Bahasa Indo-Iran

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Indo-Iranian
Indo-Iranic (Aryan)
Taburan
geografi:
South, Central, Western Asia, South East Europe and the Caucasus / Total speakers = approximately 1.5 billion in 15 countries
Klasifikasi bahasa:Indo-European
  • Indo-Iranian
Bahasa-proto:Proto-Indo-Iranian
Pembahagian:
ISO 639-5:iir
Glottolog:indo1320[1]
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Distribution of the Indo-Iranian languages

Bahasa Indo-Iran (juga bahasa-bahasa Indo-Iranic[2][3] atau bahasa Arya[4] ) merupakan cabang terbesar dan paling tenggara yang masih wujud dalam keluarga bahasa Indo-Eropah. Mereka mempunyai lebih daripada 1.5 bilion pembesar suara, merentang dari Eropah (Romani), Kurdistan (Kurdi dan Zaza–Gorani) dan Caucasus (Ossetia) ke arah timur ke Xinjiang(Sarikoli) dan Assam (Assam), dan selatan ke Sri Lanka (Sinhala) dan  Maldives (Maldive), dengan cawangan menjangkau sejauh Oceania dan Caribbean untuk Fiji Hindi dan Caribbean Hindustan masing-masing. Selain itu, terdapat komuniti diaspora besar penutur Indo-Iran di barat laut Eropah (United Kingdom), Amerika Utara (Amerika SyarikatKanada), AustraliaAfrika Selatan dan Wilayah Teluk Parsi (Emiriah Arab BersatuArab Saudi).

Bahasa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Chart classifying Indo-Iranian languages within the Indo-European language family
The approximate present-day distribution of the Indo-European branches of Eurasia:
  Indo-Iranian

The Indo-Iranian languages consist of three groups:

Indo-Iranian languages are spoken by more than 1.5 billion people. The languages with the most speakers are a part of the Indo-Aryan group: Hindi–Urdu (~590 million as the Indian census often includes Bhojpuri (40 million), Awadhi (40 million), Maithili (35 million), Marwari (30 million), Rajasthani (20 million), Chhattisgarhi (18 million) and Kumaoni (2.1 million) as dialects),[5] Bengali (205 million),[6] Punjabi (100 million), Marathi (90 million), Gujarati (50 million), Odia (35 million), Sindhi (25 million), Assamese (24 million), Sinhala (19 million), Nepali (17 million), and Bishnupuriya (12 million).[7] Among the Iranian branch, major languages are Persian (90 million),[8] Pashto (40 million), Kurdish (35 million),[9] and Balochi (8 million). There are also many smaller languages.

Topik Indo-Eropah

Indo-European languages
Albanian · Armenian · Baltic
Celtic · Germanic · Greek
Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian)
Italic · Slavic  

extinct: Anatolian · Paleo-Balkans (Dacian,
Phrygian, Thracian) · Tocharian

Indo-European peoples
Albanians · Armenians
Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples
Greeks · Indo-Aryans
Iranians · Latins · Slavs

historical: Anatolians (Hittites, Luwians)
Celts (Galatians, Gauls) · Germanic tribes
Illyrians · Italics  · Cimmerians · Sarmatians
Scythians  · Thracians  · Tocharians
Indo-Iranians (Rigvedic tribes, Iranian tribes) 

Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis
Anatolia · Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies
  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, penyunting (2017). "Indo-Iranian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ D. D. Mahulkar (1990). Pre-Pāṇinian Linguistic Studies. Northern Book Centre. ISBN 978-81-85119-88-5.
  3. ^ Annarita Puglielli; Mara Frascarelli (2011). Linguistic Analysis: From Data to Theory. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-022250-0.
  4. ^ Jadranka Gvozdanović (1999). Numeral Types and Changes Worldwide. Walter de Gruyter. m/s. 221. ISBN 978-3-11-016113-7.: "The usage of 'Aryan languages' is not to be equated with Indo-Aryan languages, rather Indo-Iranic languages of which Indo-Aryan is a subgrouping."
  5. ^ Edwards, Viv. "Urdu Today". BBC.
  6. ^ Thompson, Irene. "Bengali". AboutWorldLanguages. Dicapai pada 29 March 2013.
  7. ^ "Census of India: Family-wise grouping of the 122 Scheduled and Non-Scheduled Languages -2001". www.censusindia.gov.in.
  8. ^ Noack, Rick. "The future of language". Washington Post (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Dicapai pada 2020-03-27.
  9. ^ CIA- The World Factbook: 14.7 million in Turkey (18%)[1][tiada dalam ayat yang diberikan], 4.9–6.5 million in Iraq (15-20%)[2][tiada dalam ayat yang diberikan], 8 million in Iran (10%)"Archived copy". Dicapai pada 31 Mac 2011.[tiada dalam ayat yang diberikan] (all for 2014), plus several million in Syria, neighboring countries, and the diaspora