Sains dan teknologi di Iran

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari

Parsi adalah sebuah tempat bermulanya sains dalam zaman-zaman yang lebih terdahulu. Ahli sains Parsi menyumbang pada kefahaman alam semula jadi, perubatan, matematik dan falsafah. Orang Parsi telah membuat sumbangan penting pada algebra dan kimia, mencipta mesin kuasa angin, dan penyulingan alkohol pertama. Mencuba untuk membangkitkan zaman kegemilangan sains Parsi, ahli sains Iran secara berhati-hati mencapai ke dunia. Banyak individu ahli sains Iran, bersama dengan Akademi Sains Perubatan Iran dan Akademi Sains Iran, telah terlibat dalam pembaharuan ini.

Iran adalah contoh sebuah negara yang telah melakukan banyak kemajuan melalui pendidikan dan latihan, sungguhpun dikenakan sekatan antarabangsa dalam hampir semua aspek penyelidikan sejak beberapa dekad yang lalu. Penduduk universiti Iran bertambah dari 100,000 pada 1979 ke 2 juta pada 2006. 70 peratus dari pelajar sains dan kejuruteraannya adalah wanita.[1]

Sains di Parsi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sains di Parsi telah timbul dalam dua fasa utama dipisah oleh ketibaan dan penyebaran besar pelukan Islam di rantau ini. Banyak dari konsep hari ini dalam Sains termasuk model sistem suria Helio-Sentrik, batas kelajuan cahaya, dan graviti telah pertama dicadangkan oleh ahli sains Parsi.[perlu rujukan]

Sedikit yang diketahui tentang sains di Iran sewaktu zaman kuno. Pada zaman Sassanid (226 hingga ke 652 AM), perhatian telah diberikan pada matematik dan astronomi. Akademi Gondeshapur adalah suatu contoh. Sekolah Nisibis dan pra-Islam Sarouyeh Sassanid adalah contoh lain dalam kategori ini.

Oleh kerana nisbah jadual Astronomi—seperti Jadual Shahryar—bermula pada zaman ini, dan balai cerap Sassanid kemudian ditiru oleh ahli astrologi dan astronomi dari zaman Islam.


Sa'ad Andolsosi, dalam bukunya Pengelasan Orang, memuji ilmu matematik dan astronomi Parsi. Rujukan pada tajuk saintifik seperti sains semulajadi dan matematik bermuncul dalam buku ditulis dalam bahasa Pahlavi.

Karangan perubatan dan veterinar, preskripsi, dan penjelasan disebut dalam Dinkart (dari zaman Sassanid) adalah keminatan pada para cendikiawan kemudian dan moden. Sesetengah buku perubatan kemudian diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Arab telah pada mulanya disusun dalam bahasa Syria atau Pahlavi oleh para cendikiawan Iran. Di kalangan buku-buku seperti itu adalah pada perubatan veterinary, pertanian, penyakit dan rawatan burung gab, latihan dan pendidikan kanak-kanak, dan taktik keadaan perang.

Pada pertengahan zaman Sassanid, ilmu datang ke Parsi dari Barat dalam bentuk pandangan dan adat Greece yang, selepas penyebaran agama Kristian, menemani Bahasa Syriak, bahasa rasmi umat Kristian dan Nestor Iran. Sekolah-sekolah Kristian di Iran menghasilkan ahli sains seperti Nersi, Farhad, dan Marabai. Juga, sebuah buku ditinggalkan oleh Paulus Persa, ketua Jabatan Logik dan Falsafah Aristotle Iran, dikaang dalam bahasa Syriak dan diperintah dictated to Sassanid King Anushiravan.

Guru-guru lain telah naik dari sekolah teologi dan falsafah mirip. Di kalangan mereka adalah Ibrahim Madi, Hibai yang penterjemah, Marbab Gondishapuri, dan Paulus, anak lelaki Kaki of Karkhe. Sewaktu zaman Sassanid, Gondishapur (sebuah pekan a town east of Susa, tenggara Dezful dan barat daya Shushtar)menjadi sebuah pusat ilmu perubatan, dan kemasyhurannya tahan selama beberapa kurun, dan selepas mulanya Islam di Parsi.

Teknologi kuno di Parsi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Qanat (suatu sistem pengurusan air digunakan untuk irrigation) berasal di Parsi sewaktu pra-Achaemenid. Qanat yang tertua dan terbesar adalah di bandar Gonabad si Iran yang, selepas 2,700 tahun, masih memberikan air minuman dan pertanian ke hampir 40,000 orang.[2]

Ahli falsafah and perekacipta Parsi telah mencipta bateri pertama (kadang-kadang digelar Bateri Baghdad) sewaktu zaman Parthian atau Sassanid. Sesetengah telah bercadang bahawa bateri itu mungkin digunakan secara perubatan. Ahli sains lain mempercayai bateri-bateri itu digunakan untuk menghantarkan elektroplat suatu lapis nipis pada permukaan logam lain-suatu teknik digunakan hari ini dan fokus suatu eksperimen bilik kelas umum.[3]

