Senarai Presiden Amerika Syarikat

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Brikut merupakan senarai Presiden Amerika Syarikat sejak 1789. Senarai ini tidak termasuk pemangku presiden.

      Federalis       Demokrat-Republik       Demokrat       Whig       Republikan

# Presiden Mula menjawat Lepas jawatan Parti Naib presiden Masa jawatan
1 George Washington
[1][2][3][4]
Portrait of George Washington.jpeg 30 April 1789 3 Mac 1797 Tidak ada
(Polisi Federal)
John Adams 1
2
2 John Adams
[5][6][7][8]
Johnadamsvp.flipped.jpg 4 Mac 1797 3 Mac 1801 Federalis Thomas Jefferson 3
3 Thomas Jefferson
[9][10][11][12]
T Jefferson by Charles Willson Peale 1791 2.jpg 4 Mac 1801 3 Mac 1809 Demokrat-Republik Aaron Burr 4
George Clinton 5
4 James Madison
[13][14][15][16]
Jm4.gif 4 Mac 1809 3 Mac 1817 Demokrat-Republik George Clinton [1]
Kosong
6
Elbridge Gerry [1]
Kosong
7
5 James Monroe
[17][18][19][20]
Jamesmonroe-npgallery.jpg 4 Mac 1817 3 Mac 1825 Demokrat-Republik Daniel Tompkins 8
9
6 John Quincy Adams
[21][22][23][24]
John Quincy Adams.jpg 4 Mac 1825 3 Mac 1829 Demokrat-Republik John Calhoun 10
7 Andrew Jackson
[25][26][27][28]
Andrew jackson head.jpg 4 Mac 1829 3 Mac 1837 Demokrat John Calhoun[n 1] [2]
Kosong
11
Martin Van Buren 12
8 Martin Van Buren
[29][30][31][32]
Martin Van Buren.jpg 4 Mac 1837 3 Mac 1841 Demokrat Richard Johnson 13
9 William Harrison
[33][34][35][36]
William Henry Harrison by James Reid Lambdin, 1835.jpg 4 Mac 1841 4 April 1841 Whig John Tyler 14
10 John Tyler
[37][38][39][40]
John Tyler.jpg 4 April 1841 3 Mac 1845 Whig [3] Kosong
11 James Polk
[41][42][43][44]
Polkpolk.jpg 4 Mac 1845 3 Mac 1849 Demokrat George Dallas 15
12 Zachary Taylor
[45][46][47][48]
Zachary Taylor 2.jpg 4 Mac 1849 9 Julai 1850 [1] Whig Millard Fillmore 16
13 Millard Fillmore
[49][50][51][52]
Millard Fillmore.jpg 9 Julai 1850 3 Mac 1853 Whig Kosong
14 Franklin Pierce
[53][54][55][56]
Franklin Pierce.jpg 4 Mac 1853 3 Mac 1857 Demokrat William King [1]
Kosong
17
15 James Buchanan
[57][58][59][60]
James Buchanan.jpg 4 Mac 1857 3 Mac 1861 Demokrat John Breckinridge 18
16 Abraham Lincoln
[61][62][63][64]
Abraham Lincoln head on shoulders photo portrait.jpg 4 Mac 1861 15 April 1865 [4] Republik Hannibal Hamlin 19
Andrew Johnson [5] 20
17 Andrew Johnson
[65][66][67][68]
Andrew Johnson.jpg 15 April 1865 3 Mac 1869 Demokrat [5] Kosong
18 Ulysses Grant
[69][70][71][72]
Ulysses Grant 1870-1880.jpg 4 Mac 1869 3 Mac 1877 Republik Schuyler Colfax 21
Henry Wilson [1]
Kosong
22
19 Rutherford Hayes
[73][74][75][76]
President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880.jpg 4 Mac 1877 3 Mac 1881 Republik William Wheeler 23
20 James Garfield
[77][78][79][80]
James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg 4 Mac 1881 19 September 1881 [4] Republik Chester Arthur 24
21 Chester Arthur
[81][82][83][84]
Chester Alan Arthur.jpg 19 September 1881 3 Mac 1885 Republik Kosong
22 Grover Cleveland
[85][86][87][88]
President Grover Cleveland.jpg 4 Mac 1885 3 Mac 1889 Demokrat Thomas Hendricks [1]
Kosong
25
23 Benjamin Harrison
[89][90][91][92]
