Senarai Presiden Amerika Syarikat

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Brikut merupakan senarai Presiden Amerika Syarikat sejak 1789. Senarai ini tidak termasuk pemangku presiden.

      Federalis       Demokrat-Republik       Demokrat       Whig       Republikan

# Presiden Mula menjawat Lepas jawatan Parti Naib presiden Masa jawatan
1 George Washington
[1][2][3][4]
Portrait of George Washington.jpeg 30 April 1789 3 Mac 1797 Tidak ada
(Polisi Federal)
John Adams 1
2
2 John Adams
[5][6][7][8]
Johnadamsvp.flipped.jpg 4 Mac 1797 3 Mac 1801 Federalis Thomas Jefferson 3
3 Thomas Jefferson
[9][10][11][12]
T Jefferson by Charles Willson Peale 1791 2.jpg 4 Mac 1801 3 Mac 1809 Demokrat-Republik Aaron Burr 4
George Clinton 5
4 James Madison
[13][14][15][16]
Jm4.gif 4 Mac 1809 3 Mac 1817 Demokrat-Republik George Clinton [1]
Kosong
6
Elbridge Gerry [1]
Kosong
7
5 James Monroe
[17][18][19][20]
Jamesmonroe-npgallery.jpg 4 Mac 1817 3 Mac 1825 Demokrat-Republik Daniel Tompkins 8
9
6 John Quincy Adams
[21][22][23][24]
John Quincy Adams.jpg 4 Mac 1825 3 Mac 1829 Demokrat-Republik John Calhoun 10
7 Andrew Jackson
[25][26][27][28]
Andrew jackson head.jpg 4 Mac 1829 3 Mac 1837 Demokrat John Calhoun[n 1] [2]
Kosong
11
Martin Van Buren 12
8 Martin Van Buren
[29][30][31][32]
Martin Van Buren.jpg 4 Mac 1837 3 Mac 1841 Demokrat Richard Johnson 13
9 William Harrison
[33][34][35][36]
William Henry Harrison by James Reid Lambdin, 1835.jpg 4 Mac 1841 4 April 1841 Whig John Tyler 14
10 John Tyler
[37][38][39][40]
John Tyler.jpg 4 April 1841 3 Mac 1845 Whig [3] Kosong
11 James Polk
[41][42][43][44]
Polkpolk.jpg 4 Mac 1845 3 Mac 1849 Demokrat George Dallas 15
12 Zachary Taylor
[45][46][47][48]
Zachary Taylor 2.jpg 4 Mac 1849 9 Julai 1850 [1] Whig Millard Fillmore 16
13 Millard Fillmore
[49][50][51][52]
Millard Fillmore.jpg 9 Julai 1850 3 Mac 1853 Whig Kosong
14 Franklin Pierce
[53][54][55][56]
Franklin Pierce.jpg 4 Mac 1853 3 Mac 1857 Demokrat William King [1]
Kosong
17
15 James Buchanan
[57][58][59][60]
James Buchanan.jpg 4 Mac 1857 3 Mac 1861 Demokrat John Breckinridge 18
16 Abraham Lincoln
[61][62][63][64]
Abraham Lincoln head on shoulders photo portrait.jpg 4 Mac 1861 15 April 1865 [4] Republik Hannibal Hamlin 19
Andrew Johnson [5] 20
17 Andrew Johnson
[65][66][67][68]
Andrew Johnson.jpg 15 April 1865 3 Mac 1869 Demokrat [5] Kosong
18 Ulysses Grant
[69][70][71][72]
Ulysses Grant 1870-1880.jpg 4 Mac 1869 3 Mac 1877 Republik Schuyler Colfax 21
Henry Wilson [1]
Kosong
22
19 Rutherford Hayes
[73][74][75][76]
President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880.jpg 4 Mac 1877 3 Mac 1881 Republik William Wheeler 23
20 James Garfield
[77][78][79][80]
James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg 4 Mac 1881 19 September 1881 [4] Republik Chester Arthur 24
21 Chester Arthur
[81][82][83][84]
Chester Alan Arthur.jpg 19 September 1881 3 Mac 1885 Republik Kosong
22 Grover Cleveland
[85][86][87][88]
President Grover Cleveland.jpg 4 Mac 1885 3 Mac 1889 Demokrat Thomas Hendricks [1]
Kosong
25
23 Benjamin Harrison
[89][90][91][92]
Benjamin harrison.jpg 4 Mac 1889 3 Mac 1893 Republik Levi Morton 26
