Buku Perubahan

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Buku Perubahan
Cina Tradisional:
Cina Ringkas:
Hanyu Pinyin: Yì Jīng
Maksud harfiah: "Klasik Perubahan"

I Ching (Wade-Giles), "Yì Jīng" (Pinyin), Klasik Perubahan atau Buku Perubahan; juga digelar Zhouyi, adalah salah sebuah teks klasik China yang tertua di dunia.[1] Buku ini mengandungi suatu sistem penilikan yang boleh dibandingkan dengan geomansi Barat atau sistem Ifá Afrika Barat. Dalam budaya Barat dan Asia Timur moden, I Ching masih digunakan secara lebar untuk tujuan ini.

Catatan I Ching yang piawai berasal dari catatan kuno yang dihantarkan oleh Fei Zhi (c. 50 SM -10 M) dari Dinasti Han. Sewaktu Dinasti Han versi ini disaingkan dengan versi teks baru yang diubah-ubah dan dihantarkan oleh Tian He pada awal zaman pemerintahan Han Barat. Namun begitu, pada Dinasti Tang pula, catatan kuno asal yang terselamat daripada tindakan membakar buku ketika Dinasti Qin oleh simpanan kaum petani, menjadi paling diterima di kalangan cendekiawan Cina.

Catatan I Ching terlama yang masih wujud, tertulis pada keratan buluh, itupun tidak siap, iaitu Chujian Zhouyi yang berasal dari zaman Negeri Berperang (pertengahan abad ke-4 hingga awal abad ke-3 SM), pastinya tidak melewati 223 SM, ketika negeri Chu ditawan oleh negeri Qin. Chujian Zhouyi pada asasnya sama isinya dengan catatan piawai, cuma terdapat sedikit perbezaan yang ketara.

Pada zaman Negeri Berperang, catatannya ditafsir semula sebagai sistem kosmologi dan falsafah yang lambat-laun menjadi sebati dengan kebudayaan Cina. I Ching mengetengahkan gagasan keseimbangan dinamik sesama lawan, proses evolusi peristiwa, dan penerimaan bahawa perubahan pasti berlaku.

Struktur[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan I Ching merupakan sehimpunan kenyataan tilikan yang dilambangkan oleh 64 corak bergaris enam yang dipanggil heksagram ( guà). Setiap heksagram merupakan susunan enam garis mendatar ( yáo), dan setiap satu garis ini melambangkan Yin (garis putus yang bercelah di tengah) atau Yang (garis utuh tanpa celah). Terdapat 64 gabungan (26) yang boleh terbentuk daripada susunan garis putus dan garis utuh ini, oleh itu 64 heksagram jadinya.

Rajah heksagram terdiri daripada dua susunan tiga garis yang dipangil trigram ( guà). Kesemuanya ada lapan (23) trigram berbeza yang boleh dibentuk. Pernah disangka bahawa heksagram ini merupakaan ciptaan lanjutan daripada gabungan dua trigram, tetapi bukti arkeologi terawal menunjukkan catatan kelompok enam angka yang tercatat pada gangsa Zhou Barat dan sebilangan kecil tulang nujum zaman Shang. Juga terdapat sebilangan kelompok tiga angka, itupun mungkin dicatat kemudian. Diingatkan bahawa kelompok angka ini sudah lama wujud sebelum tibanya lambang bergaris putus utuh, sehingga para ilmuwan moden meragui ciri-ciri mitos dalam sistem heksagram ini.[2]

Setiap heksagram melambangkan huraian keadaan atau proses. Apabila suatu heksagram dirautkan dengan menggunakan salah satu kaedah penilikan I Ching tradisional, setiap garis yin atau yang ditandakan sebagai bergerak (berubah), ataupun pegun (kekal). Garis bergerak ("tua" atau "goyah") akan berubah menjadi lawannya, iaitu garis "muda" yang berlawanan jenisnya—yang tua menjadi yin muda, dan yin tua menjadi yang muda.

