Bas Routemaster

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Lompat ke: pandu arah, cari
Sebuah Routemaster di Piccadilly Circus.
Routemaster dalam profail

AEC Routemaster adalah sebuah model bas dua-tingkat yang diperkenalkan oleh Associated Equipment Company (AEC) pada 1954 dan dikeluarkan hingga 1968.[1] Secara asas enjin hadapan, bontot platform terbuka bas, sebilangan kecil variants dikeluarkan dengan pintu-pintu dan/atau tempat masuk hadapan. Dihasilkan pada 1956, Routemaster melihat perkhidmatan berterusan di London hingga 2005, dan kini ditetapkan pada dua jalan warisan di pusat London.

Dengan mengembangkan pengongsian dengan Angkutan London, pelanggan pada hampir semua Routemaster baru adalah untuk menjadi pertubuhan itu, dalam warna "negara" tradisional merah dan hijau, walaupun bilangan kecil juga dikrimkan baru ke British European Airways dan Syarikat Angkutan Am Utara. Dalam keseluruhannya, 2,876 Routemaster telah dibina,[1] dengan lebih kurang 1,000 masih hadir.

Suatu reka bentuk perintisan, Routemaster tahan lebih lama daripada beberapa jenis penggantiannya di London, kekal keswastaan bekas pengelola bas Angkutan London, dan melihatkan pembiakan pada para pengelola lain di keliling UK. Kemudiannya pada pengendalian bas angkutan awam moden UK, ciri-ciri unik pada Routemaster piawai menarik kepujian dan pengkritikan secara seiras. Pentas buka yang terkemuka, sementara buka ke elemen-elemen, membenarkan boarding/alighting away dari perhentian; dan kemunculan sebuah konduktor membenarkan waktu masuk dan keselamatan minimal, walaupun konduktor mengekalkan kos buruh lebih tinggi dan menambahkan kesan kekurangan buruh.

Imej Routemaster merah yang tradisional telah menjadi salah satu ikon masyhur London, dengan banyak parafernalia pelancong berlanjutan untuk menanggung gambaran Routemaster, dan contoh-contoh masih muncul di keliling dunia. Sungguhpun kedudukannya yang berikon, kelas-kelas bas London terdahulunya yang diganti oleh Routemaster (RT-type AEC Regent dan Leyland Titan RTL dan RTW) sering tersalah anggap sebagai Routemaster oleh orang ramai dan media massa.[2]

Reka bentuk novel[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pentas belakang pada sebuah Routemaster, dengan susur tangan untuk pengendalian Jalan Warisan

Bas Routemaster telah dikembangkan sewaktu tahun 1947–1956 oleh sepasukan diketuai oleh Douglas Scott, A. A. Durant dan Colin Curtis, ringkasannya adalah untuk menggatikan bas troli London, yang telah menggantikan keretapi ringan, di London. Bas Routemaster secara asas diniatkan untuk kegunaan London, direka bentuk oleh London Transport dan dibinakan di kerja raya AEC Southall, London dengan perhimpunan di pembina tubuh Park Royal Vehicles, sebuah syarikat subsidiari AEC.

Ia dalah reka bentuk revolusi ke atas bas terdahulunya, dan menggunakan aluminium keberatan ringan dan teknik yang dikembangkan pada pengeluaran pesawat sewaktu Perang Dunia II.[3] Dan juga sebagai reka bentuk integral novel yang jimat keberatan, Bas Routemaster juga diperkenalkan (untuk kali pertama pada sebuah bas) independent front suspension, power steering, sebuah automatic gearbox yang penuh dan brek kuasa-hidraulik.[4] Ini mengejutkan sesetengah pemandu awal yang mendapati chassis secara tidak dianggap ringan dan nimble dibandingkan dengan reka bentuk yang lebih lama, khususnya digambarkan di filem pada ujian di "rancangan skid" Chiswick Works.

Reka bentuk Routemaster adalah keberangkatan dari kaedah pembinaan chassis/tubuh. Dengan London Transport menjadi pelanggan asas, pilihan untuk menggunakan pembina badan berlainan adalah kurang penting. Reka bentuk adalah salah satu bas "integral" pertama,[4] dengan bas menjadi pergabungan sebuah sub-bingkai keluli "A" (termasuk enjin, steering, suspension hadapan), sebuah sub-bingkai keluli "B" belakang (mengangkat axel belakang dan suspension), disambung oleh tubuh aluminium.[1]

Prototaip[sunting | sunting sumber]

Teksi pemandu pada Routemaster RM8 awal

London Transport menerima empat prototaip Routemasters, ini telah diletakkan pada perkhidmatan di antara 1956 dan 1958. Duanya yang pertama dibina di kerja raya London Transport di Chiswick, yang ketiganya di Addlestone oleh Weymann, dan keempatnay, sebuah kereta bereksperimen Green Line, di Eastern Coach Works di Lowestoft. Yang ketiganya dan keempatnya mempunyai enjin Leyland[4]. Routemaster pertama kali dipamerkan di Commercial Motor Show di Earl's Court pada 1954.[3]

Pada 1961 sebuah batch kecil pada RML yang lebih panjang telah dibina sebagai suatu ujian, sebelum akhirnay dikeluarkan dari 1965.