Windwheels dibangunkan oleh Orang Babylon ca. 1700 SM untuk mengepam air untuk irrigasi. Pada kurun ke-7, jurutera Parsi di Afghanistan membangunkan mesin kuasa angin yang lebih maju, kincir angin, membina model asas dibangunkan oleh orang Babylon.[4][5]

Falsafah zaman Islam dipengaruhi oleh Greece, India, dan oleh Iran dari zaman sebelum Islam. Ibn Khurram mengarang dalam bukunya "al Melal wa al-Nehal" yang Muhammad Bin Zakaria Razi | (Rhazes) mengambil dari orang Iran yang kuno lima prinsip yang mana dia mempercayai:

  1. Creator- Ahuramazda
  2. Satan-Ahriman
  3. Moment-Time
  4. Place-Locality
  5. Essence-Spirit

Yang sama disebut oleh Massoudi dalam bukunya Moruj-oz-Zahab. Shahaboddin Sohrevardi, dalam prakata pada buku falsafahnya, petikan istilah dan penjelasan Iran lama berasal dari umat Majuzi, umat Mani, dan umat Zarvan.

Manuskrip Penggambaran Gugusan Bintang Firdausi Abdolrahman Sufi

Dinasti Abbasid menujukan perhatian pada sains. Kepentingan saintifik dalam halaman khalifah Baghdad dan Emir Parsi seperti Khwarazmshah, Samanid, Ziariad, dan Bowayyid dan Dialameh dari Isfahan mencapai puncaknya pada hujung kurun ke-11 dan mulanya kurun ke-12, tetapi merosot di bawah serangan Turkmen dan Mongol.

Sesetengah dari penterjemah Iran yang mengetahui Bahasa Syriak, Greek dan Pahlavi menterjemah banyak buku saintifik ke dalam bahasa Arab adalah Al Bakhtyasu, Al-Nowbakht, Al-Masouyeh, Abdollah Ibn Moqaffa, Omar Ibn Farakhan Tabari, Ali Ibn Ziad Tammimi, Ibn Sahl, Yusof Al Naqel, Isa Ibn Chaharbakht, and Yatr Ibn Rostam Al Kouhi. Yang terbaru adalah Abu Reyhan Birooni, ahli matematik dan penterjemah masyhur buku India.

Sebagai akibat orang-orang ini dan rakan Arab mereka (contohnya Thabit ibn Qurra), ilmu dan sains India, Greece, dan Alexandria kuno telah diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Arab, membuatkan perbendeharaan saintifik terbesar dari Zaman Pertengahan. Ahli matematik kuno dan pengarang di kalangan umat Islam adalah dua orang Iran: Nowbakht Ahwazi dan Ibrahim Ibn Habib-ol-fazari, dan yang keduanya juga menterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Arab suatu kutipan buku astronomi India.

Matematik[sunting | sunting sumber]


\begin{matrix}
&&&&&1\\
&&&&1&&1\\
&&&1&&2&&1\\
&&1&&3&&3&&1\\
&1&&4&&6&&4&&1
\end{matrix}

Barisan lima yang pertamanya segi tiga Khaiam-Pascal

Salah seorang ahli matematik terhebat dari antikuiti, yang bermuncul pada hujung kurun ke-9, adalah seorang Iran dengan nama Muhammad Ibn Musa-al-Kharazmi, yang karyanya mengesankan budaya Islam dan Eropah selepas kurun ke-12. Ahli matematik terkenal ini, temabahan pada susunan jadual tokoh digelar Algoritma, juga membangunkan algebra dan mempehaharukan sisem aritmetik Iran dan India. Karyanya pada algebra telah diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Latin oleh penterjemah bahasa Latin Gerard dari Cremona dan berjudul: De jebra et almucabola. Robert dari Chester juga menterjemahkannya di bawah judul Liber algebras et almucabala. Karya Khwarizmi "melatihkan suatu pengaruh penting pada pembangunan fikiran matematik di Barat pada zaman pertengahan".[6]

Matematik telah kemudian dibangunkan oleh ahli sains seperti Abu Abbas Fazl Hatam, adik-beradik lelaki Banu Musa, Farahani, Omar Ibn Farakhan, Abu Zeid Ahmad Ibn Soheil Balkhi (kurun ke-9 AM), Abul Vafa Bouzjani, Abu Jaafar Khan, Bijan Ibn Rostam Kouhi, Ahmad Ibn Abdul Jalil Qomi, Bu Nasr Iraqi, Abu Reyhan al-Biruni, penyair Iran terkenal Hakim Omar Khayyam Neishaburi, Qatan Marvazi, Massoudi Ghaznavi (kurun ke-13 AM), Khajeh Nassireddin Tusi, dan Ghiasseddin Jamshidi Kashani.

Perubatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Peurbatan Iran Kuno

Amalan kajian perubatan di Iran mempunyai suatu sejarah yang panjang dan berprofil. Terletak di persimpangan jalan Timur dan Barat, Parsi sering terlibat dalam pembangunan perubatan Greek dan India kuno; sebelum dan selepas Islam Iran telah melibat dalam perubatan juga.

