Teknologi Rom

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Pont du Gard di Perancis merupakan akueduk Rom yang dibina sekitar 19 SM.

Teknologi Rom merupakan praktik kejuruteraan yang menyokong tamadun Rom dan membolehkan pengembangan perdagangan dan ketenteraan Rom selama hampir seribu tahun.

Empayar Rom mempunyai set termaju teknologi pada masa itu, sesetengah darinya mungkin telah hilang semasa era bergolak Baharian Akhir (Late Antiquity) dan Zaman Pertengahan Awal. Secara beransur-ansur, sebahagian hasil teknologi Rom dijumpai semula dan/atau diperbaik dan yang lain pula – seperti senjata api, teknologi kapal layar termaju dan pencetakan taip boleh gerak – telah lebih maju dari apa yang telah dihasilkan Rom pada akhir Zaman Pertengahan dan permulaan era moden. Bagaimanapun, hasil teknologi Rom dalam beberapa bidang, seperti kejuruteraan awam, bahan pembinaan, teknologi pengangkutan, dan sesetengah rekaan seperti penuai mekanik tidak dapat ditandingi sehingga abad ke-19.

Proses memperoleh teknologi baru[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pengaruh luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kebanyakan apa yang telah dijelaskan sebagai teknologi Rom, bertentangan dengan yang Greek, datangnya secara lanjut daru peradaban Etruscan, yang thriving di Utara ketika Rom masih lagi sebuah kerajaan kecil. Rakyat Etruscan telah menyempurnakan gerbang batu, dan menggunakannya pada jambatan dan juga bangunan. Bandar-bandar Etruscan telah membina jalan, sistem longkang, tidak seperti banyak negara-bandar, yang mempunyai jalan tanah liat dan tiada perlongkangan kecuali filthy open-air trenches.

Sesetengah teknologi Rom kemudian diambila secara selanjutnya dari peradaban Greek. Banyak implementasi tanah berasaskan tentera Rom datang dari eksperimentasi dan pembangunan baru pada senjata peperangan Hellenistik yang raged berdekad di antara para pewaris Alexander Agung. kebanyakan negara bandar Greek mengendalakan senjata baru [perlu rujukan] yang dikilangkan sewaktu peperangan ini, menukarkan semula ke senjata Macedonia dan taktik yang lama, sementara Rom mengambil pembangunan baru dan menyerapkan mereka pada bentuk masyarakat mereka.

Roman fleets berasaskan secara lanjutnya pada Carthaginian quinqueremes tetapi menyerap secara cepat dengan inovasi Rom pada corvus (Polybius 1,21-23).

Kelajuan inovasi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Mangkuk kaca buah-buahan transparen. Lukisan di Villa Boscoreale Rom, Itali (abad pertama AD).

Inovasi skala kecil adalah umum sebagai peralatan secara tetap dibuat lebih efisien, seperti pembaikian roda overshot air dan pembaikian pembinaan wagon. Teknologi dapat dan telah muncul. Skala Empayar encouraged penyebaran geografi pada inovasi. The ideal Roman citizen was an articulate veteran soldier who could wisely govern a large family household, which was supported by slave labor. Innovators did have some prestige; Pliny, for example, often records their names, or has some story to account for the innovation. Romans also knew enough history to be aware that technological change had occurred in the past and brought benefits. Military innovation was always valued. One text, De Rebus Bellicis, devoted to a number of innovations in military machinery, has survived.

The apparent period in which technological progress was fastest and greatest was during the 2nd century and 1st century BC, which was the period in which Roman political and economic power greatly increased. Innovation continued until the fall of the Empire, and it would take hundreds of years for all of its technological advancements to be rediscovered by other civilizations. Our understanding of Roman technology is provided by Pliny's Naturalis Historia, the De Architectura of Vitruvius and the De Aquaductae of Frontinus, all reliable works which give good information, and many inventions they mention have been confirmed by modern archaeology. By the beginning of the 1st century, most of what is considered today as typical Roman technology was already invented and refined, such as: concrete, plumbing facilities, cranes, wagon technology, mechanized harvesting machines, domes, the arch in building practice, wine and oil presses, and glass blowing.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Current state of research

  • Andrew Wilson, "Machines, Power and the Ancient Economy", The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 92 (2002), pp. 1-32
  • Kevin Greene, "Technological Innovation and Economic Progress in the Ancient World: M.I. Finley Re-Considered", The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 53, No. 1. (Feb., 2000), pp. 29-59

General history of inventions

  • Derry, Thomas Kingston and Trevor I. Williams. A Short History of Technology: From the Earliest Times to A.D. 1900. New York : Dover Publications, 1993
  • Williams, Trevor I. A History of Invention From Stone Axes to Silicon Chips. New York, New York, Facts on File, 2000

Metallurgy

  • Neil Beagrie, "The Romano-British Pewter Industry", Britannia, Vol. 20 (1989), pp.169-91

Milling

  • Lewis, M.J.T., 1997, Millstone and Hammer, University of Hull Press
  • Moritz, L.A., 1958, Grainmills and Flour in Classical Antiquity, Oxford

Perlombongan

  • Oliver Davies, "Roman Mines in Europe", Clarendon Press (Oxford), 1935.
  • Jones G. D. B., I. J. Blakey, and E. C. F. MacPherson, "Dolaucothi: the Roman aqueduct," Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 19 (1960): 71-84 and plates III-V.
  • Lewis, P. R. and G. D. B. Jones, "The Dolaucothi gold mines, I: the surface evidence," The Antiquaries Journal, 49, no. 2 (1969): 244-72.
  • Lewis, P. R. and G. D. B. Jones, "Roman gold-mining in north-west Spain," Journal of Roman Studies 60 (1970): 169-85.
  • Lewis, P. R., "The Ogofau Roman gold mines at Dolaucothi," The National Trust Year Book 1976-77 (1977).
  • Barry C. Burnham, "Roman Mining at Dolaucothi: the Implications of the 1991-3 Excavations near the Carreg Pumsaint", Britannia 28 (1997), 325-336
  • A.H.V. Smith, "Provenance of Coals from Roman Sites in England and Wales", Britannia, Vol. 28 (1997), pp.297-324

Transport

  • Lewis, M. J. T., "Railways in the Greek and Roman world", in Guy, A. / Rees, J. (eds), Early Railways. A Selection of Papers from the First International Early Railways Conference (2001), pp. 8-19 (10-15)

Overview of ancient technology

  • Drachmann, A. G., Mechanical Technology of Greek and Roman Antiquity, Lubrecht & Cramer Ltd, 1963 ISBN 0934454612
  • Hodges, Henry., Technology in the Ancient World, London: The Penguin Press, 1970
  • Landels, J.G., Engineering in the Ancient World, University of California Press, 1978
  • White, K.D., Greek and Roman Technology, Cornell University Press, 1984

Sails

  • Toby, A.Steven "Another look at the Copenhagen Sarcophagus", International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 1974 vol.3.2: 205-211

Water supply

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Techhistory