Pada 1962 tempat masuk hadapan konsep RMF telah trailed, dengan sebuah bas tunggal RMF1254 dihasilkan berasaskan percubaan RML. Ini telah dipamerkan dan dilawatkan, memimpin ke sebilangan kecil pesanan sebagai kelas RMF dan RMA.

Pada 1964, hanya sebelum pengeluaran aliran utama pada RML, model Routemaster yang berenjin hadapan akhirnya, AEC bermula kerja pada sebuah pintu masuk hadapan, enjin belakang Routemaster, kelas FRM.[5] Diselesaikan pada 1966, ia tidak dikeluarkan melebihi suatu prototaip rasmi, FRM1. Ini melihatkan perkhidmatan sering London, kemudian pada operasi lawatan, sebelum ditarik balik pada 1983.

Production[sunting | sunting sumber]

RM class Routemaster di Vauxhall, 2005

Pengeluaran komponen mekanikal telah dilakukan secara utama di tapak Southall AEC di sepanjang hidup Routemaster, dengan pembinaan tubuh dan perhimpunan akhir di Park Royal. AEC sendiri telah diambil alih oleh Leyland Motors pada 1962,[6] pengeluaran Routemaster dihentikan pada 1968[6].

Kebanyakan contoh misal pengeluaran adalah 27 kakai 6 inci (8.4 meter) panjang untuk menemukan regulasi panjang maksimum yang kemudiannya. Ini telah kemudian direlaxed, dan dicerminkan pada kemudiannya 30 kaki (9.1 meter) jenis "panjang", walaupun ini telah dilambatkan dengan penentangan kesatuan pada kerja extra untuk konduktor.[7]

The production classes were designated as follows:

  • RM - bas piawai
  • RML - bas (dipanjangkan)
  • RMC - kereta
  • RCL - kereta (dipanjangkan)
  • RMF - bas pintu masuk hadapan
  • RMA - bas pintu masuk hadapan

Kelas RM dan RML[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di 2120 RMs dan 524 RMLs, ini membuatkan majoriti pada Routemaster yang telah dibuatkan. Kelas RML adalah hanya sebuah piawai RM dengan sebuah bahagian tingkap setengah yang berlainan dan kelihatan luar biasa ditambahkan di tengah memberikan 8 tempat duduk lebihan. Ini bukan suatu perubahan dramatik, kerana ia mengambil kesempatan pada pencapaian reka bentuk modular pada Routemaster yang akan ditirukan oleh pengilang kemudiannya.[7] RML telah terdahulunya menjadi designasi "Routemaster Leyland", dengan ER untuk menandakan "Extended Routemaster".[7] RM dan RML mencirikan sebuah lubang cubby di bawah tangga belakang di mana konduktor berdiri sementara tidak mengutip tambangan tanpa menghadang penumpang yang menaiki/menurun.

Kelas RMC dan RCL[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kelas RCL Routemaster yand dikekal di London Transport Green Line livery

RMC adalah sebuah versi kereta, dikeluarkan untuk route "Green". Ini telah memodifikasikan suspension dan bahagian dalam untuk membenarkan banjaran yang lebih panjang dan jalanan yang lebih selesa, bersamaan dengan sebuah pintu beroperasi elektrik daripada sebuah pentas terbuka.[8] The RCL was a long version of the RMC with a larger engine and similar coach style features.[9]

Kelas RMF dan RMA[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kelas RMF dan RMA adalah versi pengeluaran pada sebuah model pintu hadapan Routemaster, pada asasnya untuk kegunaan bukan-London.[10] Seperti kelas kereta ini mencirikan sebuah pintu beropeasi elektrik, walaupun tangga telah dipindahkan ke hadapan bas dengan pintunya. Selepas dipamerkan dan digambarkan pada para operator lain, RMF menarik sedikit keminatan, selain dari suatu pesanan dari Northern General sebagai RMF, dan pada suatu versi pendek, dari British European Airways (BEA) sebagai kelas RMA.

