Bahasa Hungary

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Hungarian
magyar, magyar nyelv
Sebutanakan ditambah
Asli diHungary dan kawasan Austria timur, Croatia, Poland, Romania, utara Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, barat Ukraine.
EtnikOrang Hungary
Penutur asli13 juta  (2002–2012)e18
Keluarga bahasa
Bahasa Ural
Sistem penulisanRumi (Abjad Hungary)
Braille Hungary
Abjad Hungary Lama
Status rasmi
Bahasa rasmi di Hungary
 Kesatuan Eropah
Diiktiraf sebagai bahasa minoriti dalam Romania
 Serbia (di Vojvodina)
 Croatia
 Slovakia
 Slovenia (di Prekmurje)
 Austria (di Burgenland)
 Ukraine (di Beregove, Mukachevo, Vinogradovo dan daerah-daerah Uzhgorod Kawasan Transkarpation (Oblast Zakarpatska)
Dikawal olehInstitut Penyelidikan untuk Linguistik Akademi Hungary Sains
Kod bahasa
ISO 639-1hu
ISO 639-2hun
ISO 639-3Either:
hun — Hungary Moden
ohu — Hungary Lama
Linguist Listohu Hungary Lama
Linguasphere41-BAA-a
Idioma húngaro.PNG
Wilayah Eropah Tengah yang bahasa ibundanya bahasa Hungary mewakili majoriti (biru tua) dan minoriti (biru muda). Berdasarkan banci terkini dan Buku Fakta Dunia CIA 2014[1]

Bahasa Hungary atau Bahasa Magyar (magyar nyelv Mengenai audio ini listen ) merupakan satu ahli famili bahasa-bahasa Finno-Ugrik, secara terperincinya satu bahasa Ugrik yang tiada pertalian darah dengan bahasa-bahasa Eropah Tengah yang lain. Sebagai salah satu daripada sebilangan kecil bahasa Eropah moden yang tidak tergolong dalam famili bahasa-bahasa Indo-Eropah, bahasa Hungary banyak meraih minat para pakar bahasa. Bahasa ini ditutur di negara Hungary serta kaum minoriti Hungary di tujuh buah negara yang berjiran dengan Hungary. Nama tempatan bahasa ini disebut magyar [ˈmɒɟɒr̪].

Terdapat kira-kira 13 juta orang yang menutur bahasa Hungary sebagai bahasa ibunda, termasuk 9.5-10 juta orang yang tinggal di Hungary zaman sekarang. Terdapat dua juta orang penutur yang tinggal di kawasan yang dahulunya merupakan sebahagian Kerajaan Hungary sebelum Perang Dunia Pertama, termasuklah kumpulan terbesar yang tinggal Romania, di mana terdapat kira-kira 1.4 juta orang berbangsa Hungary. Penutur bahasa Hungary juga didapati di Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, Croatia, Austria, dan Slovenia, serta kira-kira sejuta orang yang tinggal merata tempat di seluruh dunia.

Ortografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bahasa ini mempunyai abjad tersendiri yang digunakan untuk menulis dan mewakilkan bunyi-bunyi khas ia:

