Aras pengukuran

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Aras pengukuran atau skala ukuran ialah pengelasan yang menghuraikan sifat maklumat di dalam nilai yang ditugaskan dengan pemboleh ubah.[1] Ahli psikologi Stanley Smith Stevens menghasilkan pengelasan terkenal dengan empat aras, atau skala, pengukuran: nominal, ordinal, jarak, dan nisbah.[1][2] Rangka kerja aras pengukuran yang membezakan asalnya dari psikologi dan dikritik meluas oleh sarjana dalam disiplin lain.[3] Pengelasan lain termasuk yang dihasilkan oleh Mosteller dan Tukey,[4] and by Chrisman.[5]

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  1. ^ a b Kirch, Wilhelm, penyunting (2008). "Level of Measurement". Encyclopedia of Public Health. 2. Springer. m/s. 851–852. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5614-7_1971. ISBN 978-1-4020-5613-0.
  2. ^ Stevens, S. S. (7 June 1946). "On the Theory of Scales of Measurement". Science. 103 (2684): 677–680. Bibcode:1946Sci...103..677S. doi:10.1126/science.103.2684.677. PMID 17750512. S2CID 4667599.
  3. ^ Michell, J. (1986). "Measurement scales and statistics: a clash of paradigms". Psychological Bulletin. 100 (3): 398–407. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.100.3.398.
  4. ^ Mosteller, Frederick (1977). Data analysis and regression : a second course in statistics. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0201048544.
  5. ^ Chrisman, Nicholas R. (1998). "Rethinking Levels of Measurement for Cartography". Cartography and Geographic Information Science. 25 (4): 231–242. doi:10.1559/152304098782383043. ISSN 1523-0406.Templat:Subscription needed

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See also reprints in:
  • Hardcastle, G. L. (1995). "S. S. Stevens and the origins of operationism". Philosophy of Science. 62 (3): 404–424. doi:10.1086/289875.
  • Lord, F. M., & Novick, M. R. (1968). Statistical theories of mental test scores. Reading, MA: Addison–Wesley.
  • Luce, R. D. (1986). "Uniqueness and homogeneity of ordered relational structures". Journal of Mathematical Psychology. 30 (4): 391–415. doi:10.1016/0022-2496(86)90017-9.
  • Luce, R. D. (1987). "Measurement structures with Archimedean ordered translation groups". Order. 4 (2): 165–189. doi:10.1007/bf00337695. S2CID 16080432.
  • Luce, R. D. (1997). "Quantification and symmetry: commentary on Michell 'Quantitative science and the definition of measurement in psychology'". British Journal of Psychology. 88 (3): 395–398. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1997.tb02645.x.
  • Luce, R. D. (2000). Utility of uncertain gains and losses: measurement theoretic and experimental approaches. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Luce, R. D. (2001). "Conditions equivalent to unit representations of ordered relational structures". Journal of Mathematical Psychology. 45 (1): 81–98. doi:10.1006/jmps.1999.1293. PMID 11178923. S2CID 12231599.
  • Luce, R. D.; Tukey, J. W. (1964). "Simultaneous conjoint measurement: a new scale type of fundamental measurement". Journal of Mathematical Psychology. 1: 1–27. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.334.5018. doi:10.1016/0022-2496(64)90015-x.
  • Michell, J. (1986). "Measurement scales and statistics: a clash of paradigms". Psychological Bulletin. 100 (3): 398–407. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.100.3.398.
  • Michell, J. (1997). "Quantitative science and the definition of measurement in psychology". British Journal of Psychology. 88 (3): 355–383. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1997.tb02641.x. S2CID 143169737.
  • Michell, J. (1999). Measurement in Psychology – A critical history of a methodological concept. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Michell, J. (2008). "Is psychometrics pathological science?". Measurement – Interdisciplinary Research & Perspectives. 6 (1–2): 7–24. doi:10.1080/15366360802035489. S2CID 146702066.
  • Narens, L. (1981a). "A general theory of ratio scalability with remarks about the measurement-theoretic concept of meaningfulness". Theory and Decision. 13: 1–70. doi:10.1007/bf02342603. S2CID 119401596.
  • Narens, L. (1981b). "On the scales of measurement". Journal of Mathematical Psychology. 24 (3): 249–275. doi:10.1016/0022-2496(81)90045-6.
  • Rasch, G. (1960). Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for Educational Research.
  • Rozeboom, W. W. (1966). "Scaling theory and the nature of measurement". Synthese. 16 (2): 170–233. doi:10.1007/bf00485356. S2CID 46970420.
  • Stevens, S. S. (June 7, 1946). "On the Theory of Scales of Measurement" (PDF). Science. 103 (2684): 677–680. Bibcode:1946Sci...103..677S. doi:10.1126/science.103.2684.677. PMID 17750512. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal (PDF) pada 25 November 2011. Dicapai pada 16 September 2010.
  • Stevens, S. S. (1951). Mathematics, measurement and psychophysics. In S. S. Stevens (Ed.), Handbook of experimental psychology (pp. 1–49). New York: Wiley.
  • Stevens, S. S. (1975). Psychophysics. New York: Wiley.
  • von Eye, A. (2005). "Review of Cliff and Keats, Ordinal measurement in the behavioral sciences". Applied Psychological Measurement. 29 (5): 401–403. doi:10.1177/0146621605276938.

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