Subsidiari British Electric Traction The Northern General Transport Company memperkenalkan kelas RMF pada 1964/1965, dengan sebuah batch asas 18, berikutnya 32 lagi, dan kemudian diikuti oleh prototaip RMF1254.[10] The fleet dimuatkan dengan enjin Leyland dan sebuah axel belakang ratio yang lebih tinggi untuk operasi pada route trunk yang lebih panjang.[11] Bas-bas ini dioperasikan pada pelbagai merah dan liveries krim Northern[12][13] sebelum berhidup ke dalam era National Bus Company menerima livery korporat merah poppy dan fleetnames NBC Northern. Fleet RMF memakai iklan long standing, "Shop at Binns". Perkhidmatan mereka di utara juga mengeluarkan kelihatan ganjil pada sebuah Routemaster dengan sebuah rollsign untuk perkhidmatan "X1 to Scandinavia", oleh virtue hubungan hubungan pada laluan feri dari North Shields ke Scandinavia.[14] Ini telah digunakan hingga 1977, apabila telah digunakan pada pelbagai cara,[10] sesetengah kegunaan di London, walaupun tiada telah dikirakan sesuai untuk perkhidmatan London sering.

BEA memperkenalkan bas kelas RMA dibina pada panjangnya yang lebih pendek (dengan trailers) pada pelbagai liveries pada 1966/1967 untuk kegunaan pada perkhidmatan bas lapangan terbang ke dan dari Lapangan terbang Heathrow.[15] Ini pada keseluruhannya akhirnya dijual ke London Transport selepas ditarik balik pada peringkat pada 1970an, mencarikan pelbagai watak.[16]

London Transport Routemaster heyday[sunting | sunting sumber]

Red and Green Bas-bas RT Type buses merah dan hijau, seperti diperbezakan dari Routemasters

The heyday of Routemaster operation was its first 25 years of operation, until 1981,[17] when the type started to be withdrawn and transferred to training fleets.

Kelas RM telah diletakkan pada perkhidmatan dari 1959 untuk menggantikan bas troli, diselesaikan pada Mei 1962. Subsequent Routemasters, the last 500 of which were the RML types, began replacing the previous generation of buses, the RT-type AEC Regent and Leyland Titan RTL and RTW. RMLs also displaced RMs on central routes to cope with higher loadings.[7] The last Routemaster, RML 2760, entered service in March 1968.

The original London Transport concept for the Routemaster included the intentional routine overhaul and refurbishment of the Routemaster fleet at London Transport's Aldenham Works, usually every 7 years. Here the buses were completely stripped down and rebuilt, leaving practically as new. As the number of Routemasters in London reduced, however, and newer bus designs were intended to have longer service lives, the overhaul routine was abandoned and Aldenham Works closed in the mid-1980s.

Green liveried Routemasters[sunting | sunting sumber]

A preserved Routemaster in the "NBC Green" livery of London Country Bus Services, lighter than London Transport "Country" green

The "green Routemasters" originally worked for LT's "country division", which took coach type RMC and RCL buses, for Green Line services, and later standard bus RMLs. The RMC class were initially used on Green Line routes in outlying towns[8]. Similarly, the RCL entered service in areas where the RMC was not introduced.[9]

These vehicles passed to the nationalised National Bus Company's subsidiary London Country Bus Services (known simply as London Country) in 1969, which took over outlying areas of LT bus operation resulting from the 1968 Transport Act. The transfer comprised 69 RMCs, 43 RCLs and 97 RMLs.[4]

By the latter half of the 1970s, most of these vehicles were re-acquired by London Transport, as London Country modernised and standardised its fleet, and increased car usage and improved commuter railways reduced suburban bus demand. Most of the RMLs found use on red London bus routes,[4] and the RMC and RCL class were cascaded into the training fleet.[8] As the RCL class was relatively new (in Routemaster terms), and LT was suffering from lack of parts, between 1980 and 1984 several of the RCLs were converted to standard bus use.[18]

Decline in London[sunting | sunting sumber]

A Routemaster next to a DMS class one man operated bus. The Fleetline was slated to replace the Routemaster, but eventually got outlived

Many of London's bus routes were converted to one person operation (when known as one man operation or OMO) in the 1970s, out of a desire to reduce operating costs and address staff shortages. There was also for a time a parts shortage for Routemasters, aggravated by the closure of AEC.[19] With the introduction of single-deck Red Arrow services in London, and successful conversion to modern rear engined OMO buses around the country, LT was considering replacing Routemasters with modern practices and buses. The operation of the Routemaster became contracted to central areas, with RMLs replacing RMs, where LT felt that the Routemaster still provided an efficient means of transporting lager numbers of people in busy central routes, justifying the economics of two man operation.[20] The rapid acceleration and rugged construction of the Routemasters also proved to be more suited to such urban conditions than some more modern designs.[20]

From the 1980s, many of the surplus Routemasters were sold to other operators or transferred to training fleets. While withdrawal of Routemasters began in 1982, it was largely halted by 1988, with comparatively few withdrawn up to 1992.