Benjamin harrison.jpg 4 Mac 1889 3 Mac 1893 Republik Levi Morton 26
24 Grover Cleveland
(2nd time)
[85][86][87][88]
President Grover Cleveland.jpg 4 Mac 1893 3 Mac 1897 Demokrat Adlai E. Stevenson 27
25 William McKinley
[93][94][95][96]
Mckinley.jpg 4 Mac 1897 14 September 1901 [4] Republik Garret Hobart [n 2]
Kosong
28
Theodore Roosevelt 29
26 Theodore Roosevelt
[97][98][99][100]
T Roosevelt.jpg 14 September 1901 3 Mac 1909 Republik Kosong
Charles Fairbanks 30
27 William Taft
[101][102][103][104]
William Howard Taft.jpg 4 Mac 1909 3 Mac 1913 Republik James Sherman[n 2]
Kosong
31
28 Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson (1912).jpg 4 Mac 1913 3 Mac 1921 Demokrat Thomas Marshall 32
33
29 Warren Harding
[105][106][107][108]
Warren G Harding portrait as senator June 1920.jpg 4 Mac 1921 2 Ogos 1923[n 2] Republik Calvin Coolidge 34
30 Calvin Coolidge
[109][110][111][112]
Calvin Coolidge photo portrait head and shoulders.jpg 2 Ogos 1923 3 Mac 1929 Republik Kosong
Charles Dawes 35
31 Herbert Hoover
[113][114][115][116]
HerbertHoover.jpg 4 Mac 1929 3 Mac 1933 Republik Charles Curtis 36
32 Franklin Roosevelt
[117][118][119][120]
FDR in 1933.jpg 4 Mac 1933 12 April 1945 [n 2] Demokrat John Garner 37
38
Henry Wallace 39
Harry Truman 40
33 Harry Truman
[121][122][123][124]
Harry S. Truman.jpg 12 April 1945 20 Januari 1953 Demokrat Kosong
Alben Barkley 41
34 Dwight Eisenhower
[125][126][127][128]
Eisenhower official.jpg 20 Januari 1953 20 Januari 1961 Republik Richard Nixon 42
43
35 John Kennedy
[129][130][131][132]
John F Kennedy.jpg 20 Januari 1961 22 November 1963 [4] Demokrat Lyndon Johnson 44
36 Lyndon Johnson
[133][134][135][136]
Lbj2.jpg 22 November 1963 20 Januari 1969 Demokrat Kosong
Hubert Humphrey 45
37 Richard Nixon
[137][138][139][140]
Nixon 30-0316a.jpg 20 Januari 1969 9 Ogos 1974[2] Republik Spiro Agnew 46
Spiro Agnew [R]
Kosong
Gerald Ford
47
38 Gerald Ford
[141][142][143][144]
Gerald Ford.jpg 9 Ogos 1974 20 Januari 1977 Republik Kosong
Nelson Rockefeller
39 Jimmy Carter
[145][146][147][148]
Jimmy Carter.jpg 20 Januari 1977 20 Januari 1981 Demokrat Walter Mondale 48
40 Ronald Reagan
[149][150][151][152]
Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg 20 Januari 1981 20 Januari 1989 Republik George H. W. Bush 49
50
41 George H. W. Bush
[153][154][155][156]
George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait.jpg 20 Januari 1989 20 Januari 1993 Republik Dan Quayle 51
42 Bill Clinton
[157][158][159][160]
Bill Clinton.jpg 20 Januari 1993 20 Januari 2001 Demokrat Al Gore 52
53
43 George W. Bush
[161][162][163][164]
George-W-Bush.jpeg 20 Januari 2001 20 Januari 2009 Republik Dick Cheney 54
55
44 Barack Obama
[165][166][167]
Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg 20 Januari 2009 Kini Demokrat Joe Biden 56

[1] Meninggal ketika masih menjawat sebagai naib presiden.
[2] Mengundurkan diri sebagai naib presiden.
[3] Meninggal ketika masih menjawat sebagai presiden.
[4] Seorang anggota parti Demokrat yang 'menumpang' parti Whig.
[5] Meninggal ketika menjawat sebagai naib, tidak diganti.
[6] Dibunuh.
