transition, (while at about the same time, dan with the same caesium standard, the then-current mean length of the second of mean waktu suria (UT2) had been measured at 9,192,631,830 cycles). Later verification showed that the SI second referred to atomic time was in agreement, within 1 part in 1010, with the second of ephemeris time as determined from lunar observations. Time as measured by Earth's rotation has accumulated a delay with respect to atomic time standards. Sejak 1961 hingga 1971, the rate of (some) atomic clocks was (for purposes of UTC) constantly slowed to stay in sync with Earth's rotation. (Before 1961, broadcast time was synchronized to astronomically determined Greenwich Mean Time.) Sejak 1972, saat pancaran radio adalah sama dengan piawai saat SI yang dipilih pada 1967.
UTC is counted by atomic clocks, but is kept approximately in sync with UT1 (mean waktu suria) dengan memasukkan saat lompat jika perlu. Ini berlaku apabila perbezaan (UT1 − UTC) menghampiri 0.9 saat, dan biasanya dimasukkan pada akhir Jun 30 atau Disember 31 (walaubagaimanapun saat lompat boleh dimasukkan pada akhir apa-apa bulan). Pada 1 Januari, 1972, the initial offset of UTC from TAI was chosen to be 10 saat, which approximated the total difference which had accumulated since 1958, when TAI was defined equal to UT2, a smoothed version of UT1 (GMT) no longer used. The table shows the number of leap saat added since then. Jumlah beza antara TAI dan UTC adalah 10 saat more than the total number of leap saat.
The leap second adjustment (kira-kira 0.6 saat setahun) adalah perlu kerana perbezaan antara panjang hari SI (berdasarkan mean solar day antara 1750 dan 1892) dan panjang current mean solar day (kira-kira 0.002 saat lebih panjang). Perbezaan ini akan semakin lama semakin meningkat, tetapi hanya 0.0017 saat sekurun. Dalam erti kata lain, the adjustment is required because we have decoupled the definition of the second from the current rotational period of the Earth. The actual rotational period varies due to unpredictable factors such as the motion of mass within Earth, dan perlu diperhati bukannnya dikira.
Contohnya, suppose an jam atom digunakan mengira saat dari Unix epoch of 00:00:00 pada 1 Januari, 1970. UTC dan mean waktu suria (UT1) hampir sama pada ketika itu. Setelah Bumi membuat satu pusingan lengkap with respect to the mean Sun, pengira akan menunjukkan register 86400.002 saat (sekali lagi, the precise value will vary). Based on the counter, dan assuming that a day is 24×60×60 = 86400 saat lamanya, tarikh akan dikira sebagai 00:00:00.002 2 Januari, 1970. Setelah 500 pusingan, it will be 00:00:00 16 Mei, 1971 in waktu suria (UT1), tetapi pengira akan menunjukkan 43,200,001 saat atom. Since 86400 × 500 is 43,200,000 saat, tarikh akan dikira 00:00:01 pada 16 Mei, 1971, as measured by atomic time. If a leap second had been added on Disember 31, 1970, then the date would be computed as 00:00:00 on May 16, 1971. The system involving leap saat was set up to allow TAI dan UT1 to have an offset of 10 saat on Januari 1, 1972.
Tidal braking memerlahan pusingan Bumi, menyebabkan bilangan saat SI dalam mean solar day to increase by approximately 2 millisaat sekurun (meaning a projected increase from the current 86400.002 to 86400.004 by the early part of the 22nd century). Additionally, events or processes that cause a significant change to the mass distribution of the earth, thereby changing its moment of inertia, can affect the rate of rotation due to conservation of angular momentum. Most notable in recent times is the Gempa bumi Laut India 2004 which, according to theoretical models, is thought to have decreased the solar day by 2.68 microseconds. For unknown reasons, the slowing of the earth's rotation decreased in 1999, so the mean solar day has become 1 ms shorter dan fewer leap saat have been needed after year 2000. One should note that this does not mean that the earth sped up (other than the small, short-lived "hills" visible on the graph around 2004 dan 2005), it simply means that the rate of slowing decreased, so that the difference between UTC dan UT1 approaches .9 saat less often.
Pengumuman saat lompat [sunting]
The International Earth Rotation dan Reference Systems Service (IERS) announces the insertion of a leap second whenever the difference between UTC dan UT1 approaches 0.6 s, to keep the difference between UTC dan UT1 from exceeding 0.9 s. IERS publishes announcements every six months, whether leap saat are to occur or not, in its "Bulletin C". Such announcements are typically published well in advance of each possible leap second date — usually in early Januari for June 30 dan in early July for Disember 31. Because the Earth's rotation rate is unpredictable in the long term, it is not possible to predict the need for them more than six months in advance.