Urutan Raja Wen ialah penyusunan heksagram secara tradisional ("klasik") yang digunakan dalam edisi-edisi terkini I Ching. Urutan King Wen memperlihatkan pengetahuan matematik yang menyeluruh dalamnya.[3]

Hekagram ini terbentuk daripada ungkapan perduaan yang berasaskan yin dan yang, dan terdiri daripada:

  • yang tua (yang berubah menjadi yin, atau yang bergerak)
  • yin tua (yin berubah menjadi yang, atau yin bergerak)
  • yang muda (yang tak ubah)
  • yin muda (yin tak ubah)

Trigram[sunting | sunting sumber]

Fail:Trigrams2.svg
Lapan trigram

Garis utuh (tak putus) melambangkan yang, iaitu prinsip penciptaan; manakala garis putus melambangkan yin, iaitu prinsip penerimaan. Prinsip-prinsip ini juga dilambangkan dalam lambang bulat () yang dikenali sebagai taijitu (太極圖), ataupun rajah yin-yang (陰陽), yang mengungkapkan gagasan kesalinglengkapan perubahan: apabila Yang di kemuncak, maka Yin semakin meningkat, dan sebaliknya.

Dalam senarai berikut, trigram dan heksagram diwakili menggunakan resam, secara mendatar dari kiri ke kanan, mengunakan '|' untuk yang dan '¦' untuk yin, daripada bawah ke atas yang tradisional. Dalam kegunaan lebih moden, angka 0 dan 1 digunakan untuk mewakili yin dan yang, dibaca dari kiri ke kanan. Ada lapan trigram yang kemungkinan (八卦 bāguà):

Rajah Trigram Nilai Perduaan Nama Terjemahan: Wilhelm[4], lain-lain Bahan Alam [5] Arah [6] Ahli Keluarga [7] Anggota Badan [8] Sifat [9] Peringkat [10] Haiwan [11]
1 111
qián
Pencipta, Daya angkasa
barat laut bapa kepala kuat berdaya cipta naga
2 110
duì
Periang, Bukaan paya
barat anak perempuan ketiga mulut kenikmatan tenteram kambing
3 101
Pelekap, Sinaran api
selatan anak perempuan kedua mata pemberi cahaya, bergantung sifat bergantung, ketara, dapat disesuaikan kuang
4 100
zhèn
Pencetus, Gegaran guruh
timur anak lelaki sulung kaki gerakan mengapi-apikan daya usaha kuda
5 011
xùn
Yang Halus, Tanah angin
tenggara anak perempuan sulung paha menembusi kemasukan halus ayam
6 010
kǎn
Teruk, Gaung air
utara anak lelaki kedua telinga berbahaya in-motion babi
7 001
gèn
Pegun, Batas gunung
timur laut anak lelaki ketiga tangan istirehat, berdiri tegak penyelesaian anjing
8 000
kūn
Penerima, Padang bumi
barat daya ibu perut sangat setia, menghasilkan menerima lembu

3 barisan pertama heksagram, digelar trigram bawah, dilihat sebagai aspek bahagian dalam dari perubahan yang bermuncul. Trigram atas (tiga barisan terakhir heksagram), adalah aspek luar. Perubahan dijelaskan adalah oleh itu dinamik dari aspek (peribadi) dalam berkaitan dengan keadaan (bahagian luar) luar. Oleh itu, heksagram 04 ¦|¦¦¦| menyelubingi, terdiri dari trigram dalam Gorge, berkaitan dengan trigram luar Bound.

Jadual rujukan heksagram[sunting | sunting sumber]

Atas →

Bawah ↓


Qian
Syurga


Zhen
Kilat


Kan
Air


Gen
Gunung


Kun
Bumi


Xun
Angin


Li
Api


Dui
Paya


Qian
Syurga

01 ䷀ 34 ䷡ 05 ䷄ 26 ䷙ 11 ䷊ 09 ䷈ 14 ䷍ 43 ䷪

Zhen
Kilat

25 ䷘ 51 ䷲ 03 ䷂ 27 ䷚ 24 ䷗ 42 ䷩ 21 ䷔ 17 ䷐

Kan
Air

06 ䷅ 40 ䷧ 29 ䷜ 04 ䷃ 07 ䷆ 59 ䷺ 64 ䷿ 47 ䷮

Gen
Gunung

33 ䷠ 62 ䷽ 39 ䷦ 52 ䷳ 15 ䷎ 53 ䷴ 56 ䷷ 31 ䷞

Kun
Earth

12 ䷋ 16 ䷏ 08 ䷇ 23 ䷖ 02 ䷁ 20 ䷓ 35 ䷢ 45 ䷬


Xun
Angin

44 ䷫ 32 ䷟ 48 ䷯ 18 ䷑ 46 ䷭ 57 ䷸ 50 ䷱ 28 ䷛


Li
Flame

13 ䷌ 55 ䷶ 63 ䷾ 22 ䷕ 36 ䷣ 37 ䷤ 30 ䷝ 49 ䷰


Dui
Paya

10 ䷉ 54 ䷵ 60 ䷻ 41 ䷨ 19 ䷒ 61 ䷼ 38 ䷥ 58 ䷹

Heksagram[sunting | sunting sumber]