24 Grover Cleveland
(2nd time)
[85][86][87][88]
President Grover Cleveland.jpg 4 Mac 1893 3 Mac 1897 Demokrat Adlai E. Stevenson 27
25 William McKinley
[93][94][95][96]
Mckinley.jpg 4 Mac 1897 14 September 1901 [4] Republik Garret Hobart [n 2]
Kosong
28
Theodore Roosevelt 29
26 Theodore Roosevelt
[97][98][99][100]
T Roosevelt.jpg 14 September 1901 3 Mac 1909 Republik Kosong
Charles Fairbanks 30
27 William Taft
[101][102][103][104]
William Howard Taft.jpg 4 Mac 1909 3 Mac 1913 Republik James Sherman[n 2]
Kosong
31
28 Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson (1912).jpg 4 Mac 1913 3 Mac 1921 Demokrat Thomas Marshall 32
33
29 Warren Harding
[105][106][107][108]
Warren G Harding portrait as senator June 1920.jpg 4 Mac 1921 2 Ogos 1923[n 2] Republik Calvin Coolidge 34
30 Calvin Coolidge
[109][110][111][112]
Calvin Coolidge photo portrait head and shoulders.jpg 2 Ogos 1923 3 Mac 1929 Republik Kosong
Charles Dawes 35
31 Herbert Hoover
[113][114][115][116]
HerbertHoover.jpg 4 Mac 1929 3 Mac 1933 Republik Charles Curtis 36
32 Franklin Roosevelt
[117][118][119][120]
FDR in 1933.jpg 4 Mac 1933 12 April 1945 [n 2] Demokrat John Garner 37
38
Henry Wallace 39
Harry Truman 40
33 Harry Truman
[121][122][123][124]
Harry S. Truman.jpg 12 April 1945 20 Januari 1953 Demokrat Kosong
Alben Barkley 41
34 Dwight Eisenhower
[125][126][127][128]
Eisenhower official.jpg 20 Januari 1953 20 Januari 1961 Republik Richard Nixon 42
43
35 John Kennedy
[129][130][131][132]
John F Kennedy.jpg 20 Januari 1961 22 November 1963 [4] Demokrat Lyndon Johnson 44
36 Lyndon Johnson
[133][134][135][136]
Lbj2.jpg 22 November 1963 20 Januari 1969 Demokrat Kosong
Hubert Humphrey 45
37 Richard Nixon
[137][138][139][140]
Nixon 30-0316a.jpg 20 Januari 1969 9 Ogos 1974[2] Republik Spiro Agnew 46
Spiro Agnew [R]
Kosong
Gerald Ford
47
38 Gerald Ford
[141][142][143][144]
Gerald Ford.jpg 9 Ogos 1974 20 Januari 1977 Republik Kosong
Nelson Rockefeller
39 Jimmy Carter
[145][146][147][148]
Jimmy Carter.jpg 20 Januari 1977 20 Januari 1981 Demokrat Walter Mondale 48
40 Ronald Reagan
[149][150][151][152]
Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg 20 Januari 1981 20 Januari 1989 Republik George H. W. Bush 49
50
41 George H. W. Bush
[153][154][155][156]
George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait.jpg 20 Januari 1989 20 Januari 1993 Republik Dan Quayle 51
42 Bill Clinton
[157][158][159][160]
Bill Clinton.jpg 20 Januari 1993 20 Januari 2001 Demokrat Al Gore 52
53
43 George W. Bush
[161][162][163][164]
George-W-Bush.jpeg 20 Januari 2001 20 Januari 2009 Republik Dick Cheney 54
55
44 Barack Obama
[165][166][167]
Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg 20 Januari 2009 Kini Demokrat Joe Biden 56

[1] Meninggal ketika masih menjawat sebagai naib presiden.
[2] Mengundurkan diri sebagai naib presiden.
[3] Meninggal ketika masih menjawat sebagai presiden.
[4] Seorang anggota parti Demokrat yang 'menumpang' parti Whig.
[5] Meninggal ketika menjawat sebagai naib, tidak diganti.
[6] Dibunuh.
[7] Seorang anggota parti Demokrat yang berdampingan dengan Lincoln, seorang anggota parti Republikan.