Contohnya, hospital pengajaran pertama di mana para pelajar perubatan mengikut kaedah mengamalkan pada para pesakit berada di bawah penyeliaan doktor adalah Akademi Gundishapur dalam Empayar Parsi. Sesetengah pakar pergi sebanyak peringkat mendakwa bahawa: "pada peringkat yang sangat besar, penghargaan pada keseluruhan sistem hospital harus diberikan pada Parsi".[7]

Gagasan xenotransplantation bermula pada zaman Achaemenidae (dinasti Achaemeni), seperti dibukti oleh seni ukir banyak chimeras mitologi masih hadir di Persepolis.[8]

Beberapa dokuman masih wujud dari mana takrifan dan rawatan pening kepala sewaktu Parsi dapat ditentukan. Dokumen ini memberikan maklumat perincian dan klinik pada jenis-jenis berbeza pening kepala. Tulisan zaman pertengahan adala tepat dan jelas, dan mereka memberikan senarai pangjang bahan yang digunakan dalam rawatan pening kepala. Banyak dari kecapaian doktor pada zaman pertengahan Parsia dapat diterimakan hari ini; meskipun, masih dapat digunakan pada perubatan moden.[9]

In medicine, Mansour Davaniqi, the founder of Baghdad, invited scholars from Gondishapur to live in that city. Amongst them was a Nestorian Christian named Jurjis Ibn Jebreel Ibn Bakhtyasu, who wrote a book on medicine that contained all subjects on medical science known to their culture at that time. Others who migrated to Baghdad also had publications of their own. The first Muslim who wrote about medicine was another Persian, Ali Ibn Rabn Tabari, who compiled medical knowledge from Greece, India, and ancient Persia.

From: Mansur ibn Ilyas: Tashrīḥ-i badan-i insān. تشريح بدن انسان. Manuskrip, ca. 1450, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Suatu terjemahan bahasa Latin 500 tahun Qanun Perubatan oleh Avicenna.

Dalam karya kurun ke-10 Shahnameh, Ferdowsi menjelaskan suatu bahagian Caesarean dilakukan di Rudaba, sewaktu mana suatu ejen wain disediakan oleh seorang paderi Majusi dan digunakan untuk menghasilkan keadaan tidak sedar diri sewaktu operasi.[10] Although largely mythical in content, the passage illustrates working knowledge of anesthesia in ancient Persia.

Kemudian pada kurun ke-10, Abu Bakr Muhammad Bin Zakaria Razi menulis secara rinci, sungguhpun pendek, buku pada perubatan. Bukunya telah diterjemahkan ke dalam Bahasa Latin dan telah dicetak kerap kali. Tamabahn pada menyusun tajuk dari buku-buku kuno, Razi bergantung pada pengalamannya sendiri. Pelajarnya adalah Abu Bakr Joveini, yang menulis sebuah buku perubatan komprehensif dalam bahasa Parsi. Ini adalah buku pertama dalam bahasa Parsi dan adalah salah satu karya sastera yang tertua dalam bahasa itu. Razi dianggapkan pengasas fizik dan pencipta khas atau berat bersih majmuk.

Pengarang penting ketiga pada perubatan zaman itu adalah Ali Ibn Abbas Majussi Ahwazi, doktor pada halaman Azod-od-Dowleh Daylami, yang karyanya diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Latin dan diccetak semula kerap kali. Bukunya dianggap yang terbaik dan karya yang terlengkap pada perubatan sebelum kemunculan Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina), yang mengarang buku-buku dan dokumen-dokumen pada judul santifik yang pelbagai. Bukunya Qanun telah digunakan sebagai sebuah buku teks oleh orang Eropah untuk beberapa kurun di atasnya.

Banyak doktor telah bermuncul sejak Avicenna, tetapi tiada mendapatkan kemasyhuran Zayn al-Din al-Jurjani, pengarang ensiklopedia perubatan pertama ditulis dalam bahasa Parsi daripada lingua franca bahasa Arab yang kebiasaan, Dhakhira-i Khwarazmshahi, digubahkan di antara 1111 AM dan 1136 AM. Ia juga lebih lengkap daripada Qanun Avicenna dan dianggap buku perubatan terhebat dalam Parsi. Orang Iran telah juga mahir dalam sains semula jadi lain seperti bontani, farmakologi, kimia, zoologi, litologi, dan mineralogi. Ahli sains yang termasyhur dalam bidang-bidang ini adalah Muhammad Bin Zakaria Razi dan Abu Reyhan Birooni. Alkohol dan asid sulfur difikirkan telah ditemukan oleh Razi (Rhazes), dan Biruni mengira graviti khas banyak bahan dalam cara yang sangat khusus.

Selepas penaklukan Islam Iran, perubatan terus berkembang dengan kenaikan notables such as Rhazes dan Haly Abbas, sungguhpun Baghdad adalah pewaris kosmopolitan baru akademi perubatan Jundishapur Sassanid.

Suatu gagasan bilangan karya perubatan digubah dalam bahasa Parsi sendiri mungkin dikumpul dari Zur Quellenkunde der Persischen Medizin Adolf Fonahn, diterbitkan di Leipzig pada 1910. Pengarang ini menyebut satu per satu 400 lebih karya dalam bahasa Parsi pada peruabtan, tidak termasuk pengarang seperti Avicenna, yang menulis dalam bahasa Arab. Pengarang-sejarawan Meyerhof, Casey Wood, dan Hirschberg jug merakam nama-nama sekurang-kurangnya 80 oculist yang menyumbang perjanjian pada judul berkaitan dengan oftalmologi dari mulanya 800 AM pada kemekaran sastera Islam pada 1300 AM.