Teks I Ching menjelaskan setiap dari 64 heksagram, dan kemudian cendekiawan menambahkan ulasan dan analisis setiap satu; ini telah tergolong atau termasuk dalam kumpulan yang lebih menyeluruh ke dalam teks mendirikan I Ching.

Dalam jadual di bawah, terjemahan tiap heksagram ditemankan oleh suatu bentuk terjemahan R. Wilhelm (yang adalah sumber untuk nama Unicode), diikuti oleh suatu terjemahan semula.

Hexagram R. Wilhelm Tafsiran moden
01. |||||| Force (乾 qián) The Creative Possessing Creative Power & Skill [12]
02. ¦¦¦¦¦¦ Field (坤 kūn) The Receptive Needing Knowledge & Skill; Do not force matters and go with the flow [13], [14]
03. |¦¦¦|¦ Sprouting (屯 chún) Difficulty at the Beginning [15] Sprouting [16]
04. ¦|¦¦¦| Enveloping (蒙 méng) Youthful Folly Detained, Enveloped and Inexperienced [17], [18]
05. |||¦|¦ Attending (需 xū) Waiting Uninvolvement (Wait for now), Nourishment [19]
06. ¦|¦||| Arguing (訟 sòng) Conflict Engagement in Conflict [20]
07. ¦|¦¦¦¦ Leading (師 shī) The Army Bringing Together, Teamwork [21]
08. ¦¦¦¦|¦ Grouping (比 bǐ) Holding Together Union [22]
09. |||¦|| Small Accumulating (小畜 xiǎo chù) Small Taming Accumulating Resources
10. ||¦||| Treading (履 lǚ) Treading (Conduct) Continuing with Alertness
11. |||¦¦¦ Pervading (泰 tài) Peace Pervading
12. ¦¦¦||| Obstruction (否 pǐ) Standstill Stagnation
13. |¦|||| Concording People (同人 tóng rén) Fellowship Fellowship, Partnership
14. ||||¦| Great Possessing (大有 dà yǒu) Great Possession Independence, Freedom
15. ¦¦|¦¦¦ Humbling (謙 qiān) Modesty Being Reserved, Refraining
16. ¦¦¦|¦¦ Providing-For (豫 yù) Enthusiasm Inducement, New Stimulus
17. |¦¦||¦ Following (隨 suí) Following Following
18. ¦||¦¦| Corrupting (蠱 gǔ) Work on the Decayed Repairing
19. ||¦¦¦¦ Nearing (臨 lín) Approach Approaching Goal, Arriving [23]
20. ¦¦¦¦|| Viewing (觀 guān) Contemplation The Withholding
21. |¦¦|¦| Gnawing Bite (噬嗑 shì kè) Biting Through Deciding
22. |¦|¦¦| Adorning (賁 bì) Grace Embellishing
23. ¦¦¦¦¦| Stripping (剝 bō) Splitting Apart Stripping, Flaying
24. |¦¦¦¦¦ Returning (復 fù) Return Returning
25. |¦¦||| Without Embroiling (無妄 wú wàng) Innocence Without Rashness
26. |||¦¦| Great Accumulating (大畜 dà chù) Great Taming Accumulating Wisdom
27. |¦¦¦¦| Swallowing (頤 yí) Mouth Corners Seeking Nourishment
28. ¦||||¦ Great Exceeding (大過 dà guò) Great Preponderance Great Surpassing
29. ¦|¦¦|¦ Gorge (坎 kǎn) The Abysmal Water Darkness, Gorge
30. |¦||¦| Radiance (離 lí) The Clinging Clinging, Attachment
31. ¦¦|||¦ Conjoining (咸 xián) Influence Attraction
32. ¦|||¦¦ Persevering (恆 héng) Duration Perseverance
Hexagram R. Wilhelm Modern Interpretation
33. ¦¦|||| Retiring (遯 dùn) Retreat Withdrawing
34. ||||¦¦ Great Invigorating (大壯 dà zhuàng) Great Power Great Boldness
35. ¦¦¦|¦| Prospering (晉 jìn) Progress Expansion, Promotion
36. |¦|¦¦¦ Brightness Hiding (明夷 míng yí) Darkening of the Light Brilliance Injured
37. |¦|¦|| Dwelling People (家人 jiā rén) The Family Family
38. ||¦|¦| Polarising (睽 kuí) Opposition Division, Divergence
39. ¦¦|¦|¦ Limping (蹇 jiǎn) Obstruction Halting, Hardship
40. ¦|¦|¦¦ Taking-Apart (解 xiè) Deliverance Liberation, Solution
41. ||¦¦¦| Diminishing (損 sǔn) Decrease Decrease
42. |¦¦¦|| Augmenting (益 yì) Increase Increase
43. |||||¦ Parting (夬 guài) Breakthrough Separation
44. ¦||||| Coupling (姤 gòu) Coming to Meet Encountering
45. ¦¦¦||¦ Clustering (萃 cuì) Gathering Together Association, Companionship
46. ¦||¦¦¦ Ascending (升 shēng) Pushing Upward Growing Upward
47. ¦|¦||¦ Confining (困 kùn) Oppression Exhaustion
48. ¦||¦|¦ Welling (井 jǐng) The Well Replenishing, Renewal
49. |¦|||¦ Skinning (革 gé) Revolution Abolishing the Old
50. ¦|||¦| Holding (鼎 dǐng) The Cauldron Establishing the New
51. |¦¦|¦¦ Shake (震 zhèn) Arousing Mobilizing
52. ¦¦|¦¦| Bound (艮 gèn) The Keeping Still Immobility
53. ¦¦|¦|| Infiltrating (漸 jiàn) Development Auspicious Outlook, Infiltration
54. ||¦|¦¦ Converting The Maiden (歸妹 guī mèi) The Marrying Maiden Marrying
55. |¦||¦¦ Abounding (豐 fēng) Abundance Goal Reached, Ambition Achieved
56. ¦¦||¦| Sojourning (旅 lǚ) The Wanderer Travel
57. ¦||¦|| Ground (巽 xùn) The Gentle Subtle Influence
58. ||¦||¦ Open (兌 duì) The Joyous Overt Influence
59. ¦|¦¦|| Dispersing (渙 huàn) Dispersion Dispersal
60. ||¦¦|¦ Articulating (節 jié) Limitation Discipline
61. ||¦¦|| Centre Confirming (中孚 zhōng fú) Inner Truth Staying Focused, Avoid Misrepresentation
62. ¦¦||¦¦ Small Exceeding (小過 xiǎo guò) Small Preponderance Small Surpassing
63. |¦|¦|¦ Already Fording (既濟 jì jì) After Completion Completion
64. ¦|¦|¦| Not-Yet Fording (未濟 wèi jì) Before Completion Incompletion