[7] Seorang anggota parti Demokrat yang berdampingan dengan Lincoln, seorang anggota parti Republikan.
[8] Mengundurkan diri.
[9] Tidak dilantik sesuai dengan jadual.
[10] Masa jawatan lebih daripada dua penggal.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. The White House (March 12, 2007). "Biography of George Washington". Whitehouse.gov. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  2. "The First President: 1789–1797 George Washington "Father of his Country"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  3. "George Washington – Independent Party – 1st President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  4. "George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  5. "Biography of John Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  6. "The Second President: 1797–1801 John Adams "Following in the Footsteps"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  7. "John Adams – Federalist Party – 2nd President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  8. "John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  9. "Biography of Thomas Jefferson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  10. "The Third President: 1801–1809 Thomas Jefferson "The Renaissance Leader"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  11. "Thomas Jefferson – Democratic-Republican Party – 3rd President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  12. "Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  13. "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  14. "The Fourth President: 1809–1817 James Madison "The Nation Builder"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  15. "James Madison – Democratic-Republican Party – 4th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  16. "James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  17. "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  18. "The Fifth President: 1817–1825 James Monroe "The Era of Good Feelings"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  19. "James Monroe – Democratic-Republican Party – 5th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  20. "James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  21. "Biography of John Quincy Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  22. "The Sixth President: 1825–1829 John Quincy Adams "Born to Lead"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  23. "John Quincy Adams – Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, WHIG Party – 6th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  24. "John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  25. "Biography of Andew Jackson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  26. "The Seventh President: 1829–1837 Andrew Jackson "Old Hickory"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  27. "Andrew Jackson – Democratic-Republican Party – 7th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  28. "Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  29. "Biography of Martin Van Buren". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  30. "The Eighth President: 1837–1841 Martin Van Buren "The Red Fox"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  31. "Martin Van Buren – Democratic-Republican, Democratic, and Free Soil Party – 8th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  32. "Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  33. "Biography of William Henry Harrison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  34. "The Ninth President: 1841–1841 William Henry Harrison "Old Tippecanoe"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  35. "William Henry Harrison – WHIG Party – 9th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  36. "William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  37. "Biography of John Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  38. "The Tenth President: 1841–1845 John Tyler "His Accidency"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  39. "John Tyler – No Party – 10th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  40. "John Tyler (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  41. "Biography of James Polk". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  42. "The Eleventh President: 1845–1849 James Knox Polk "The Dark Horse"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  43. "James Polk – Democratic Party – 11th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  44. "James K. Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  45. "Biography of Zachary Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  46. "The Twelfth President: 1849–1850 Zachary Taylor "Old Rough-and-Ready"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  47. "Zachary Taylor – WHIG Party – 12th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  48. "Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  49. "Biography of Millard Fillmore". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  50. "The Thirteenth President: 1850–1853 Millard Fillmore "Forgotten Leader"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  51. "Millard Filmore – WHIG Party – 13th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  52. "Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  53. "Biography of Franklin Pierce". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  54. "The Fourteenth President: 1853–1857 Franklin Pierce "Overwhelmed by Events"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  55. "Franklin Pierce – Democratic Party – 14th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  56. "Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  57. "Biography of James Buchanan". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  58. "The Fifteenth President: 1857–1861 James Buchanan "An American Hero"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  59. "James Buchanan – Democratic Party – 15th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  60. "James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  61. "Biography of Abraham Lincoln". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  62. "The Sixteenth President: 1861–1865 Abraham Lincoln "The Great Emancipator"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  63. "Abraham Lincoln – Republic, National Union Party – 16th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  64. "Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  65. "Biography of Andrew Johnson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  66. "The Seventeenth President: 1865–1869 Andrew Johnson "Between North and South"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  67. "Andrew Johnson – National Union Party – 17th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  68. "Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  69. "Biography of Ulysses S. Grant". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  70. "The Eighteenth President: 1869–1877 Ulysses Simpson Grant "The Hero as Politician"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  71. "Ulysses S. Grant – National Union Party – 18th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  72. "Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  73. "Biography of Rutherford B. Hayes". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  74. "The Nineteenth President: 1877–1881 Rutherford Birchard Hayes "Striving For A Fresh Start"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  75. "Rutherford B. Hayes – Republican Party – 19th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  76. "Rutherford B. Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  77. "Biography of James Garfield". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  78. "The Twentieth President: 1881–1881 James Abram Garfield "The Preacher"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  79. "James Garfield – Republican Party – 20th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  80. "James A. Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  81. "Biography of Chester Arthur". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  82. "The Twenty-First President: 1881–1885 Chester Alan Arthur "The Self-Reformer"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  83. "Chester A. Arthur – Republican Party – 21st President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  84. "Chester A. Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  85. 85.0 85.1 "Biography of Grover Cleveland". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada February 22, 2009. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  86. 86.0 86.1 "The Twenty-Second President: 1885–1889 The Twenty-Fourth President: 1893–1897 Grover Cleveland "The Self-Reformer"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  87. 87.0 87.1 "Grover Cleveland – Democratic Party – 22nd and 24th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  88. 88.0 88.1 "Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  89. "Biography of Benjamin Harrison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  90. "The Twenty-Third President: 1889–1893 Benjamin Harrison "Presidential Grandson"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  91. "William Henry Harrison – Whig Party – 23rd President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  92. "Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  93. "Biography of William McKinley". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  94. "The Twenty-Fifth President: 1897–1901 William McKinley "Bridge to a New Century"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  95. "William McKinley – Republican Party – 25th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  96. "William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  97. "Biography of Theodore Roosevelt". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  98. "The Twenty-Sixth President: 1901–1909 Theodore Roosevelt "The Giant in the Bully Pulpit"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  99. "Theodore Roosevelt – Republican, Bull Moose Party – 26th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  100. "Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  101. "Biography of William Howard Taft". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  102. "The Twenty-Seventh President: 1909–1913 William Howard Taft "Reluctant Leader"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  103. "William Howard Taft – Republican Party – 27th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  104. "William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  105. "Biography of Warren G. Harding". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  106. "The Twenty-Ninth President: 1921–1923 Warren Gamaliel Harding "Prophet Without Honor"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  107. "Warren Harding – Republican Party – 29th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  108. "Warren G. Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  109. "Biography of Calvin Coolidge". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  110. "The Thirtieth President: 1923–1929 Calvin Coolidge "The New Englander"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  111. "Calvin Coolidge – Republican Party – 30th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  112. "Calvin Coolidge (July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  113. "Biography of Herbert Hoover". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  114. "The Thirty-First President: 1929–1933 Herbert Clark Hoover "The Great Engineer"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  115. "Herbert Hoover – Republican Party – 31st President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  116. "Herbert Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  117. "Biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt". Whitehouse.gov. March 20, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  118. "The Thirty-Second President: 1933–1945 Franklin Delano Roosevelt "New Dealer and Global Warrior"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  119. "Franklin D. Roosevelt – Democratic Party – 34th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  120. "Franklin D. Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  121. "Biography of Harry S Truman". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  122. "The Thirty-Third President: 1945–1953 Harry S. Truman "The Buck Stopped Here"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  123. "Harry S. Truman – Democratic Party – 33rd President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  124. "Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  125. "Biography of Dwight D. Eisenhower". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  126. "The Thirty-Fourth President: 1953–1961 Dwight David Eisenhower "I Like Ike"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  127. "Dwight D. Eisenhower – Democratic Party – 34th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  128. "Dwight D. Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  129. "Biography of John F. Kennedy". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  130. "The Thirty-Five President: 1961–1963 John Fitzgerald Kennedy "Inspiring A Generation"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  131. "John F. Kennedy – Democratic Party – 35th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  132. "John F. Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  133. "Biography of Lyndon B. Johnson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada February 22, 2009. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  134. "The Thirty-Sixth President: 1963–1969 Lyndon Baines Johnson "So Close To Greatness"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  135. "Lyndon B. Johnson – Democratic Party – 36th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  136. "Lyndon B. Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  137. "Richard M. Nixon". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  138. "The Thirty-Seventh President: 1969–1974 Richard Milhous Nixon "The Road to Watergate"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  139. "Richard Nixon – Republican Party – 37th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
  140. "Richard M. Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  141. "Biography of Gerald R. Ford". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  142. "The Thirty-Eighth President: 1974–1977 Gerald Rudolph Ford "A Time for Healing"". American Heritage. Forbes. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
  143. "Gerald Ford – Republican Party – 38th President – American Presidents". History. Diperoleh pada January 12 2009. 
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  145. "Biography of Jimmy Carter". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diperoleh pada January 12, 2009. 
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