Selain dari yang disebut terdahulunya, dua lagi karya perubatan menarik perhatian hebat dalam zaman pertengahan Eropah, iaitu Materia Medica Abu Mansur Muwaffaq, dikarang di sekitar 950 AM, dan Anatomy diilustrasi Mansur ibn Muhammad, dikarang pada 1396 AM.

Perubatan akademik moden bermula di Iran apabila Joseph Cochran mendirikan sebuah kolej perubatan di Urmia pada 1878. Cochran sering dihargai dengan mengasaskan "kolej perubatan sezaman pertama" Iran.[11] The website of Urmia University credits Cochran for "lowering the infant mortality rate in the region"[12] dan dengan mengasaskan salah satu dari hospital moden pertama Iran (Hospital Westminister) di Urmia.

Astronomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada 1000 AM, Biruni menuliskan sebuah ensiklopedia astronomi yang membincangkan kemungkinan bahawa bumi mungkin bumi mengelilingi matahari. Ini adalah sebelum Tycho Brahe melukiskan peta-peta pertama langit, mengunakan haiwan digayakan untuk menggambarkan gugusan bintang.

Pada kurun kesepuluh, ahli astronomi Parsi Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi menoleh matanya ke atas pada awning of stars overhead dan adalah yang pertama untuk merakamkan suatu galaksi bersama dengan milik kita. Merenung pada galaksi Andromeda dia menggelarnya "awam kecil" - penjelasan apt kemunculan seikat kawan kejirnan galaktik kita.[13]

Biologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada kurun ke-13, lebih daripada 600 tahun sebelum Charles Darwin, Nasir al-Din Tusi memajukan suatu teori asas evolusi. Perbezaan utama wujud di antara kecapaian Asal-usul Spesis Tusi dan Darwin. Sementara Darwin menggunakan alasan deduktif, mengumpul sapel tumbuh-tumbuhan dan haiwan untuk menjalankan caranya dari fakta ke suatu teori, Tusi used a more theoretical approach. Tusi explained that "hereditary variability" was the leading force of evolution. He wrote that all living organisms were able to change and that the animate organisms developed owing to their hereditary variability, saying "the organisms that can gain the new features faster are more variable. As a result, they gain advantages over other creatures." This sounds remarkably like a simplistic form of Darwin's writings about mutations. Tusi was correct when he suggested that "the bodies are changing as a result of the internal and external interactions"; that is, as a result of environmental influences. Tusi wrote "look at the world of animals and birds. They have all that is necessary for defense, protection and daily life, including strength, courage, and appropriate tools (organs)". Tusi also believed that humans are derived from advanced animals. He wrote about the different transition forms between the human and animal world, saying "such humans (probably anthropoid apes) live in the Western Sudan and other distant corners of the world. They are close to animals by their habits, deeds and behavior".[14]

Tusi said that humans are related to all living and inanimate creatures of Nature, writing that "the human has features that distinguish him from other creatures, but he has other features that unite him with the animal world, the vegetable kingdom or even with the inanimate bodies".[14]

Kimia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tusi believed that a body of matter is able to change but is not able to disappear entirely. He wrote "a body of matter cannot disappear completely. It only changes its form, condition, composition, color, and other properties, and turns into a different complex or elementary matter". Five hundred years later, Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765) and Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743–1794) created the law of conservation of mass, setting down this same idea.[14] However, it should be noted that Tusi argued for evolution within a firmly Islamic context—he did not, like Darwin, draw materialist conclusions from his theories. Moreover, unlike Darwin, he was arguing hypothetically: he did not attempt to provide empirical data for his theories. Nonetheless his arguments, which in some ways prefigure natural selection, are still considered remarkably 'advanced' for their time.

Jaber Ibn Hayyan, the famous Iranian chemist who died in 804 at Tous in Khorasan, was the father of a number of discoveries recorded in an encyclopaedia and of many treatises covering two thousand topics, and these became the bible of European chemists of the 18th century, particularly of Lavoisier. These works had a variety of uses including tinctures and their applications in tanning and textiles; distillations of plants and flowers; the origin of perfumes; therapeutic pharmacy, and gunpowder, a powerful military instrument possessed by Islam long before the West. Jabir ibn Hayyan, is widely regarded as the founder of chemistry, inventing many of the basic processes and equipment still used by chemists today such as distillation.[13]

Fizik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Abu Ali al'Hasan ibn al'Haitam is known in the West as Alhazen, born in 965 in Persia and dying in 1039 in Egypt. He is known as the father of optics for his writings on, and experiments with, lenses, mirrors, refraction, and reflection. He correctly stated that vision results from light that is reflected into the eye by an object, not emitted by the eye itself and reflected back, as Aristotle believed. He solved the problem of finding the locus of points on a spherical mirror from which light will be reflected to an observer. From his studies of refraction, he determined that the atmosphere has a definite height and that twilight is caused by refraction of solar radiation from beneath the horizon. [15] Biruni was the first scientist to formally propose that the speed of light is finite, before Galileo tried to experimentally prove this.