Letter Name Phoneme (IPA) Complementary allophones (IPA)[2] Padanan sebutan terhampir (baik dalam bahasa Melayu, Inggeris dsb) Notes
A a /ɒ/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Open back rounded vowel.ogg|]]  similar to British English cot [ɑ̝̹] might describe it better (raised, more rounded; sign rendered probably incorrectly, containing two diacritical marks below). Still definitely not [ɔ], but more like [ɒ] (the o in traditional Received Pronunciation hot)
Á á /aː/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Open front unrounded vowel.ogg|]]  segar Not nearly as open as the a in American English hat, but closer to it than Hungarian a (without the accent mark)
B /b/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:voiced bilabial plosive.ogg|]]  bayi
C /ts/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Voiceless_alveolar_sibilant_affricate.oga|]]  like pots
Cs csé /tʃ/ cacing
D /d/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Voiced alveolar plosive.ogg|]]  dadu
Dz dzé /dz/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:voiced alveolar affricate.ogg|]]  kids rare. does not occur at the beginning of words. When neither post- nor preconsonantic, always realised as a geminate.
Dzs dzsé /dʒ/ jari, jaja, George, bridge rare, mostly in loanwords. when final or intervocalic, usually realised as a geminate: maharadzsa /mɑhɑrɑdʒɑ/ [mɑhɑrɑd͡ʒːɑ] 'maharajah', bridzs /bridʒ/ [brid͡ʒː] 'bridge (card game)', but dzsungel /dʒuŋɡɛl/ [d͡ʒuŋɡɛl] 'jungle', fridzsider /fridʒidɛr/ [frid͡ʒidɛr] coll. 'refrigerator'
E e /ɛ/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Open-mid front unrounded vowel.ogg|]]  lewat (é); edge atau bed about 40-50% of speakers also have a phoneme /e/ (see below at Ë). /e/ is not considered part of standard Hungarian, wherein /ɛ/ takes the place of /e/.
É é /eː/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Close-mid front unrounded vowel.ogg|]]  é [lewat] panjang
F ef /f/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:voiceless labiodental fricative.ogg|]]  fikir, euforia
G /ɡ/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Voiced velar plosive.ogg|]]  gigi
Gy gyé /ɟ/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Voiced palatal plosive.ogg|]]  (not used in English; soft form of /d/. Mostly similar to during, as pronounced in Received Pronunciation) denoting /ɟ/ by <gy> is a remnant of (probably) Italian scribes who tried to render the Hungarian sound. <dy> would be a more consistent notation in scope of <ty>, <ny>, <ly> (see there), as the <y> part of digraphs show palatalisation in the Hungarian writing system.
H /h/ 1. [ɦ]Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Voiced glottal fricative.ogg|]] 2.

3. [x]Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:voiceless velar fricative.ogg|]] 

4. [ç]Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:voiceless palatal fricative.ogg|]] 

Pada mula:
  • hairan, human

Antara dua vokal:

  • berahi

Pada hujung:

I i /i/ diri - lebih pendek daripada í
Í í /iː/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Close front unrounded vowel.ogg|]]  I panjang Vowel length is phonemically distinctive in Hungarian: irt = 'to exterminate' and írt = 'to write (past tense)'
J /j/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Palatal approximant.ogg|]]  [ç], [ʝ] iya, yoyo allophones occur when /j/ occurs after a consonant; (voiceless after voiceless, voiced after voiced consonants). e.g. férj 'husband', kapj 'get! (imperative)'
K /k/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Voiceless velar plosive.ogg|]]  kaki
L el /l/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:alveolar lateral approximant.ogg|]]  laluan
Ly elly, el-ipszilon /j/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Palatal approximant.ogg|]]  / /ʎ/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Palatal approximant.ogg|]]  play, pray
M em /m/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:bilabial nasal.ogg|]]  mind, assume, might,
N en /n/ [ŋ]Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:velar nasal.ogg|]] [n]Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:alveolar nasal.ogg|]]  nasib, bahan (kecuali sebelum huruf 'k' dan 'g' di mana - nganga, barang) allophone before /k/, /ɡ/
Ny eny /ɲ/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:palatal nasal.ogg|]]  nyanyi
O o /o/ bohong A shorter, more open variant of Ó. Unlike with short e, which is opened to /ɛ/ in standard speech, short o remains /o/, rather than opening to /ɔ/ where it would come close to clashing with short a.
Ó ó /oː/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Close-mid back rounded vowel.ogg|]]  'O' panjang Same as /o/ except longer. It is important to pay attention to. (eg.: kor = 'age' and kór = 'disease')
Ö ö /ø/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Close-mid front rounded vowel.ogg|]]  Sebutan "E pepet" (ĕ / berat) dengan bibir lebih membundar A shorter, more open variant of Ő
Ő ő /øː/ 'Ö' panjang Minimal pair to /ø/: öt = 'five' and őt = 'him/her (Hungarian pronouns do not specify gender)'
P /p/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Voiceless bilabial plosive.ogg|]]  pisau, aprikot, tutup
(Q) Q occurs only as part of the digraph qu in foreign words, realised as /kv/: Aquincum [ɑkviŋkum] (name of an old Roman settlement on the area of present-day Óbuda). Words originally spelled with qu are today usually spelled with kv, as in akvarell 'watercolor painting'.
R er /r/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:alveolar trill.ogg|]]  rambut also called apical trill as pronounced by trilling the tip of your tongue (the apex) and not the uvula.
S es /ʃ/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Voiceless_palato-alveolar_sibilant.ogg|]]  syahwat, syor This notation is unusual for European writing systems where <s> stands for /s/ virtually everywhere. In Hungarian, /s/ is represented by <sz>.
Sz esz /s/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Voiceless_alveolar_sibilant.ogg|]]  susu
T /t/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:voiceless alveolar plosive.ogg|]]  tarik, lewat, bintik
Ty tyé /c/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Voiceless palatal plosive.ogg|]]  tube
U u /u/ dahulu
Ú ú /uː/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Close back rounded vowel.ogg|]]  'u' panjang minimal pair to /u/: hurok 'loop' ∼ húrok 'cords'
Ü ü /y/ (not used in English, corresponds to German Ü) A shorter, more open variant of ű
Ű ű /yː/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Close front rounded vowel.ogg|]]  'Ü' panjang
V /v/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:voiced labiodental fricative.ogg|]]  video, revolusi, vakum
(W) dupla vé /v/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:voiced labiodental fricative.ogg|]]  only occurs in foreign words and in Hungarian aristocratic surnames
(X) iksz occurs only in loanwords, and there only when denoting /ks/; [ɡz] is transcribed: extra, Alexandra, but egzakt 'exact'.
(Y) ipszilon /i/ happy Usually combined with another letter to form a new sound (see ly, ny, gy, ty). In loanwords, usually rendered as /i/ or /j/. Occurs very often in old Hungarian aristocratic surnames where it stands for /i/ or /ʲi/: 'Báthory' [baːtori], 'Batthyány' [bɑcːaːɲi] or [bɑcːaːni] (<n>+<y> ∼ /ɲi/)
Z /z/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Voiced_alveolar_sibilant.ogg|]]  desert, roses
Zs zsé /ʒ/Mengenai audio ini [[:Media:Voiced_palato-alveolar_sibilant.ogg|]]  pleasure, leisure