In the 1980s, several of the returned Routemasters purchased from Northern General, BEA and London Country, which had doors rather than an open platform, were put to use on London Transport's revived sightseeing operation The Original London Sightseeing Tour, alongside the RCL class (some converted to open top buses),[18] the RMF class,[10] and the RMA class.[16]

Privatisation of London Buses[sunting | sunting sumber]

Routemasters wearing First London and London General post-privatisation paint schemes, 2005.

In 1984 the process of privatisation of London bus services began, and the Routemasters were transferred from London Transport operation to several different arms-length business units based on different garages, leading to minor additions to the standard red livery. Nine of the twelve new operating units inherited Routemasters, Centrewest, Leaside, London Central, London General, London United, Metroline, London Northern, South London and East London.[21] During this time, following the failure and premature withdrawal of heralded replacement vehicle classes such as the DM/DMS class Daimler Fleetline, the Routemasters that had not yet been disposed of saw their lives extended for use until privatisation. Where new route tenders called for Routemaster operation, these were leased from London Buses.[21]

By 1994, all the operating units had been sold and this produced some colour livery variations and additions to some Routemasters from their previous all-over red liveries. In the new London route tendering process, all but one of the Routemaster operated routes were allowed to keep their now privately owned Routemasters[4] for the 5 year contract period, and further refurbishments resulted.

Life extensions[sunting | sunting sumber]

Routemaster masih bekerja keras pada 2003

Since the ending of production at Southall and later closure of the Aldenham works, new options for extending the life of the Routemaster became necessary if they were to continue to run. This made sense as even by 1987, when some buses looked decidedly worn out, inspections by London Buses revealed the basic structure of the buses was still sound,[19] requiring only replacement of engines and interior/exterior renewal.

From 1992-1994, all but 2 of the RML type were refurbished for ten years' further service. This work, which included updating the interior to modern tastes and substituting Iveco or Cummins engines, was carried out by Mainline, TBP,Nottingham truck & Bus, and by one of the new London Buses business units, Leaside Buses. 100 RM class vehicles were also re-engined.[4] Post-privatisation, in 1996, the Routemasters on London Central's RMs on route 36, Stagecoach London's RMLs for routes 8 and 15, and Arriva's RMs for route 159, all received new Scania engines.[4] Between 2001 and 2004, under new mayor Ken Livingstone and Transport for London, the replacement authority for London Buses, further refurbishment saw TfL buy back 49 RMs from a variety of sources. Initially started by Marshall Bus, this was continued by Arriva London when Marshall ceased trading in 2002.

Colourful Routemasters[sunting | sunting sumber]

Golden Jubilee Routemaster

With the Routemaster's longevity, there have been Routemaster buses painted to celebrate both the Queen's silver and golden jubilee, in 1977 and 2002, i.e. 25 and 50 years on the throne respectively. 25 buses were painted Silver to celebrate the Silver Jubilee,[22] and out of 50 buses painted gold in London in 2002, 15 (12 RML, 3 RM) were Routemasters.[23]

During privatisation in London, from 1986 several private operators won contracts to operate London bus services, some of which including Routemaster operated routes. Before an 80% red rule for liveries was reintroduced in 1997 by LT, the contract tendering authority, some of these new entrants proceeded to run Routemasters in their own non-red liveries, most notably Kentish Bus on Route 19 and Borehamwood Travel Services (BTS) (now part of Transdev London) on Route 13.

The iconic nature of the Routemaster also appealed to the many new operators outside of London that appeared post-1986 in the UK following bus deregulation. Several operators took second hand Routemasters from London as a cheap way of expanding their fleets to stave off competition from new operators emerging after deregulation.[24] Likewise, start up operators also chose the Routemaster as an eye-catching bus for their own start up operations. Subsequently, Routemasters were seen around the country painted in a variety of proprietary colours, and were used in regular service in Southampton, Blackpool, Glasgow, Perth, Dundee, Hull, Carlisle, Bedford, Kettering, Manchester (Stagecoach), Southend and Burnley.[4] During this era, several Routemasters found their way through more than one company, and were also often loaned between operators.

One of the earliest, if not the earliest, examples of deregulated use of Routemasters was early in the history of the Stagecoach Group. Now one of the largest post-deregulation operators in the UK, Stagecoach combined the vintage Routemaster with their new and striking corporate livery of all-over white with red, orange and blue stripes,[25] to start one of their first operations, Magicbus, in Glasgow, Scotland, in the late 1980s. This contrasted with the traditional identities still in use at the time.