Sains di Iran moden[sunting | sunting sumber]

Considering the country's brain drain and its poor political relationship with the United States and some other Western countries, Iran's scientific community remains productive, even while economic sanctions make it difficult for universities to buy equipment or to send people to the United States to attend scientific meetings.[16] Furthermore, Iran considers scientific backwardness, as one of the root causes of political and military bullying by developed countries over undeveloped states.[17]

Belanjawan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Iran's national science budget is about $900 million and it has not been subject to any significant increase since 15 years (2005).[18] Iran allocates around 0.4% of its GDP to R&D, which ranks it "far behind industrialized societies" who spend 1.4% of their GDP on average.[19] Yet Iran's government has devoted huge amounts of funds for research on high technologies such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, stem cell research and information technology (2008).[20] Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology is one of the main institutions in Iran in charge of establishing research policies at the state level.

Gambaran keseluruhan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Theoretical and computational sciences are highly developed in Iran. Theoretical physicists and chemists regularly publish works in high impact factor journals.[21] Despite the limitations in funds, facilities, and international collaborations, Iranian scientists have been very productive in several experimental fields such as pharmacology, pharmaceutical chemistry, and organic and polymer chemistry. Iranian biophysicists, especially molecular biophysicists, have gained international reputations since the 1990s[perlu rujukan]. High field nuclear magnetic resonance facility, microcalorimetry, circular dichroism, and instruments for single protein channel studies have been provided in Iran during the past two decades. Tissue engineering and research on biomaterials have just started to emerge in biophysics departments. According to the State Registration Organization of Deeds and Properties, a total of 9,570 national inventions was registered in Iran during 2008. Compared with the previous year, there was a 38-percent increase in the number of inventions registered by the organization.[22]

Kerjasama Saintifik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Iran annually hosts international science festivals. The International Kharazmi Festival in Basic Science and The Annual Razi Medical Sciences Research Festival promote original research in science, technology, and medicine in Iran.

Iranians welcome scientists from all over the world to Iran for a visit and participation in seminars or collaborations. Many Nobel laureates and influential scientists such as Bruce Alberts, F. Sherwood Rowland, Kurt Wüthrich, Stephen Hawking, and Pierre-Gilles de Gennes visited Iran after the revolution. Some universities also hosted American and European scientists as guest lecturers during recent decades.

Sektor swasta[sunting | sunting sumber]

Parallel to academic research, several companies have been founded in Iran during last few decades. For example CinnaGen, established in 1992, is one of the pioneering biotechnology companies in the region. CinnaGen won Biotechnology Asia 2005 Innovation Awards due to its achievements and innovation in biotechnology research. In 2006 Parsé Semiconductor Co. announced it had designed and produced a 32 bit computer microprocessor inside the country for the first time.[23]Software companies are growing rapidly. In CeBIT 2006, ten Iranian software companies introduced their products.[24][25]

Taman teknologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kerajaan Iran mempunyai rancangan untuk pertubuhan 50-60 taman industri pada hujung Rancangan Pembangunan Sosioekonomi Lima Tahun kelima pada 2015.[26]

Nama taman Kawasan fokus Lokasi
Taman Sains dan Teknologi Guilan Agro-Food, Bioteknologi, Kimia, Elektronik, Alam, ICT, Pelancongan.[27] Guilan
Taman Teknologi Pardis Kejuruteraan Maju (mekanik dan otomasi), Bioteknologi, Kimia, Elektronik, ICT, Nano-teknologi.[28] 25 km Barat laut Tehran
Taman Perisian dan Teknologi Maklumat Tehran (dirancang)[29] ICT[30] Tehran
Taman Teknologi Sains dan Teknologi Khorasan (Kementerian Sains, Penyelidikan dan Teknologi) Kejuruteraan Maju, Agro-Food, Kimia, Elektronik, ICT, Perkhidmatan.[31] Khorasan
Taman Teknologi Sheikh Bahai (Juga digelar "Pekan Sains dan Teknologi Isfahan") Bahan dan Metalurgi, Teknologi Maklumat dan Komunikasi, Rekabentuk & Pengilangan, Otomasi, Bioteknolgi, Perkhidmatan.[32] Isfahan

Perubatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Clinical sciences are highly developed in Iran. In areas such as rheumatology, hematology, and bone marrow trasplantation, Iranian medical scientists are among the world leaders.[33] The Hematology, Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Research Center (HORC) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Shariati Hospital was established in 1991. Internationally, this center is one of the largest bone marrow transplantation centers and has carried out a large number of successful transplantations.[34] According to a study conducted in 2005, associated specialized pediatric hematology and oncology (PHO) services exist in almost all major cities throughout the country, where 43 board-certified or eligible pediatric hematologist–oncologists are giving care to children suffering from cancer or hematological disorders. Three children’s medical centers at universities have approved PHO fellowship programs.[35] Besides hematology, gastroenterology has recently attracted many talented medical students. The gasteroenterology research center based at Tehran University has produced increasing numbers of scientific publications since its establishment.