Perbandingan perkataan Uralik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Wiktionary: Senarai Swadesh bagi bahasa-bahasa Uralik

Hungary Finland Estonia Erzya Komi-Permyak Makna

Melayu

# mengikut
senarai Swadesh
én minä mina мон mon ме me saya 1
te sinä sina тон ton тэ te kamu 2
ő hän (dia)

se (ia)

tema сон son сійö dia, ia 3
mi me meie, me минь miń ми mi kami/kita 4
ti te teie, te тынь tyń ти ti kalian 5
ez/itt tämä/täällä see те te тайö tajö ini/sini 7
az/ott tuo/tuolla too што što сійö sijö itu/situ 8
ki? kuka? kes? кие? kije? коді? kodi? siapa? 11
mi? mitä? mikä? mis? мезе? meze? мый? myj? apa? 12
egy yksi üks вейке vejke öтік ötik satu 22
kettő kaksi kaks кавто kavto кык kyk dua 23
három kolme kolm колмо kolmo куим kuim tiga 24
négy neljä neli ниле nile нёль ńol empat 25
öt viisi viis вете vete вит vit lima 26
nej nainen 'woman' naine ни ni гöтыр götyr isteri 40
anya äiti ema (тиринь) ава (tiriń) ava мам mam ibu 42
fa puu puu чувто čuvto пу pu pokok 51
vér veri veri верь veŕ вир vir darah 64
haj hius, hiukset juuksed черь čeŕ юрси jursi rambut 71
fej pää pea пря pŕa юр jur kepala 72
fül korva kõrv пиле pile пель peĺ telinga 73
szem silmä silm сельме seĺme син sin mata 74
orr nenä nina судо sudo ныр nyr hidung 75
száj suu suu курго kurgo вом vom mulut 76
fog hammas hammas пей pej пинь piń gigi 77
láb jalka jalg пильге piĺge кок kok kaki 80
kéz käsi käsi кедь ked́ ки ki tangan 83
szív/szűny sydän süda седей sedej сьöлöм śölöm jantung 90
inni juoda jooma симемс simems юны juny minum 92
tudni tietää teadma содамс sodams тöдны tödny tahu 103
élni elää elama эрямс eŕams овны ovny hidup 108
víz vesi vesi ведь ved́ ва va air 150
kivi kivi кев kev из iz batu 156
ég/menny taivas taevas менель meneĺ енэж jenezh langit 162
szél tuuli tuul варма varma тöв töv angin 163
tűz tuli tuli тол tol би bi api 167
éj öö ве ve вой voj malam 177