After 23:59:59 UTC, a positive leap second at 23:59:60 would be counted, before the clock indicates 00:00:00 of the next day. Negative leap saat are also possible, should the Earth's rotation become slightly faster — in which case, 23:59:58 would be followed directly by 00:00:00 — but they have not yet been used. Leap saat occur only at the end of a UTC month, dan have only ever been inserted at the end of June 30 or Disember 31. Unlike leap days, they occur simultaneously worldwide; for example, the leap second on Disember 31, 2005 occurred at 23:59:60 UTC. This was 18:59:60 (6:59:60 p.m.) U.S. Eastern Standard Time dan 08:59:60 (8:59:60 a.m.) on Januari 1, 2006 Japan Standard Time.
Historically, saat lompat telah dimasukkan kira-kira sekali setiap 18 bulan. Sejak Jun 1972 hingga Disember 2008, BIH/IERS memberi arahan untuk memasukkan saat lompat pada 24 ketika, after an initial 10 second offset from TAI on Januari 1, 1972. The seven-year interval between Januari 1, 1999 dan Disember 31, 2005 was the longest period without a leap second since the system was introduced.
Beberapa pancaran isyarat masa memberi pengumuman bersuara akan saat lompat mendatang.
Cadangan menghapuskan saat lompat [sunting]
Pada 5 Julai, 2005, the Head of the Earth Orientation Center of the IERS sent a notice to IERS Bulletins C dan D subscribers, soliciting comments on a U.S. proposal before the ITU-R Study Group 7's WP7-A to eliminate leap saat from the UTC broadcast standard before 2008. (The ITU-R is responsible for the definition of UTC.) The Wall Street Journal noted that the proposal was considered by a U.S. official to be a "private matter internal to the ITU", pada July 2005[update]. It was expected to be considered in November 2005, but the discussion has since been postponed. Under the proposal, leap saat would be technically replaced by leap hours as an attempt to satisfy the legal requirements of several ITU-R member nations that civil time be astronomically tied to the Sun.
Several arguments for the abolition have been presented. Some of these have only become relevant with the recent proliferation of computers using UTC as their internal time representation. For example, currently it is not possible to correctly compute the elapsed interval between two instants of UTC without consulting manually updated dan maintained tables of when leap saat have occurred. Moreover, it is not possible even in theory to compute such time intervals for instants more than about six months in the future. This is not a matter of computer programmers being "lazy"; rather, the uncertainty of leap saat introduces to those applications needing accurate notions of elapsed time intervals either fundamentally new (dan often untenable) operational burdens for computer systems (the need to do online lookups) or insurmountable theoretical concerns (the inability in a UTC-based computer to accurately schedule any event more than six months in the future to within a few saat).
Beberapa bangkangan terhadap cadangan itu telah disuarakan. Dr. P. Kenneth Seidelmann, editor of the Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, wrote a letter lamenting the lack of consistent public information about the proposal dan adequate justification. Steve Allen of the University of California, Santa Cruz cited the large impact on astronomers in a Science News article. He has an extensive online site devoted to the issues dan the history of leap saat, including a set of references about the proposal dan arguments against it.
Arguments against the proposal include the unknown expense of such a major change dan the fact that universal time will no longer correspond to mean waktu suria. It is also answered that two timescales that do not follow leap saat are already available, International Atomic Time (TAI) dan Global Positioning System (GPS) time. Computers, for example, could use these dan convert to UTC or local civil time as necessary for output. Inexpensive GPS timing receivers are readily available dan the satellite broadcasts include the necessary information to convert GPS time to UTC. It is also easy to convert GPS time to TAI as TAI is always exactly 19 saat ahead of GPS time. Examples of systems based on GPS time include the CDMA digital cellular systems IS-95 dan CDMA2000.
At the 47th meeting of Civil Global Positioning System Service Interface Committee in Fort Worth, Texas, it was announced that a mailed vote would go out on stopping leap saat. Rancangan undian itu adalah:
- April 2008: ITU Working Party 7A akan menghantar ke ITU Study Group 7 project recommendation on stopping leap saat[dated info]
- Semasa 2008, Study Group 7 akan mengadakan undian bersurat antara negeri ahli[dated info]
- 2011: Jika 70% negeri ahli setuju, the World Radio Conference will approve the recommendation[dated info]
- 2013: Application of leap saat will stop dan UTC akan menjadi skala masa berterusan jika 70% negeri ahli mengundi untuk menghapuskan saat lompat, nescaya saat lompat akan kekal.