Fail:MoslemBahadori.jpg
Prof Moslem Bahadori, one of the pioneering figures in modern Iranian medicine

Modern organ transplantation in Iran dates to 1935, when the first cornea transplant in Iran was performed by Professor Mohammad-Qoli Shams at Farabi Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The Shiraz Nemazi transplant center, also one of the pioneering transplant units of Iran, performed the first Iranian kidney transplant in 1967 and the first Iranian liver transplant in 1995. The first heart transplant in Iran was performed 1993 in Tabriz. The first lung transplant was performed in 2001, and the first heart and lung transplants were performed in 2002, both at Tehran University.[36] Iran developed the first artificial lung in 2009 to join five other countries in the world which possess such technology.[37] Currently, renal, liver, and heart transplantations are routinely performed in Iran. Iran ranks fifth in the world in kidney transplants.[38] The Iranian Tissue Bank, commencing in 1994, was the first multi-facility tissue bank in country. In June 2000, the Organ Transplantation Brain Death Act was approved by the Parliament, followed by the establishment of the Iranian Network for Transplantation Organ Procurement. This act helped to expand heart, lung, and liver transplantation programs. By 2003, Iran had performed 131 liver, 77 heart, 7 lung, 211 bone marrow, 20,581 cornea, and 16,859 liver transplantations. 82 percent of these were donated by living and unrelated donors; 10 percent by cadavers; and 8 percent came from living-related donors. The 3-year renal transplant patient survival rate was 92.9%, and the 40-month graft survival rate was 85.9%.[36]

Neuroscience is also emerging in Iran. A few PhD programs in cognitive and computational neuroscience have been established in the country during recent decades.

Bioteknologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Agricultural research has been successful in releasing high yielding varieties with higher stability as well as tolerance to harsh weather conditions. The agriculture researchers are working jointly with international Institutes to find the best procedures and genotypes to overcome produce failure and to increase yield. In 2005, Iran's first genetically modified (GM) rice was approved by national authorities and is being grown commercially for human consumption. In addition to GM rice, Iran has produced several GM plants in the laboratory, such as insect-resistant maize; cotton; potatoes and sugar beets; herbicide-resistant canola; salinity- and drought-tolerant wheat; and blight-resistant maize and wheat.[39] The Royan Institute engineered Iran's first cloned animal; the sheep was born on August 2, 2006 and has passed the critical first two months of his life.[40][41]

In the last months of 2006, Iranian biotechnologists announced that they, as the third manufacturer in the world, have sent CinnoVex (a recombinant type of Interferon b1a) to the market.[42] According to a study by David Morrison and Ali Khademhosseini (Harvard-MIT and Cambridge), stem cell research in Iran is amongst the top 10 in the world. [43] Iran will invest 2.5 billion dollars in the country's stem cell research over the next five years (2008-2013).[44]

The legacy of Alhazen who was highly instrumental in the founding of modern optics was continued by Ali Javan who invented the gas laser. Laser optics via fiber optics is a key technology used in Internet.[45]

Fizik dan bahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Iran had some significant successes in nuclear technology during recent decades, especially in nuclear medicine. However, little connection exists between Iran's scientific society and that of the nuclear program of Iran. Iran is the 7th country in production of Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6).[46] Iran now controls the entire cycle for producing nuclear fuel.[47] Iranian scientists are also helping to construct the Compact Muon Solenoid, a detector for the Large Hadron Collider of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) that is due to come online in 2008[perlu rujukan]. Iran is also involved in the developement of a domestic Linear particle accelerator (LINAC) (2009).[48] It is among the few countries in the world that has the technology to produce zirconium alloys.[49][50]

Sains komputer[sunting | sunting sumber]

Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics, and Automation was established in 2001 to promote educational and research activities in the fields of design, robotics, and automation. Besides these professional groups, several robotics groups work in Iranian high schools.[51]Ultra Fast Microprocessors Research Center in Tehran’s Amir Kabir University successfully built a supercomputer in 2007.[52] Maximum processing capacity of the supercomputer is 860 billion operations per second. Iran’s first supercomputer launched in 2001 was also fabricated by Amir Kabir University.[53] In 2009, a SUSE Linux-based HPC system made by the Aerospace Research Institute of Iran (ARI) was launched with 32 cores and now runs 96 cores. Its performance was pegged at 192 GFLOPS.[54] The Routerlab team at the University of Tehran successfully designed and implemented an access-router (RAHYAB-300) and a 40Gbps high capacity switch fabric (UTS).[55]

Nanoteknologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Fail:SarboloukiMN.JPG
Mohammad-Nabi Sarbolouki, ahli sains berpengaruh dan pengasas pusat penyelidikan biobahan pertama di Iran

Iran ranked 25th in the world in Nanotechnology in 2007 with highest, ranked paper citation international mean, amongst all Islamic countries and only second to S.Korea in Asia.[56] They are now 15th (2010) in the world ranking.[57][58] In 2007 Iranian scientists at the Medical Sciences and Technology Center succeeded in mass producing an advanced scanning microscope—the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM).[59]

teknologi angkasa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada Ogos 17, 2008, Agensi Angkasa Iran proceeded with the second test launch of a three stages Safir SLV from a site south of Semnan in the northern part of the Dasht-e-Kavir desert. The Safir (Ambassador) satellite carrier successfully launched the Omid satellite into orbit in February 2009.[60][61][62] Iran is the 9th country to put a domestically-built satellite into orbit since the Soviet Union launched the first in 1957.[63]

Astronomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Iranian government has committed 150 billion rials (roughly $17.5 million) for a telescope, an observatory, and a training program, all part of a plan to build up the country's astronomy base. Iran wants to collaborate internationally and become internationally competitive in astronomy, says the University of Michigan's Carl Akerlof, an adviser to the Iranian project. "For a government that is usually characterized as wary of foreigners, that's an important development".[64]

Sumbangan Iran dan asal-usul orang Iran pada sains moden[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Iran's most prolific researcher of the year 2006.

Scientists with an Iranian background have made significant contributions to the international scientific community. In 1960, Ali Javan invented first gas laser. In 1973, the fuzzy set theory was developed by Lotfi Zadeh. Iranian cardiologist Tofy Mussivand invented the first artificial heart and afterwards developed it further. HbA1c was discovered by Samuel Rahbar and introduced to the medical community. The Vafa-Witten theorem was proposed by Cumrun Vafa, an Iranian string theorist, and his co-worker Edward Witten. The Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation has been named after Mehran Kardar, notable Iranian physicist. Extraordinary because of multidisciplinary works at a young age, Ali Eftekhari is considered a founder of electrochemical nanotechnology and creator of surprising theories such as the Fractal Geometry of Literature. Other notable discoveries and innovations by Iranian scientists and engineers (or of Iranian origin) include:

Penempatan Antarabangsa[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • According to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Iran increased its academic publishing output nearly tenfold from 1996 to 2004, and has been ranked first globally in terms of output growth rate (followed by China with a 3 fold increase).[75][76] In comparison, the only G8 countries in top 20 ranking with fastest performance improvement are, Italy which stands at tenth and Canada at 13th globally.[77][78][79] Iran, China, India and Brazil are the only developing countries among 31 nations with 97.5% of the world's total scientific productivity. The remaining 162 developing countries contribute less than 2.5% of the world's scientific output.[80] Despite the massive improvement from 0.0003% of the global scientific output in 1970 to 0.29% in 2003, still Iran's total share in the world's total output remains small.[81]
  • Iran ranked 49th for citations, 42nd for papers, and 135th for citations per paper.[82] Their publication rate in international journals has quadrupled during the past decade. Although it is still low compared with the developed countries, this puts Iran in the first rank of Islamic countries.[16] According to a British government study (2002), Iran ranked 30th in the world in terms of scientific impact.[56]
  • According to a report by SJT (A spanish sponsored scientific data data) Iran ranks 25th in the world in scientific publications by volume 2007 (a huge leap from rank 40 few years before)[83]

Jurnal Irani disenaraikan di Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Menurut dengna Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), penyelidik Iran dan ahli sains telah menerbitkan suaut jumlah 60,979 kajian saintifik dalam jurnal antarabangsa utama dalam 19 tahun ini.[21]

Fail:Natureestaki.jpg
Ahli neurosains Iran telah juga menerbitkan dalam jurnal yang disanjung secara tinggi. Kertas semulajadi ini dijalankan oleh orang Iran yang melakukan kebanyakan latihan dan penyelidikan mereka di Iran
  • Acta Medica Iranica
  • Entomologi dan FitoPatologi Dimohon
  • Arkib Perubatan Iran
  • Daru-Jurnal Fakulti Farmasi
  • Iranian Biomedical Journal
  • Iranian Journal of BioTechnology
  • Iranian Journal of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering
  • Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences-English
  • Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology
  • Iranian Journal of Science and Technology
  • Iranian Polymer Journal
  • Iranian Journal of Public Health
  • Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
  • Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine
  • Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine
  • Iranian Journal of Fuzzy Systems
  • Journal of Entomological Society of Iran
  • Plant Pests & Diseases Research Institute Insect Taxonomy Research Department Publication
  • The Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society
  • Rostaniha (Jurnal Botani Iran)