Two preserved Reading Mainline Routemasters

Towards the end of this period, in 1994 in Reading, new operator Reading Mainline built up a 45 strong Routemaster fleet to compete with the established operator Reading Buses, in the process becoming the largest operator of Routemasters outside London. They used conductors to compete on speed in the town centre, and in the outskirts took advantage of the rear platform to operate hail and ride sections of route. After building up a network covering nearly the whole town, Reading Buses posted their first ever financial loss to purchase the company in 1998, with Reading Buses continuing Routemaster operation for another two years albeit reduced in number, until 2000.

With the costs involved in running elderly two-man buses, and with a general reduction in the number of operators, buses and services in the years following in the deregulated industry as competitors merged or sold out, these examples of use outside London declined through the 1990s. Many of these buses found their way back to London to assist with the refurbishment program or as basic spares donors, or to increase the fleet size generally.

The final withdrawal from mainstream London service saw another resurgence in the use of Routemasters outside of London,[24] but this time on a smaller scale than the post deregulation public transport fleets. Post 2000, usage was characterised by small novelty or seasonal routes.

Penarikan dari London[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sebuah Routemaster dilihat dengan penggantiannya, sebuah dua tingkat dan sebuah bas bendy. Perjalanan 159 terakhir, December 2005

Dalam kempen pilihanraya pertama untuk menjadi Datuk Bandar London, Ken Livingstone mengatakan bahawa dia tidak akan menarik diri dari perkhidmatan - "Hanya orang yang bodoh dan tidak keperimanusiaan akan membuangkan Routemaster".[26]

Sewkatu alaf baru, perdebatan sekitar isu sama ada untuk menggantikan atau mengekalkan Routemaster dalam perkhidmatan London. Para penyokong memetik ketegapan mekanikal berlanjutannya, kelajuan boarding dan potensi pelancong, sementara pembantah menunjukkan perekonomian menjalankan bas lama atau reka bentuk yang lebih baru, besar dan moden kini berada di pasar berikutnya kebangkitan semula pada industri pengilangan bas selepas kemerosotan ekonomi pada 1990an. Para pembantah juga menunjukkan khususnya pada kekurangan kecapaian pada Routemaster dalam cahaya legislasi relevant impending, yang bermakna kesemuanya bas baru memasuki perkhidmatan di London adalah sebuah reka bentuk tingkat rendah. Kemunculan teknologi pertiketan off-bus juga mengurangkan perdebatan untuk waktu-waktu dwell yang lebih baik, di mana Oyster card dan tiket off-bus akan mengurangkan waktunya untuk menaiki bas.

Pada 2004, berikutanya kempen pilihanraya keduanya, Livingstone mengumumkan memfasakan jenis ini supaya dapat memberikan perkhidmatan bas di ibu negara kecapaian penih pada pengguna kerusi roda. Legislasi kerajaan memerlukan kecapaian penuh pada 2017 di bawah Akta Perselisihan Kurang upaya. Sebagai suatu akibat Routemaster secara rasmi telah ditarik dari perkhidmata umum pada 9 Disember 2005, walaupun ia masih dalam perkhidmatan sering di dua jalan "warisan" (lihat di bawah).

Routemaster di Route 12 mengarah ke Dulwich, London Selatan, pada 2000.

Withdrawals began on the dates below as the routes' five-year contracts expired.

The Routemaster telah akhirnya dikeluar dari perkhidmatan pada hujung 2005. Pada Disember 2005 hanya satu jalan yang tinggal, 159 (Marble Arch — Streatham). Jumaat 9 Disember 2005 adalah hari rasmi akhirnya kejalanan perkhidmatan.[27] On Thursday 8th, 24 special buses, including preserved RMs and RMLs, plus a number of their predecessors from the "RT" bus family, made guest appearances on the 159 route.

RM2217 tiba untuk kali terakhir, dikelilingi oleh orang ramai. Disember 9, 2005.

Pada hari Jumaat, daripada melakukan shif yang biasanya, dengan anak kapal menamatkan biasanya pada 11 malam, dengan nasihat polis,[28] harinya telah dipisahkan ke dua shif tugas,[28] suatu shif Routemaster, dan suatu shif kelas VLA (Volvo B7TL/Alexander ALX400), penggantian bas untuk jalan 159, dengan Routemasters oleh kerana harus digantikan pada tengah-tengah hari.

Terhadap yang akhir melarikan garaj, orang ramai menghadang jalan empat lorong,[27] membawa semua laluan kenderaan ke suatu standstill. RM2217 telah diletakkan sebagai bas kejalanan rasmi terakhir, sepertinya di jadual. Sangat beratnya dilambatkan, RM2217 juga mengambil 10 minit untuk berpusing ke sudut akhir ke Garaj Brixton.