[8] Mengundurkan diri.
[9] Tidak dilantik sesuai dengan jadual.
[10] Masa jawatan lebih daripada dua penggal.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. The White House (March 12, 2007). "Biography of George Washington". Whitehouse.gov. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewashington/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  2. "The First President: 1789–1797 George Washington "Father of his Country"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/washington_george.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  3. "George Washington – Independent Party – 1st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/washington. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  4. "George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/gwashington.asp. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  5. "Biography of John Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnadams/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  6. "The Second President: 1797–1801 John Adams "Following in the Footsteps"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/adams_john.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  7. "John Adams – Federalist Party – 2nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/adams. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  8. "John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=2. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  9. "Biography of Thomas Jefferson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/thomasjefferson/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  10. "The Third President: 1801–1809 Thomas Jefferson "The Renaissance Leader"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/jefferson_thomas.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  11. "Thomas Jefferson – Democratic-Republican Party – 3rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/jefferson. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  12. "Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=3. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  13. "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesmadison/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  14. "The Fourth President: 1809–1817 James Madison "The Nation Builder"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/madison_james.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  15. "James Madison – Democratic-Republican Party – 4th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/madison. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  16. "James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=4. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  17. "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesmonroe/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  18. "The Fifth President: 1817–1825 James Monroe "The Era of Good Feelings"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/monroe_james.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  19. "James Monroe – Democratic-Republican Party – 5th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/monroe. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  20. "James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=5. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  21. "Biography of John Quincy Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnquincyadams/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  22. "The Sixth President: 1825–1829 John Quincy Adams "Born to Lead"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/adams_johnquincy.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  23. "John Quincy Adams – Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, WHIG Party – 6th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/johnqadams. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  24. "John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=6. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  25. "Biography of Andew Jackson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/andrewjackson/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  26. "The Seventh President: 1829–1837 Andrew Jackson "Old Hickory"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/jackson_andrew.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  27. "Andrew Jackson – Democratic-Republican Party – 7th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/jackson. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  28. "Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=7. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  29. "Biography of Martin Van Buren". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/martinvanburen/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  30. "The Eighth President: 1837–1841 Martin Van Buren "The Red Fox"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/vanburen_martin.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  31. "Martin Van Buren – Democratic-Republican, Democratic, and Free Soil Party – 8th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/vanburen. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  32. "Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=8. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  33. "Biography of William Henry Harrison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamhenryharrison/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  34. "The Ninth President: 1841–1841 William Henry Harrison "Old Tippecanoe"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/harrison_william.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  35. "William Henry Harrison – WHIG Party – 9th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/williamhenryharrison. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  36. "William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=9. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  37. "Biography of John Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johntyler/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  38. "The Tenth President: 1841–1845 John Tyler "His Accidency"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/tyler_john.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  39. "John Tyler – No Party – 10th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/tyler. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  40. "John Tyler (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=10. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  41. "Biography of James Polk". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamespolk/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  42. "The Eleventh President: 1845–1849 James Knox Polk "The Dark Horse"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/polk_james.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  43. "James Polk – Democratic Party – 11th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/polk. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  44. "James K. Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=11. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  45. "Biography of Zachary Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/zacharytaylor/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  46. "The Twelfth President: 1849–1850 Zachary Taylor "Old Rough-and-Ready"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/taylor_zachary.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  47. "Zachary Taylor – WHIG Party – 12th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/taylor. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  48. "Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=12. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  49. "Biography of Millard Fillmore". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/millardfillmore/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  50. "The Thirteenth President: 1850–1853 Millard Fillmore "Forgotten Leader"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/fillmore_millard.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  51. "Millard Filmore – WHIG Party – 13th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/fillmore. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  52. "Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=13. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  53. "Biography of Franklin Pierce". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklinpierce/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  54. "The Fourteenth President: 1853–1857 Franklin Pierce "Overwhelmed by Events"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/fillmore_millard.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  55. "Franklin Pierce – Democratic Party – 14th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/pierce. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  56. "Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=14. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  57. "Biography of James Buchanan". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesbuchanan/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  58. "The Fifteenth President: 1857–1861 James Buchanan "An American Hero"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/buchanan_james.