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Umum[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pertubuhan terkenal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Islam and Science: An Islamist revolution Nature
  2. Ward English, Paul (June 21, 1968). "The Origin and Spread of Qanats in the Old World". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (JSTOR) Vol 112, No. 3: pp 170–181. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-049X%2819680621%29112%3A3%3C170%3ATOASOQ%3E2.0.CO%3B2-A&size=LARGE. 
  3. BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Riddle of 'Baghdad's batteries'
  4. Intute: Science, Engineering and Technology
  5. New Page 1
  6. Hill, Donald. Islamic Science and Engineering. 1993. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-0455-3 p.222
  7. C. Elgood, A medical history of Persia, Cambridge Univ. Press. p.173
  8. Transplantation Activities in Iran, Behrooz Broumand
  9. History of headache in medieval Persian medicine, The Lancet, Volume 1, Issue 8, December 2002, Pages 510-515
  10. Edward Granville Browne, Islamic Medicine, Goodword Books, 2002, ISBN 81-87570-19-9 p.79
  11. Archives Of Iranian Medicine
  12. Introduction to Urmia University
  13. 13.0 13.1 Scotsman.com News
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 9.2 A 13th-Century Darwin? - Tusi's Views on Evolution - Farid Alakbarov
  15. On the page to which this comment is linked, the optical diagram on the Pakistani commemorative in blue, green, and black is hard to decipher because of the lack of contrast. http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/exhibits/stamps/em.html
  16. 16.0 16.1 Education and training put Iran ahead of richer states
  17. [1]
  18. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/309/5742/1802?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=iran&searchid=1138556046976_3291&FIRSTINDEX=0&journalcode=sci
  19. Medical Science and Research in Iran
  20. http://uk.zawya.com/Story.cfm/sidZAWYA20081031102629/Iran:%20Huge%20Investments%20On%20Nanotech
  21. 21.0 21.1 http://web.archive.org/20090620074438/www.iran-daily.com/1388/3426/html/science.htm#s386553
  22. http://web.archive.org/20090415053429/www.iran-daily.com/1388/3372/html/science.htm
  23. http://www.eetimes.com/news/design/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=191203237
  24. BBCPersian.com
  25. Sanaray
  26. [2] retrieved 12 February 2008
  27. http://www.unido.org/index.php?id=o34918&L=2
  28. http://www.unido.org/index.php?id=o34918&L=2
  29. "Telecoms And Technology Forecast", Economist Intelligence Unit 
  30. http://www.cra.ir/Earchive/EArchiveF/UpdateCounter.asp?filename=rad1736E.pdf
  31. http://www.unido.org/index.php?id=o34918&L=2
  32. http://www.unido.org/index.php?id=o34918&L=2
  33. http://web.archive.org/20090523083512/www.iran-daily.com/1388/3403/html/science.htm#s380415
  34. [3][pautan putus]
  35. Pediatric hematology and oncology in Iran: past and present state.
  36. 36.0 36.1 ::: Experimental and Clinical Tranplantation :::
  37. http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=103704&sectionid=3510208
  38. http://roozonline.com/english/016441.shtml
  39. Iranian scientists produce GM rice : Middle East Onlypunjab.com- Onlypunjab.com Latest News
  40. BBCPersian.com
  41. Middle East Online
  42. http://www.bioregio-stern.de/en/first_biogeneric_therapeutic_protein_from_fraunhofer_institute_introduced_to_the_market
  43. http://isg-mit.org/projects-storage/StemCell/stem_cell_iran.pdf
  44. http://www.payvand.com/news/08/nov/1059.html
  45. http://www.presstv.com/detail.aspx?id=118164&sectionid=3510208
  46. http://www.payvand.com/news/08/dec/1156.html
  47. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090411/ap_on_re_mi_ea/ml_iran_nuclear_4
  48. http://web.archive.org/20090426055231/www.iran-daily.com/1388/3380/html/science.htm#s374145
  49. http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/iran/esfahan-nuke.htm
  50. http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iran/2005/iran-051114-rferl01.htm
  51. Iranian High Schools Establish Robotics Groups
  52. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1198517207339&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull
  53. http://web.archive.org/20070710075729/www.iran-daily.com/1386/3015/html/index.htm
  54. http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&taxonomyName=knowledge_center&articleId=340338&taxonomyId=1&intsrc=kc_top
  55. http://web.ut.ac.ir/routerlab
  56. 56.0 56.1 http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file11959.pdf
  57. http://en.nano.ir/index.php
  58. [4]
  59. http://web.archive.org/20070710075729/iran-daily.com/1386/2847/html/index.htm
  60. "Iran says it has put first dummy satellite in orbit". Reuters. http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20080817/wl_nm/iran_satellite_dc_4. Capaian 2008-08-18. 
  61. "Iran's Kavoshgar I lifts off for space". Press TV. 2008-02-04. http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=41636&sectionid=351020101. 
  62. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2009/feb/03/iran-satellite-launch
  63. http://www.kayhanintl.com/feb5/domestic.htm
  64. Physics Today July 2004 - Iran Invests in Astronomy
  65. 'Top technology' woman announced
  66. Research leaders of the year
  67. First-of-Its-Kind Antenna to Probe the Depths of Mars
  68. [5]
  69. [6]
  70. [7]
  71. [8]
  72. [9]
  73. [10]
  74. [11]
  75. PSA target metrics for the UK research base
  76. http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file27330.pdf
  77. http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file27330.pdf
  78. http://www.dti.gov.uk/files/file27330.pdf
  79. http://www.softmachines.org/wordpress/?p=216
  80. http://www.scidev.net/en/news/china-brazil-and-india-lead-southern-science-outp.html
  81. http://www.springerlink.com/content/j3w865q255vgr260/fulltext.pdf?page=1
  82. Essential Science Indicators
  83. http://www.scimagojr.com/countryrank...=0&min_type=it
  84. Iranian science according to ISI (2008)
  85. http://www.bernama.com/bernama/v5/bm/newsworld.php?id=453647

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pertubuhan saintifik berpengaruh Iran[sunting | sunting sumber]

Taman teknologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lain[sunting | sunting sumber]