Bas meninggalkan lebuhraya am pada pukul 14:07, ditemankan oleh pendua diperuntukan oleh bas dikekalkan RM5 dan RM6. Oleh kerana kelambatan, ia boleh jadi bahawa RM54 sebenarnya yang terakhir pada pengkhidmatan, melarikan ke dalam perhentian Stesen Streatham beberapa minit sahaja selepas itu,[28] sebelum running dead ke Garaj Norwood.

Kemudian, RM5 dan RM6, diikuti oleh RM2217 telah dipindahkan ke LCC Tramways depot lama di Brixton untuk fotograf media di persekitaran yang lebih sunyi pada keretapi trem lama, dilengkapkan dengan masih landasan keretapi trem yang dapat dilihat.

Routemasters in use today[sunting | sunting sumber]

Route warisan London[sunting | sunting sumber]

Warisan Routemaster running off service din Route 9

Dua route warisan telah selanjutnya diperkenalkan di London, mengakui nostalgia untuk jenis di kalangan orang London yang biasa, dan rayuan mereka pada para pelawat. Walaupun bas-bas ini dioperasikan di bawah kontrak ke TfL, dan menerima Travelcards piawai, Oystercards atau tambang wang tunai, mereka tidak dianggap sebahagian dari rangkaian bas Tfl sering, dan hany beroperasi untuk waktu yang terhad sewaktu hari menduplikasikan bahagian-bahagian pendek pada dua route bas London sering. The Heritage routes mengoperasi sekurang-kurangnya 10 bas setiapnya,[29] dengan 5 setiapnya disimpan.

  • Heritage route 9: Royal Albert Hall — Hyde Park Corner — Piccadilly Circus — Trafalgar Square — Strand — Aldwych.
  • Heritage route 15: Trafalgar Square — Strand — Aldwych — Fleet Street — Cannon Street — Monument — Tower Hill.

Bas ini digunakan khususnya disimpan dari contoh-contoh tertinggal untuk perkhidmatan ini dan mempunyai enjin persekitaran yang bersih dan elektrik moden dan tingkap diliputi.

Other public transport uses[sunting | sunting sumber]

Most of the post-privatisation use of Routemasters in UK public transport service has now ceased.

Nottingham & District Omnibus Routmaster diikuti oleh sebuah bas Angkutan Bandaraya Nottingham.

Pada 7 April 2008 bas-bas Routemaster telah diperkenalkan di jalan bas biasa di Nottingham, England[30]. Mereka dioperasikan oleh Bellamy's Coaches Ltd dengan Routemaster merah dijenamakan sebagai Nottingham & District Omnibus[31][32], di jalan 20 pada suatu frekuencsi 20 minit dari 7 pagi ke 7 malam, enam hari seminggu[33]. Bellamy's positioned the conductor and open platform features of the Routemaster as being able to compete with the incumbent operator's Nottingham City Transport (NCT) services, on increased speed of travel through the city centre bus stops, and through hail and ride operation in the suburbs. The Routemasters were withdrawn on 28 June 2008 with the company citing low passenger demand, although to satisfy bus service registration requirements, the service continued using single-decker buses into August[34]. The council, which has an 82% stake in NCT, was criticised for not doing enough to provide information about the service in public facilities, and for increasing the competition selectively on the Routemaster route[33].

The London and South East of England operator Metrobus has retained a green liveried Routemaster, RML 2317 (CUV 317C), obtained from sister company London General, which is sometimes used on regular routes as well as private and preservation appearances. Cavendish Motor Services operate RML 2324 in a light green and green livery, for special journeys as well as a relief bus for a number of their routes in the Eastbourne area.

Kegunaan bukan-awam[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sebuah Routemaster digunakan sebagai sebuah cafe di Brick Lane, London

Selain dari route warisan London, operator utama terakhir Routemasters pada perkhidmatan di UK, adalah di Edinburgh, Scotland. Operator tempatan operasi lawatan Lothian Buses Mac Tours[35] menggunakan kepelbagaian Routemaster tutup dan buka di tingkat atas Routemasters pada tugas bas lawatan sering.[29]

Beberapa operator di UK mengekalkan Routemasters untuk kegunaan gunaan swasta, dengan kebanyakannya dipegang oleh pengganti pada bekas unit London Bus, Ensignbus, London Bus Company Ltd (formerly Blue Triangle) and Timebus Travel.[29]

Banyak bandar di seluruh dunia mempunyai sebuah Routemaster, atau perbezaan RT yang lebih lama di mana-mana, sering dimiliki secara swasta dan digunakan untuk banyak tujuan (dari Preservation ke gerai Hot Dog, bas lawatan ke kedai). Routemaster dapat dijumpa jauh dari tempat asal di tempat seperti Sri Lanka, Australia, China, California Selatan, Malaysia, dan juga Fairbanks, Alaska.