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  59. "James Buchanan – Democratic Party – 15th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/buchanan. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  60. "James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=15. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  61. "Biography of Abraham Lincoln". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/abrahamlincoln/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  62. "The Sixteenth President: 1861–1865 Abraham Lincoln "The Great Emancipator"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/lincoln_abraham.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  63. "Abraham Lincoln – Republic, National Union Party – 16th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/lincoln. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  64. "Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=16. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  65. "Biography of Andrew Johnson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/andrewjohnson/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  66. "The Seventeenth President: 1865–1869 Andrew Johnson "Between North and South"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/johnson_andrew.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  67. "Andrew Johnson – National Union Party – 17th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/andrewjohnson. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  68. "Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=17. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  69. "Biography of Ulysses S. Grant". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ulyssessgrant/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  70. "The Eighteenth President: 1869–1877 Ulysses Simpson Grant "The Hero as Politician"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/grant_ulysses.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  71. "Ulysses S. Grant – National Union Party – 18th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/grant. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  72. "Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=18. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  73. "Biography of Rutherford B. Hayes". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/rutherfordbhayes/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  74. "The Nineteenth President: 1877–1881 Rutherford Birchard Hayes "Striving For A Fresh Start"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/hayes_rutherford.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  75. "Rutherford B. Hayes – Republican Party – 19th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/hayes. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  76. "Rutherford B. Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=19. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  77. "Biography of James Garfield". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesgarfield/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  78. "The Twentieth President: 1881–1881 James Abram Garfield "The Preacher"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/garfield_james.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  79. "James Garfield – Republican Party – 20th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/garfield. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  80. "James A. Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=20. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  81. "Biography of Chester Arthur". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/chesterarthur/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  82. "The Twenty-First President: 1881–1885 Chester Alan Arthur "The Self-Reformer"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/garfield_james.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  83. "Chester A. Arthur – Republican Party – 21st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/arthur. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  84. "Chester A. Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=21. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  85. 85.0 85.1 "Biography of Grover Cleveland". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada February 22, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090122233630/http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/grovercleveland/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  86. 86.0 86.1 "The Twenty-Second President: 1885–1889 The Twenty-Fourth President: 1893–1897 Grover Cleveland "The Self-Reformer"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/cleveland_grover.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  87. 87.0 87.1 "Grover Cleveland – Democratic Party – 22nd and 24th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/cleveland. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  88. 88.0 88.1 "Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=22. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  89. "Biography of Benjamin Harrison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/benjaminharrison/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  90. "The Twenty-Third President: 1889–1893 Benjamin Harrison "Presidential Grandson"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/cleveland_grover.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  91. "William Henry Harrison – Whig Party – 23rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/benjaminharrison. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  92. "Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=23. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  93. "Biography of William McKinley". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williammckinley/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  94. "The Twenty-Fifth President: 1897–1901 William McKinley "Bridge to a New Century"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/mckinley_william.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  95. "William McKinley – Republican Party – 25th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/mckinley. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  96. "William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=24. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  97. "Biography of Theodore Roosevelt". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/theodoreroosevelt/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  98. "The Twenty-Sixth President: 1901–1909 Theodore Roosevelt "The Giant in the Bully Pulpit"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/roosevelt_theodore.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  99. "Theodore Roosevelt – Republican, Bull Moose Party – 26th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/teddyroosevelt. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  100. "Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=25. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  101. "Biography of William Howard Taft". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamhowardtaft/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  102. "The Twenty-Seventh President: 1909–1913 William Howard Taft "Reluctant Leader"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/taft_william.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  103. "William Howard Taft – Republican Party – 27th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/taft. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  104. "William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=26. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  105. "Biography of Warren G. Harding". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/warrenharding/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  106. "The Twenty-Ninth President: 1921–1923 Warren Gamaliel Harding "Prophet Without Honor"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/harding_warren.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  107. "Warren Harding – Republican Party – 29th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/wilson. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  108. "Warren G. Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=28. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  109. "Biography of Calvin Coolidge". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/calvincoolidge/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  110. "The Thirtieth President: 1923–1929 Calvin Coolidge "The New Englander"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/coolidge_calvin.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  111. "Calvin Coolidge – Republican Party – 30th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/wilson. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  112. "Calvin Coolidge (July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=29. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  113. "Biography of Herbert Hoover". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/herberthoover/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  114. "The Thirty-First President: 1929–1933 Herbert Clark Hoover "The Great Engineer"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/hoover_herbert.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  115. "Herbert Hoover – Republican Party – 31st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/wilson. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  116. "Herbert Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=30. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  117. "Biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt". Whitehouse.gov. March 20, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklindroosevelt/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  118. "The Thirty-Second President: 1933–1945 Franklin Delano Roosevelt "New Dealer and Global Warrior"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/roosevelt_franklin.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  119. "Franklin D. Roosevelt – Democratic Party – 34th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/fdr. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  120. "Franklin D. Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=31. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  121. "Biography of Harry S Truman". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/harrystruman/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  122. "The Thirty-Third President: 1945–1953 Harry S. Truman "The Buck Stopped Here"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/truman_harry.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  123. "Harry S. Truman – Democratic Party – 33rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/fdr. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  124. "Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=32. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  125. "Biography of Dwight D. Eisenhower". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/dwightdeisenhower/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  126. "The Thirty-Fourth President: 1953–1961 Dwight David Eisenhower "I Like Ike"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/eisenhower_dwight.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  127. "Dwight D. Eisenhower – Democratic Party – 34th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/eisenhower. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  128. "Dwight D. Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=33. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  129. "Biography of John F. Kennedy". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  130. "The Thirty-Five President: 1961–1963 John Fitzgerald Kennedy "Inspiring A Generation"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/kennedy_john.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  131. "John F. Kennedy – Democratic Party – 35th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/kennedy. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  132. "John F. Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=34. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  133. "Biography of Lyndon B. Johnson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada February 22, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090122233819/http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/lyndonjohnson/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  134. "The Thirty-Sixth President: 1963–1969 Lyndon Baines Johnson "So Close To Greatness"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/johnson_lyndon.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  135. "Lyndon B. Johnson – Democratic Party – 36th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/kennedy. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  136. "Lyndon B. Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=35. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  137. "Richard M. Nixon". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/richardnixon/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  138. "The Thirty-Seventh President: 1969–1974 Richard Milhous Nixon "The Road to Watergate"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/nixon_richard.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  139. "Richard Nixon – Republican Party – 37th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/nixon. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  140. "Richard M. Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=36. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  141. "Biography of Gerald R. Ford". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/geraldford/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  142. "The Thirty-Eighth President: 1974–1977 Gerald Rudolph Ford "A Time for Healing"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/ford_gerald.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  143. "Gerald Ford – Republican Party – 38th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ford. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  144. "Gerald R. Ford (July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=37. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  145. "Biography of Jimmy Carter". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jimmycarter. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  146. "The Thirty-Ninth President: 1977–1981 James Earl Carter "Not a Politician"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/ford_gerald.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  147. "Jimmy Carter – Democratic Party – 39th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ford. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  148. "Jimmy Carter (October 1, 1924 – )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=38. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  149. "Biography of Ronald Reagan". Whitehouse.gov. June 25, 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ronaldreagan/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  150. "The Fortieth President: 1981–1989 Ronald Wilson Reagan "The Great Communicator"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/reagan_ronald.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  151. "Ronald Reagan – Republican Party – 40th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ford. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  152. "Ronald Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=39. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  153. "Biography of George Herbert Walker Bush". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgehwbush/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  154. "The Forty-First President: 1989–1993 George Herbert Walker Bush "The Last Cold Warrior"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/bush_george_sr.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  155. "George H. W. Bush – Republican Party – 41st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/georgebush. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  156. "George Bush (June 12, 1924 – )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=40. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  157. "Biography of William J. Clinton". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamjclinton/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  158. "The Forty-Second President: 1993–2001 William Jefferson Clinton "Prosperity And Turmoil"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/clinton_bill.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  159. "Bill Clinton – Democratic Party – 42nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/billclinton. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  160. "Bill Clinton (August 19, 1946 – )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=41. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  161. "Biography of President George W. Bush". Whitehouse.gov. February 25, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewbush/. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  162. "The Forty-Third President: 2001–present George Walker Bush". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/people/presidents/bush_george_jr.shtml. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  163. "George W. Bush – Republican Party – 43rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/georgewbush. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  164. "George W. Bush (July 6, 1946 – )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=42. Capaian January 12, 2009. 
  165. "President Barack Obama". Whitehouse.gov. January 20, 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/president_obama/. 
  166. "Barack Obama – Democratic Party – 44th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/obama. Capaian January 12 2009. 
  167. "Barack Obama (August 4, 1961 – )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=43. Capaian January 12, 2009. 

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