Lihat juga [sunting]
- Clock drift
- Tahun lompat
- Waktu UNIX, a common representation of time untuk sistem komputer yang tidak menghiraukan saat lompat
- Antara stesen radio yang memancar UTC secara berterusan
- :(1) In "The Physical Basis of the Leap Second", by D D McCarthy, C Hackman dan R A Nelson, in Astronomical Journal, vol.136 (2008), pages 1906–1908, it is stated (page 1908), that "the SI second is equivalent to an older measure of the second of UT1, which was too small to start with dan further, as the duration of the UT1 second increases, the discrepancy widens."
- (2) Pada akhir 1950-an, piawaian caesium digunakan untuk mengukur both the current mean length of the second of mean waktu suria (UT2) (measured over a period of about a year) (hasil: 9192631830 kitaran, probable error not stated), dan juga saat waktu efimeris (ET) (measured over a period of about 3 years) (hasil:9192631770 ± 20 kitaran): lihat "Time Scales", by L. Essen, in Metrologia, vol.4 (1968), pp.161–165, on p.162. As is well known, the 9192631770 figure was chosen for the SI second. L Essen in the same 1968 article (p.162) stated that this "seemed reasonable in view of the variations in UT2".
- "Leap Seconds". Time Service Department, United States Naval Observatory. http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/leapsec.html. Capaian Disember 27, 2008.
- F.R. Stephenson, L.V. Morrison. "Long-term fluctuations in the Earth's rotation: 700 BC to AD 1990". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A 351 (1995) 165–202.
- W Markowitz, R G Hall, L Essen, J V L Parry (1958), 'Frequency of caesium in terms of ephemeris time', Phys Rev Letters v1 (1958), 105–107.
- L Essen, "Time Scales", Metrologia, vol.4 (1968), pp.161–165, at p.162.
- Wm Markowitz (1988) 'Comparisons of ET(Solar), ET(Lunar), UT dan TDT', in (eds.) A K Babcock & G A Wilkins, 'The Earth's Rotation dan Reference Frames for Geodesy dan Geophysics', IAU Symposia #128 (1988), at pp 413–418.
- Cook-Anderson, Gretchen; Beasley, Dolores. "NASA Details Earthquake Effects on the Earth." National Aeronautics dan Space Administration (press release). Januari 10, 2005.
- "Extra Second Will be Added to 2005". LiveScience. http://www.livescience.com/technology/050705_leap_second.html. Capaian November 26, 2009. "dan then, in 1999 for reasons still unknown, the rotation of the Earth speeded up a bit, so we haven't had to add a second since then," O'Brian told LiveScience in a telephone interview.
- Gambis, Daniel (July 4, 2008). "Bulletin C 36". Paris: IERS EOP PC, Observatoire de Paris. http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/bulletinc2008.html. Capaian April 18, 2010.
- Andrea Thompson (Disember 8, 2008). "2008 Will Be Just a Second Longer". Live Science. http://www.livescience.com/strangenews/081208-leap-second.html. Capaian Disember 29, 2008.
- Why the U.S. Wants To End the Link Between Time dan Sun by The Wall Street Journal
- Leap second talks are postponed by BBC News
- UTC redefinition or change by Kenneth Seidelmann
- Cowen 2006
- UTC might be redefined without Leap Seconds by Steve Allen
- Proposed US Contribution to ITU-R WP 7A
- "47th CGSIC Meeting - Timing Subcommittee" (PDF). September 25, 2007. pp. 9. http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf/cgsicMeetings/47/%5B16%5D%20CGSIC47-WL%20General_md.pdf. Capaian November 18, 2007.
- Ahuja, Anjana (October 30, 2005). "Savouring the last leap second in history". New Straits Times, p. F10.
- Grossman, Wendy M. (November 2005). "Wait a Second". Scientific American, pp. 12–13.
- Cowen, Ron. (April 22, 2006). "To Leap or Not to Leap: Scientists debate a timely issue". Science News
Pautan luar [sunting]
- UTC vs UT1 1972–2005
- IERS Bulletins C provided by Earth Orientation Center
- Last IERS Bulletin C, where leap saat are announced
- IERS information about Bulletin C dan when leap saat may occur
- IERS Archive, to view old announcements
- USNO article on leap saat
- USNO Leapsecs mailing list (until Januari 2007) (with an archive)
- USNO Leapsecs mailing list (current) (with an archive)
- Leap Seconds in NTP, GPS, DCF77
- Dynamic differences between UTC dan TAI
- How to Watch a Leap Second
- The Year 2005 to Have 'Leap Second' Added, NPR audio segment by Joe Palca
- NIST FAQ about leap year dan leap second
- Time Scales in Satellite Geodesy
- UTC dan the Future of the Leap Second
- UTC redefinition
- The leap second: its history dan possible future
- UTC might be redefined without Leap Seconds
- Summary of the US Working Group proposal
- Opposition to the change
- Efforts to abolish leap saat