Sebilangan Routemaster milik Stagecoach telah diekspotkan ke Montreal di Kanada, di mana Stagecoach kini memberikan suatu perkhidmatan pelawat di keliling bandar. Ini adalah suatu kes keunikan London Routemasters dioperasikan pada perkhidmatan harian di sebuah negara asing oleh operator bekas London Routemaster.

A future Routemaster?[sunting | sunting sumber]

Boris Johnson with a model of a Routemaster wearing the slogan "Back Boris for a greater London" for his 2008 London mayoral campaign.

Such is the popularity of the Routemaster that many calls continue to be made for a new version of the vehicle to be produced. Conservative Mayoral candidate for London, Boris Johnson, on 3 September 2007, announced that he was contemplating introducing a modern-day Routemaster bus (and scrapping bendy bus operation).

In December 2007 UK magazine Autocar commissioned leading bus designer Capoco, designer of the innovative Optare Solo, to come up with detailed proposals for a new-generation Routemaster.[36] Their design, dubbed the RMXL, was a hybrid technology low-floor bus with a lightweight aluminium space frame, with 4 more seats and twice the standing capacity of the old Routemaster, and still crew operated with a driver and conductor. The design incorporates disabled access through a closing front door behind the front wheels, while retaining an open platform rear access, with the staircase still located at the rear. The hybrid drivetrain, with a front mounted continuous rev-ing hydrogenised petrol engine charges front mounted batteries, which power the rear wheels through rear mounted electric motors. This arrangement, through not requiring a mechanical transmission, allows for a low floor and a step free entrance into the lower deck from the rear platform. Hydrogen storage tanks would be located under the rear staircase. The design was covered by the national press but attracted criticism from London Mayor Ken Livingstone as being too costly to justify and still not safe, despite proposals to monitor the rear platform with cameras.[37][38]

Mayoral candidate Boris Johnson backed the Capoco design in principle and suggested that he would hold a formal design competition to develop a new Routemaster if he became London mayor in 2008. After being successfully elected, on 4 July 2008 he duly announced the A New Bus for London Competition. The competition was open to anyone, to submit single ideas or detailed designs, with a 1st prize of £25,000, and many smaller awards for great ideas. The winning design is to be announced by late October or early November 2008. Following discussion with bus manufacturers, development of a design that could be put into production is hoped for completion by 2012 (the expected date of the next mayoral election)[34].

Routemasters in preservation[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ensign[sunting | sunting sumber]

Beberapa disposed of Routemasters telah dijual ke kumpulan-kumpulan preservation. Ensignbus, bus dealer, mengurus disposals dengan beratus-ratus, seperti mereka juga lakukan dengan jenis London lain, Pada Disember 2004 Ensignbus memegang suatu raffle untuk 32 Routemasters, diadakan untuk £2,000 pada mereka yang dapat membukti mereka telah ada kewangan untuk menyimpan dan menjada mereka.[39] Ensignbus telah sejak itu membuka sebuah muzium angkutan yang mengandungi beberapa contoh dikekalkan.[40]

Ulang tahun ke-50[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada 25 Julai 2004, di Taman Finsbury, London, ke atas 100 Routemaster yang dikekalkan dengan beberapaoperator dan muzium dibariskan, perayaan ulang tahun ke-50 pada kewujudan pertama Routemaster.[41]