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kursus[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • MagyarOK – Text book and exercise book for beginners. Szita, Szilvia; Pelcz, Katalin (2013). Pécs; Pécsi Tudományegyetem. MagyarOK website ISBN 978-963-7178-68-9.
  • Colloquial Hungarian – The complete course for beginners. Rounds, Carol H.; Sólyom, Erika (2002). London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24258-4.
This book gives an introduction to the Hungarian language in 15 chapters. The dialogues are available on CDs.
  • Teach Yourself Hungarian – A complete course for beginners. Pontifex, Zsuzsa (1993). London: Hodder & Stoughton. Chicago: NTC/Contemporary Publishing. ISBN 0-340-56286-2.
This is a complete course in spoken and written Hungarian. The course consists of 21 chapters with dialogues, culture notes, grammar and exercises. The dialogues are available on cassette.
These course books were developed by the University of Debrecen Summer School program for teaching Hungarian to foreigners. The books are written completely in Hungarian and therefore unsuitable for self study. There is an accompanying 'dictionary' with translations of the Hungarian vocabulary into English, German, and French for the words used in the first two books.
  • "NTC's Hungarian and English Dictionary" by Magay and Kiss. ISBN 0-8442-4968-8 (You may be able to find a newer edition also. This one is 1996.)

Tatabahasa[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Gyakorló magyar nyelvtan / A Practical Hungarian grammar (2009, 2010). Szita Szilvia, Görbe Tamás. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. 978 963 05 8703 7.
  • A practical Hungarian grammar (3rd, rev. ed.). Keresztes, László (1999). Debrecen: Debreceni Nyári Egyetem. ISBN 963-472-300-4.
  • Simplified Grammar of the Hungarian Language (1882). Ignatius Singer. London: Trübner & Co.
  • Practical Hungarian grammar: [a compact guide to the basics of Hungarian grammar]. Törkenczy, Miklós (2002). Budapest: Corvina. ISBN 963-13-5131-9.
  • Hungarian verbs and essentials of grammar: a practical guide to the mastery of Hungarian (2nd ed.). Törkenczy, Miklós (1999). Budapest: Corvina; Lincolnwood, [Ill.]: Passport Books. ISBN 963-13-4778-8.
  • Hungarian: an essential grammar (2nd ed.). Rounds, Carol (2009). London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-77737-2.
  • Hungarian: Descriptive grammar. Kenesei, István, Robert M. Vago, and Anna Fenyvesi (1998). London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-02139-1.
  • Hungarian Language Learning References (including the short reviews of three of the above books)
  • Noun Declension Tables – HUNGARIAN. Budapest: Pons. Klett. ISBN 978-963-9641-04-4
  • Verb Conjugation Tables – HUNGARIAN. Budapest: Pons. Klett. ISBN 978-963-9641-03-7

Lain-lain[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Abondolo, Daniel Mario: Hungarian Inflectional Morphology. Akadémiai publishing. Budapest, 1988. ISBN 9630546302
  • Balázs, Géza: The Story of Hungarian. A Guide to the Language. Translated by Thomas J. DeKornfeld. Corvina publishing. Budapest, 1997. ISBN 9631343626
  • Stephanides, Éva H. (ed.): Contrasting English with Hungarian. Akadémiai publishing. Budapest, 1986. ISBN 9630539500

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/hu.html
  2. ^ List of complementary allophone variants possibly not complete.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Wikipedia
Wikipedia Bahasa Hungary, ensiklopedia bebas

Templat:Wiktionary category

Encyclopaedia Humana Hungarica[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kamus[sunting | sunting sumber]