Ucapan Gettysburg

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Satu dari dua gambar Abraham Lincoln yang disahkan.[1][2][3] (dibulatkan) di Gettysburg, diambil sekitar tengahari, sejurus selepas ketibaan Lincoln dan sekitar tiga jam sebelum ucapan. Disebelah kanan Lincoln pengawal peribadi, Ward Hill Lamon.

Ucapan Gettysburg adalah ucapan oleh Presiden Amerika Syarikat Abraham Lincoln, salah satu yang paling terkenal dalam sejarah Amerika Syarikat [4] Ia telah disampaikan oleh Lincoln semasa Perang Saudara Amerika Syarikat, pada petang Khamis 19 November 1863, di dedikasi di Pusara Kebangsaan Gettysburg di Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, empat dan setengah bulan selepas Perang Saudara Amerika Syarikat di mana tentera mengalahkan Negeri-negeri Gabungan Amerika Syarikat dalam Pertempuran Gettysburg.

Ucapan Abraham Lincoln ditulis dengan teliti, ucapan kedua untuk hari itu, telah dianggap sebagai salah satu ucapan paling hebat dalam sejarah Amerika Syarikat. Hanya dalam tempoh lebih dua minit, Lincoln menegaskan prinsip-prinsip kesaksamaan manusia didukung oleh Pengisytiharan Kemerdekaan [5] dan mengisytiharkan Perang Saudara sebagai perjuangan untuk memelihara Kesatuan yang berpecah disebabkan krisis pemisahan ,[6] dengan " kelahiran baru kebebasan," [7] that would bring true equality[8] bagi semua rakyatnya.[8] Lincoln turut menafsirkan kembali Perang Saudara sebagai bukan sekadar pihak Union, tetapi juga bagi prinsip kesamaan manusia.[5]

Bermula dengan frasa yang kini sebagai ikon "Empat skor ("20" dan tujuh tahun yang lalu" - merujuk kepada Pengistiharan Kemerdekaan Amerika Syarikat, yang ditulis pada permulaan Revolusi Amerika pada tahun 1776 - Lincoln mengkaji prinsip-prinsip pengasas Amerika Syarikat dalam konteks Perang Saudara, dan mengingatkan pengorbanan mereka yang memberi nyawa mereka di Gettysburg dan memuji kemuliaan bagi pendengar (dan negara) untuk memastikan kelangsungan hidup perwakilan demokrasi Amerika Syarikat, melalui "kerajaan bagi rakyat, oleh rakyat, untuk rakyat, tidak pupus dari bumi."

Disebalik kemashyuran ucapan tersebut dalam sejarah dan budaya popular di Amerika Syarikat, kata-katanya yang tepat dan lokasi ucapan adalah dipertikaikan. Lima manuskrip diketahui mengenai Ucapan Gettysburg yang berbeza dari segi beberapa butiran dan juga berbeza dari cetakan semula ucapan dalam akhbar kontemporari. Ramai sarjana moden meletakkan pelantar pemidato sekitar 40 meter (atau lebih) dari Tapak Tradisi dalam Pusara Kebangsaan Gettysburg di Peringatan Kebangsaan Tentera dan sepenuhnya dalam Pusara Evergreen swasta bersebelahan.

Surat David Wills menjemput Abraham Lincoln untuk memberi sepatah dua kata, mencatatkan bahawa Edward Everett akan memberikan ucapan.

Latar belakang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tentera Bersatu terkorban dalam Pertempuran Gettysburg, gambar oleh Timothy H. O'Sullivan, 5–6 Julai 1863

