Batu matahari Aztek

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Koordinat: 19°25′34″N 99°11′15″W / 19.42611°N 99.18750°W / 19.42611; -99.18750

Batu Matahari
Piedra del Sol en MNA.jpg
BahanBasalt
DiciptaAntara 1502 dan 1520
Ditemui17 Disember 1790 di El Zócalo, Bandar Raya Mexico
Lokasi terkiniMuzium Antropologi Negara (Bandar Raya Mexico)
ZamanPascaklasik
BudayaMexica

Batu matahari Aztek (Sepanyol: Piedra del Sol) ialah arca Mexica pascaklasik yang disimpan di Muzium Antropologi Negara di Bandar Raya Mexico, dan mungkin karya arca Aztek yang terkenal.[1] Reka bentuknya yang kompleks dan bahasa glif yang rumit ialah hasil daripada budaya yang canggih. [2] Batu ini berukuran 358 sentimeter (141 in) diameter dan 98 sentimeter (39 in) tebal, dan beratnya 24,590 kg (54,210 lb).[3] Tidak lama selepas penaklukan Sepanyol, arca monolit tertanam di Zócalo, dataran utama Bandar Raya Mexico. Ia ditemukan semula pada 17 Disember 1790 semasa pembaikan Katedral Bandar Raya Mexico.[4] Berikutan penemuan semulanya, batu matahari tersebut dilekapkan pada dinding luar katedral hingga tahun 1885.[5] Pada awalnya, cendekiawan awal berpendapat batu tersebut diukir pada tahun 1470-an, namun penyelidikan moden mengatakan batu itu diukir antara 1502 dan 1521.[6]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota dan rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "National Anthropology Museum, Mexico City, "Sun Stone"". Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2014-04-07. Dicapai pada 2014-04-06.
  2. ^ Carrasco, David L. (2012). The Aztects: A Very Short Introduction. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195379389.
  3. ^ Ordóñez, Esequiel (1893). La roca del Calendario Azteca (Primera Edición edición). México: Imprenta del Gobierno Federal. pp. 326-331.
  4. ^ Florescano, Enrique (2006). National Narratives in Mexico. Nancy T. Hancock (trans.), Raul Velasquez (illus.) (ed. English-language edition of Historia de las historias de la nación mexicana, ©2002 [Mexico City:Taurus]). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3701-0. OCLC 62857841.
  5. ^ Getty Museum, "Aztec Calendar Stone" getty.edu, accessed 22 August 2018
  6. ^ Villela, Khristaan. "The Aztec Calendar Stone or Sun Stone", MexicoLore. Retrieved December 17, 2015.

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Aguilar-Moreno, Manuel. Handbook To: Life in the Aztec World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  • Brumfiel, Elizabeth M. "Huitzilopotchli's Conquest: Aztec Ideology in the Archaeological Record." Cambridge Archaeological Journal 8, no. 1 (1998): 3–13.
  • Brumfiel, Elizabeth M. and John K. Millhauser. "Representing Tenochtitlan: Understanding Urban Life by Collecting Material Culture." Museum Anthropology 37, no. 1 (2014): 6–16.
  • Carrasco, David L. The Aztecs: A Very Short Introduction. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
  • Dean, Carolyn. "The Trouble with (The Term) Art." Art Journal 65, no. 2 (Summer 2006): 24–32.
  • Fauvet-Berthelot, Marie-France and Leonardo López Luján. "La Piedra del Sol ¿en París?". Arqueología Mexicana 18, no. 107 (2011): 16–21.
  • Hassig, Ross. "Reinterpreting Aztec Perspectives." In Time, History, and Belief in Aztec and Colonial Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001.
  • Klein, Cecelia F. "The Identity of the Central Deity on the Aztec Calendar." The Art Bulletin 58, no. 1 (March 1972): 1–12.
  • León y Gama, Antonio de. Descripción histórica y cronológica de las dos piedras: que con ocasión del empedrado que se está formando en la plaza Principal de México, se hallaron en ella el año de 1790. Impr. de F. de Zúñiga y Ontiveros, 1792. An expanded edition, with descriptions of additional sculptures (like the Stone of Tizoc), edited by Carlos Maria Bustamante, published in 1832. There have been a couple of facsimile editions, published in the 1980s and 1990s.
  • López Austin, Alfredo and Leonardo López Luján. “Aztec Human Sacrifice.” In The Aztec World, edited by Elizabeth M Brumfiel and Gary M. Feinman, 137–152. New York: Abrams, 2008.
  • López Luján, Leonardo. ""El adiós y triste queja del Gran Calendario Azteca": el incesante peregrinar de la Piedra del Sol." Arqueología Mexicana 16, no. 91 (2008): 78-83.
  • Matos Moctezuma, Eduardo, and Felipe Solís. The Aztec Calendar and other Solar Monuments. Grupo Azabache, Mexico. 2004.
  • Mills, K., W. B. Taylor & S. L. Graham (eds.), Colonial Latin America: A Documentary History, 'The Aztec Stone of the Five Eras'
  • Smith, Michael E. The Aztecs. 2nd ed. Hoboken: WIley-Blackwell, 2002.
  • Solis, Felipe. "La Piedra del Sol." Arqueologia Mexicana 7(41):32–39. Enero – Febrero 2000.
  • Umberger, Emily. "The Structure of Aztec History." Archaeoastronomy IV, no. 4 (Oct–Dec 1981): 10–18.
  • Umberger, Emily. "Art and Imperial Strategy in Tenochtitlan." In Azter Imperial Strategies, edited by Mary G. Hodge, 85–106. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks, 1996.
  • Villela, Khristaan D., and Mary Ellen Miller (eds.). The Aztec Calendar Stone. Getty Publications, Los Angeles. 2010. (This is an anthology of significant sources about the Sun Stone, from its discovery to the present day, many presented in English for the first time.)

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]