Bantuan:IPA for Thai and Lao

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These charts illustrate International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols used for pronunciations of the Thai script and Lao script in Wikipedia articles.

IPA Thai Lao English approximation
b abash
d ฎ,ด ado
f ฝ,ฟ ຝ,ຟ food
h ห,ฮ ຫ,ຮ head
j ญ,ย,อย,หย yak
k scan
(/x/)[1] ข,ฃ,ค,ฅ,ฆ ຂ,ຄ can
l ล,ฬ,หล ລ,ຫຼ leaf
m ม,หม ມ,ໝ much
n ณ,น,หน ນ,ໜ not
ŋ ง,หง ງ,ຫງ bang
ɲ[2] ຍ,ຫຍ canyon
p span
ผ,พ,ภ ຜ,ພ pan
r ร,หร ຣ,ຫຼ ,ຫຣ roughly like water (American English)
s ซ,ศ,ษ,ส ສ,ຊ sue
t ฏ,ต stable
ฐ,ฑ,ฒ,ถ,ท,ธ ຖ,ທ table
tɕʰ[3] ฉ, ช, ฌ cheese
w ว,หว ວ,ຫວ way
ʔ อ, ะ the catch in uh-oh
IPA Description
= āː mid [aː˧]
àː low [aː˨˩] or [aː˩]
âː falling [aː˥˩] (Thai), high falling [aː˥˧] (Lao)
a̭ː low falling [aː˧˩] (Lao only)
áː high [aː˦˥] or [aː˥]
ǎː rising [aː˩˩˦] or [aː˩˦]
IPA Thai[4] Lao English approximation
Short vowels
a ◌ะ, ◌ั◌ ◌ະ, ◌ັ◌ cut
e เ◌ะ, เ◌็◌ ເ◌ະ, ເ◌ັ◌ mate
ɛ แ◌ะ, แ◌็◌ ແ◌ະ, ແ◌ັ◌ bat
i ◌ิ, ◌ิ◌ ◌ິ happy
o โ◌ะ, ◌◌ ໂ◌ະ, ◌ົ◌ boat without u sound
ɔ เ◌าะ, ◌็อ◌ ◌ໍ lot
u ◌ุ, ◌ุ◌ ◌ຸ shoot
ɯ ◌ึ, ◌ึ◌ ◌ຶ Somewhat like North American good
ɤ เ◌อะ ເ◌ິະ, ເ◌ິ◌ the
Long vowels
◌า, ◌า◌ ◌າ bra
เ◌, เ◌◌ ເ◌ play
ɛː แ◌, แ◌◌ ແ◌ man
◌ี, ◌ี◌ ◌ີ green
โ◌, โ◌◌ ໂ◌ go without u sound
ɔː ◌อ, ◌อ◌ ◌ໍ, ◌ອ lawn
◌ู, ◌ู, ◌ູ moon
ɯː ◌ือ, ◌ื◌ ◌ື French dur, roughly like good (longer)
ɤː เ◌อ, เ◌ิ◌ ເ◌ີ fur
iaʔ, iəʔ เ◌ียะ ເ◌ັຽະ idea (shorter)
ia, iə เ◌ีย, เ◌ีย◌ ເ◌ັຽ idea
uaʔ, uəʔ ◌ัวะ ◌ົວະ poor (shorter)
ua, uə ◌ัว, ◌ว◌ ◌ົວ poor (British English)
ɯaʔ, ɯəʔ เ◌ือะ ເ◌ຶອະ adventure (shorter)
ɯa, ɯə เ◌ือ, เ◌ือ◌ ເ◌ຶອ adventure

Notes[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Allophone in Northern Thai language
  2. ^ Not present in Standard and Southern Thai
  3. ^ Standard and Southern Thai only
  4. ^ Vowels' diacritics are shown on a dotted circle "◌".
  5. ^ More diphthongs occur in the pattern /Vw/ or /Vj/: /aj, aːj, aw, aːw, iw, uj, uːj, ew, eːw, ɛːw, ɤːj, oːj, ɔːj, iow, uɛj, ɯɛj/.
  6. ^ Each first element in the listing represents a Thai diphthong, hence with /a/ as the ending vowel (according to Tingsabadh, Kalaya (1993). "Thai". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 23 (1): 24–28. doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)).