Berikuran 1–3 Julai 1863, Pertempuran Gettysburg, pengkebumian semula Tentera Bersatu ("Union") dari kubur Medan Pertempuran Gettysburg bermula pada 17 Oktober. Jawatan kuasa bagi 19 November Pengkudusan Pusara Kebangsaan di Gettysburg menjemput Presiden Lincoln: "Ia diingini bahawa, selepas Ucapan, anda, sebagai Ketua Exekutif negara, secara rasmi membahagikan tanah bagi kegunaan suci mereka dengan beberapa rangkap bersesuaian."[9] Ucapan Lincoln selepas ucapan Edward Everett, yang kemudiannya memasukkan satu salinan Ucapan Gettysburg dalam bukunya pada tahun 1864 mengenai kejadian (Ucapan oleh Yang Berhormat Edward Everett Di Pengkudusan Pusara Kebangsaan di Gettysburg, 19 November 1863, dengan Ucapan Dedikasi oleh Presiden Lincoln, dan Lain-lain Perlakuan Peristiwa; Accompanied by An Account of the Origin of the Undertaking and of the Arrangement of the Cemetery Grounds, and by a Map of the Battle-field and a Plan of the Cemetery).

Sepanjang perjalanan kereta api dari Washington, DC, ke Gettysburg pada 18 November, Lincoln menyatakan pada John Hay bahawa dia berasa lemah. Pada pagi 19 November, Lincoln menyebut pada John Nicolay bahawa dia pening. Di dalam kereta kereta api Presiden naik bersama setiausahanya, John G. Nicolay, penolong setiausaha, John Hay, ketiga-tiga anggota Kabinet yang mengiringi beliau, William H. Seward, John Palmer Usher dan Montgomery Blair, beberapa pegawai asing dan lain-lain.

Hay menyatakan bahawa semasa ucapan muka Lincoln mempunyai 'warna mengerikan' dan bahawa dia adalah ' sedih, muram, hampir lesu.' Selepas ucapan , apabila Lincoln menaiki kereta api 6:30 pm ke Washington, DC , beliau adalah demam dan lemah, dengan sakit kepala yang teruk. Satu penyakit berlarutan diikuti, termasuk ruam Stomatitis dan telah disahkan sebagai kes cacar ringan. Oleh itu ia seolah-olah besar kemungkinan Lincoln adalah dalam tempoh prodromal cacar apabila beliau menyampaikan ucapan Gettysburg.[10]

Program and Everett's "Gettysburg Oration"[sunting | sunting sumber]

Edward Everett memberikan Ucapan Dua Jam sebelum beberapa minit Ulasan Dedikasi Lincoln.

The program organized for that day by Wills and his committee included:

Muzik, oleh Birgfeld's Band[11]
Doa, by Reverend T.H. Stockton, D.D.
Muzik, oleh Band Marin Amerika Syarikat
Ucapan, oleh Hon. Edward Everett
Muzik, Hymn ditulis B.B. French, Esq.
Ucapan Dedikasi, oleh Presiden Amerika Syarikat
Dirge, dinyanyikan oleh Choir dipilih
Benediction, oleh Reverend H.L. Baugher, D.D.[9]
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.


Notes[sunting | sunting sumber]

a The Gettysburg Address: Nicolay copy. The Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2010-09-15.
b The Gettysburg Address: Hay copy. The Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2010-09-15.
c Everett copy (jpg). virtualgettsyburg.com. Retrieved from internet archive 2007-06-14 version on 2007-12-10.
d Bancroft copy cover letter (pic), Bancroft copy, page 1 (pic), page 2 (pic). Cornell University Library. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
e Bliss copy, page 1 (jpg), page 2 (jpg), page 3 (jpg). Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.