Routemaster dikekal yang terkenal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tujuh Routemaster yang dikekalkan berbaris untuk suatu hari kelarian di London, 2007
  • Cobham Bus Museum mempunyai prototaip ketiga RML3 [41] (L dalam perkara ini berdiri untuk Leyland). Kenderaan ini mempunyai replika paa pemuatan hadapan terdahulunya.
  • The prototype coach RMC4 (originally CRL4) is preserved by Roger Wright of the London Bus Company and is being fitted with a replica of its original front.
  • The first production Routemaster RM8 is preserved by the RM8 Club. This vehicle was displayed at the 1958 Commercial Vehicle Exhibition as the new bus for London. It was employed at LT Chiswick as an experimental vehicle upon which many routemaster modifications were tested. The bus finally entered public service at Sidcup (SP) garage in March 1976, being the last routemaster to enter service and the last open-platform bus to be introduced into service in the UK. It served LT at Sidcup garage until the garage went "one-man" in 1985. It then entered preservation with the RM8 Group which subsequently became the RM8 Club. It is currently (July 2008) preserved as in her 1958 Commercial Vehicle Exhibition appearance, complete with replica posters and blinds.[perlu rujukan][42]
  • The 1000th Routemaster produced, RM1000, was handed over to London Transport with a ceremony at Southall Works on 16 October 1961, and adopted as a showbus by staff at Croydon Garage. This bus passed to the RM1000 Preservation Group for preservation in May 1987[43].
  • The unique rear-engined, front entrance Routemaster, FRM1, was transferred to London Transport Museum for preservation in 1983[5]. Also in the collection are prototypes RM1 and RM2. RM2 is undergoing work at the Acton Depot to fit a replica of its original front end.
  • One of the last running Routemasters, RM54, was purchased from TfL in April 2006 for preservation by Ensignbus[perlu rujukan].
RM1737 in the London Transport Museum collection
  • RM1737 was the show bus of Ash Grove Garage in the early 1980s. It eventually passed into TfL ownership and is displayed at the London Transport Museum
  • RM737 was the show bus at Harrow Weald garage and, despite being in daily service on route 140, was regularly seen at preservation rallies. Purchased by the show bus team when route 140 was converted, it was the first standard example in preservation.
  • RM2217, the last departure on the 159 has been retained by Arriva in its Heritage Fleet, along with early Routemasters RM5 and RM6, and the first production RMC coach RMC1453 among others.
  • The last Routemaster built for London, RML2760 is retained by East London Bus Group (formerly Stagecoach London).
  • The first RCL Routemaster to be built, CUV 218C/RCL2218 is now preserved in excellent condition at the Nottingham Transport Heritage Centre.

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Routemaster.org FAQ
  2. BBC - h2g2 - The Routemaster Bus - Big, Red and Shiny<
  3. 3.0 3.1 www.londonbooks.co.uk "The Bus We Loved" book description, 12 September 2006
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Routemaster.org home page
  5. 5.0 5.1 Countrybus.org FRM class page
  6. 6.0 6.1 AEC Southall Enthusiast page
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Countrybus.org RML page 1
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Countrybus.org RMC class details
  9. 9.0 9.1 Countrybus.org RCL class details
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Countrybus.org RMF page 1
  11. Northern Routemasters homepage
  12. Image of Northern General 2115 (FPT 585C) in Northern livery
  13. Imej Northern General 2116 (FPT 586C) pada livery Northern
  14. Image of Northern General 3105 (FPT 591C) with destination blinds for service X1 to Scandinavia
  15. Countrybus.org RMA class page
  16. 16.0 16.1 Countrybus.org RMA class page 2
  17. London Transport Museum Routemaster heyday DVD description
  18. 18.0 18.1 Countrybus.org RCL class page 2
  19. 19.0 19.1 Countrybus.org RML page 3
  20. 20.0 20.1 Countrybus.org RML page 2
  21. 21.0 21.1 Countrybus.org RML page 4
  22. Image of a Silver Jubilee Routemaster
  23. Countrybus.org RML class page 6
  24. 24.0 24.1 AEC Bus Site Routemaster outside London
  25. Image of a Stagecoach Magicbus Routemaster
  26. Autocar re-invents the Routemaster
  27. 27.0 27.1 southbus.co.uk Maklumat mengenai hari terakhirnya Routemaster
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 London Bus Page Penjelasan kejalanan hari terakhir
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 AEC Bus Society AEC Buses dalam perkhidmatan, termasuk London Heritage routes
  30. BBC News
  31. Image of a red Nottingham & District Routemaster logo
  32. Image of a red Nottingham & District Routemaster
  33. 33.0 33.1 Buses Magazine, August 2008 issue, page 41 Letters - "Is Nottingham stifling the potential of its heritage routemasters?", Ian Allen Publishing
  34. 34.0 34.1 Buses Magazine, August 2008 issue, page 5, Ian Allen Publishing
  35. Mac Tours website
  36. Autocar news article Autocar re-invents the Routemaster, 19 December 2007, retrieved 15 April 2008
  37. BBC News "Green" Routemaster plan outlined, 19 December 2007, retrieved 15 April 2008
  38. Times Online Blueprint for "son of Routemaster", 19 December 2007, retrieved 15 April 2008
  39. Countrybus.org RML class page 7
  40. Ensignbus Transport Museum
  41. 41.0 41.1 AEC Southall Society Routemaster 50 Event description
  42. Routemaster Vol 1Ken Blacker Capital Transport ISBN 1854141317 pub 1981 pp42-43 & Routemaster Vol2 Ken Blacker Capital Transport ISBN 1854141422 pub 1992 pp20
  43. AEC Southall Enthusiast page RM1000 details

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]