Abwehr

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Perkhidmatan radio rahsia OKW (Luar Negeri/Pejabat Pertahanan)

Abwehr (disebut [ˈapveːɐ̯], "Pertahanan") adalah sebuah organisasi perisikan tentera Jerman yang wujud dari tahun 1920 hingga 1945.[1][2] Walaupun hakikatnya Persetiaan Versailles melarang pihak Jerman daripada mewujudkan sebuah organisasi perisikan mereka sendiri,[3] namun mereka membentuk satu kumpulan pengintipan pada tahun 1920 dalam kementerian pertahanan mereka, yang digelar Abwehr.[4] Tujuan awal Abwehr ialah mempertahankan negara daripada pengintipan asing - satu peranan organisasi yang kemudiannya berkembang dengan pesat.[5] Untuk tujuan ini, pihak Abwehr mengumpul maklumat dari dalam dan luar negeri, sebahagian besar dalam bentuk risikan manusia.[6] Dibawah Jeneral Kurt von Schleicher unit-unit risikan tentera individu telah digabungkan dan pada tahun 1929, diletakkan dibawah Kementerian Pertahanannya, membentuk asas penubuhan Abwehr. Setiap stesen Abwehr diseluruh Jerman telah ditempatkan di daerah-daerah tentera dan lebih banyak pejabat dibuka di negara-negara berkecuali dan di wilayah-wilayah taklukan sejajar dengan perluasan Reich yang lebih besar.[7] Apabila Adolf Hitler menggantikan Kementerian Perang dengan OKW dan menjadikan organisasi itu sebahagian daripada "staf kerja" peribadi Führer pada Jun 1938, Abwehr telah menjadi agensi perisikannya dan Laksamana Madya Wilhelm Canaris telah dilantik sebagai ketua organisasi itu.[8][9] Ibupejabat (HQ) Abwehr terletak di 76/78 Tirpitzufer, Berlin, bersebelahan dengan pejabat OKW.[10]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Grams, Grant W.: “Enemies within our bosom, Nazi Sabotage in Canada”, in John Ferris, Jim Keeley, Terry Terriff (eds.) Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, 2012.

Nota dan rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Holmes, ed. (2009). The Oxford Companion to Military History, p. 2.
  2. ^ Originally formed in 1866, the early manifestation of the Prussian Abwehr predates the modern German state and was created to collect intelligence information for the Prussian government during a war with neighboring Austria. See: Lerner & Lerner, eds. (2004). Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security, vol. 1, A-E, p. 2.
  3. ^ In particular, the British and the French were vehemently opposed to Germany having any form of intelligence services and attempted to institute as many restrictions as possible on the Abwehr. See: Paine (1984). German Military Intelligence in World War II: The Abwehr, p. 7.
  4. ^ The term Abwehr is German for 'ward-off' and was chosen to emphasize the defensive character of this department of the Reichswehr Ministry following the First World War. See: Zentner & Bedürftig, eds, (1991). The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich vol. 1, p. 2.
  5. ^ Dear, ed. (1995). The Oxford Guide to World War II, p. 1.
  6. ^ Rein (2013). The Kings and the Pawns: Collaboration in Byelorussia during World War II, p. 407.
  7. ^ Taylor & Shaw (2002). Dictionary of the Third Reich, p. 11.
  8. ^ Taylor (1995)[1952]. Sword and Swastika: Generals and Nazis in the Third Reich, p. 165.
  9. ^ The OKW did not establish an Intelligence Branch in its Operations Staff until 1943, and, when it did, it only consisted of three officers.
  10. ^ Despite the location of its HQ, in reality the power lay in the field via the "Abwehrstelle" or "Ast" of the Abwehr—see section titled 1938 reorganisation.

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