References[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. "Ultrarare photo of Abraham Lincoln discovered", 24 September 2013. Dicapai pada 25 September 2013. 
  2. "Will the Real Abraham Lincoln Please Stand Up?", Franz Lidz. Dicapai pada 3 October 2013. 
  3. Brian, Wolly (October 2013). "Interactive: Seeking Abraham Lincoln at the Gettysburg Address". Smithsonian Magazine. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/Interactive_Seeking_Abraham_Lincoln_at_the_Gettysburg_Address.html. Capaian 3 October 2013. 
  4. Historian James McPherson has called it "The most eloquent expression of the new birth of freedom brought forth by reform liberalism.", in McPherson, James M. Drawn with the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. p. 185. Google Book Search. Retrieved on November 27, 2007.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "The Gettysburg Address". History (TV channel). http://www.history.com/topics/gettysburg-address. Capaian 22 February 2013. 
  6. Robert J. McNamara. "Emancipation Proclamation". www.about.com 19th Century History. http://history1800s.about.com/od/1800sglossary/g/Emancipation-Proclamation.htm. Capaian March 7, 2012. 
  7. White Jr., Ronald C. The Words That Moved a Nation in: "Abraham Lincoln A Legacy of Freedom", Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State - Bureau of International Information Programs, p. 58.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Fox, Christopher Graham (12 September 2008). "A analysis of Abraham Lincoln's poetic Gettysburg Address". http://foxthepoet.blogspot.de. http://foxthepoet.blogspot.de/2008/09/poetical-analysis-of-abraham-lincolns.html. Capaian 21 August 2012. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Wills, Garry. Lincoln at Gettysburg. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992, pp. 24–25, p. 35, pp. 34–35, p. 36.
  10. Goldman AS, Schmalstieg FC Jr.. Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg illness J Med Biogr. 2007 May;15(2):104-10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17551612
  11. Boritt, Gabor. The Gettysburg Gospel: The Lincoln Speech That Nobody Knows. Simon & Schuster, Feb 5, 2008, 432 pages

Bibliography[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Barton, William E. (1950). Lincoln at Gettysburg: What He Intended to Say; What He Said; What he was Reported to have Said; What he Wished he had Said. New York: Peter Smith.
  • Boritt, Gabor (2006). The Gettysburg Gospel: The Lincoln Speech That Nobody Knows Simon & Schuster. 432 pp. ISBN 0-7432-8820-3
  • Busey, John W., and Martin, David G., Regimental Strengths and Losses at Gettysburg, 4th Ed., Longstreet House, 2005, ISBN 0-944413-67-6.
  • Frassanito, William A. (1995). Early Photography at Gettysburg. Gettysburg, PA: Thomas Publications. ISBN 978-1577470328.
  • Gramm, Kent. (2001) November: Lincoln's Elegy at Gettysburg. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34032-2.
  • Herndon, William H. and Welk, Jesse W. (1892) Abraham Lincoln: The True Story of A Great Life (Vol II). New York: D. Appleton and Company.
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  • Lafantasie, Glenn. "Lincoln and the Gettysburg Awakening." Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 1995 16(1): 73–89. Issn: 0898-4212
  • McPherson, James M. (1988). Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford History of the United States). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503863-0.
  • McPherson, James M. (1996). Drawn with the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509679-7
  • Murphy, Jim. (1992) The Long Road to Gettysburg. New York: Clarion Books. 128 pp. ISBN 0-395-55965-0
  • Prochnow, Victor Herbert. ed. (1944). Great Stories from Great Lives. Freeport: Books for Libraries Press, 1944. ISBN 0-8369-2018-X
  • Rawley, James A. (1966). Turning Points of the Civil War. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-8935-9.
  • Reid, Ronald F. "Newspaper Responses to the Gettysburg Addresses." Quarterly Journal of Speech 1967 53(1): 50–60. Issn: 0033-5630.
  • Sandburg, Carl. (1939) "Lincoln Speaks at Gettysburg." In: Abraham Lincoln: The War Years New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company. II, 452-457. ASIN: B000BPD8GC
  • Sauers, Richard A. (2000) "Battle of Gettysburg." In Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History. Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
  • Selzer, Linda. "Historicizing Lincoln: Garry Wills and the Canonization of the 'Gettysburg Address." Rhetoric Review Vol. 16, No. 1 (Autumn, 1997), pp. 120–137.
  • Simon, et al., eds. (1999) The Lincoln Forum: Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg, and the Civil War. Mason City: Savas Publishing Company. ISBN 1-882810-37-6
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  • Wieck, Carl F. (2002) Lincoln's Quest for Equality: The Road to Gettysburg. Northern Illinois University Press. 224 pp. ISBN 0-87580-299-0
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External links[sunting | sunting sumber]

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