Asimetri maklumat

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Dalam teori kontrak dan ekonomi, tawaran asimetri maklumat dengan kajian keputusan dalam transaksi di mana satu pihak mempunyai lebih atau lebih baik maklumat daripada yang lain. Asimetri ini menimbulkan ketidakseimbangan daya dalam urus niaga, yang kadangkala boleh menyebabkan transaksi tidak efisien menyebabkan kegagalan pasaran dalam keadaan terburuk. Contoh masalah ini ialah pemilihan buruk,[1] bahaya moral, dan monopoli pengetahuan.[2]

Imbangan kuasa dengan maklumat yang sempurna

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Charles Wilson (2008). "adverse selection," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics 2nd Edition. Abstract.
  2. ^ John O. Ledyard (2008). "market failure,"  The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Ed.  Abstract.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Aboody, David; Lev, Baruch (2000). "Information Asymmetry, R&D, and Insider Gains". Journal of Finance. 55 (6): 2747–2766. doi:10.1111/0022-1082.00305.
  • Akerlof, George A. (1970). "The Market for 'Lemons': Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism". Quarterly Journal of Economics. 84 (3): 488–500. doi:10.2307/1879431. JSTOR 1879431.
  • Bartov, Eli; Bodnar, Gordon M. (1996). "Alternative Accounting Methods, Information Asymmetry and Liquidity: Theory and Evidence". The Accounting Review. 71 (3): 397–418. JSTOR 248295 – melalui JSTOR.
  • Brown, Stephen; Hillegeist, Stephen; Lo, Kin (2004). "Conference calls and information asymmetry". Journal of Accounting and Economics. 37 (3): 343–366. doi:10.1016/j.jacceco.2004.02.001.
  • Hayes, Beth (1984). "Unions and Strikes with Asymmetric Information" (PDF). Journal of Labor Economics. [University of Chicago Press, Society of Labor Economists, NORC at the University of Chicago]. 2 (1): 57–83. doi:10.1086/298023. hdl:10419/220907. JSTOR 2535017. S2CID 154864920.
  • Ikenberry, G. John (1999). "Causes of War: Power and the Roots of International Conflict by Stephen Van Evers". Foreign Affairs. 78 (4): 128–9. doi:10.2307/20049381. JSTOR 20049381.
  • Izquierdo, Segismundo S.; Izquierdo, Luis R. (2007). "The impact of quality uncertainty without asymmetric information on market efficiency". Journal of Business Research. 60 (8): 858–867. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.412.9956. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.02.010. ISSN 0148-2963.
  • Jackson, Matthew O.; Morelli, Massimo (2011). "The Reasons for Wars – an Updated Survey". Dalam Coyne, Chris J.; Mathers, Rachel L. (penyunting). The Handbook on the Political Economy of War. Edward Elgar Publishing. m/s. 34–57. ISBN 978-1849808323.
  • Koehler, Benedikt; (2020) “Thomas Aquinas on the conduct of sales.” Economic Affairs. 40 (3): 358-366. doi.org/10.1111/ecaf.12436
  • Mas-Colell, Andreu; Whinston, Michael D.; Green, Jerry R. (1995). Microeconomic Theory. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507340-9. (Chaps. 13 and 14 discuss applications of adverse selection and moral hazard models to contract theory.)
  • Mavlanova, Tamilla; Benbunan-Fich, Raquel; Koufaris, Marios (2012). "Signaling theory and information asymmetry in online commerce". Information & Management. 49 (5): 240–247. doi:10.1016/j.im.2012.05.004 – melalui Elsevier.
  • Saxton, Gregory; Anker, Ashley (2013). "The Aggregate Effects of Decentralized Knowledge Production: Financial Bloggers and Information Asymmetries in the Stock Market". Journal of Communication. Wiley Subscription Services, Inc. 63 (6): 1054–1069. doi:10.1111/jcom.12060.
  • Spence, Michael (1973). "Job Market Signaling". Quarterly Journal of Economics. The MIT Press. 87 (3): 355–374. doi:10.2307/1882010. JSTOR 1882010.
  • Stigler, George J. (1961). "The Economics of Information". Journal of Political Economy. University of Chicago Press. 69 (3): 213–225. doi:10.1086/258464. JSTOR 1829263. S2CID 222441709.

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