The hexagrams, though, are mere mnemonics for the philosophical concepts embodied in each one. The philosophy centres around the ideas of balance through opposites and acceptance of change.

Unikod[sunting | sunting sumber]

In Unicode, monograms cover code points U+268A to U+268B, diagrams cover code points U+268C to U+268F, trigrams cover code points U+2630 to U+2637, hexagram symbols cover code points U+4DC0 to U+4DFF (19904 – 19967).

Tai Xuan Jing(太玄) digrams cover code points U+1D301 to U+1D305, tetragrams cover code points U+1D306 to U+1D356. The monograms cover code points U+1D300 (earth), U+268A (yang), U+268B (yin).

Pengertian judul[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • 易 (), used as an adjective, it means "easy" or "simple", while as a verb it means "to change" or 'to exchange or to substitute one thing for another'.
  • 經 (jīng) here means "classic (i.e. text)". It was a post-Qin term later added to any text that had been officially canonised, hence the same character was later appropriated to translate the Sanskrit word 'sūtra' into Chinese in reference to Buddhist scripture. In this sense the two concepts, in as much as they mean 'treatise,' 'great teaching,' or 'canonical scripture,' are equivalent.

The I Ching is a "reflection of the universe in miniature". The word "I" has three meanings: ease and simplicity, change and transformation, and invariability.[24] Thus the three principles underlying the I Ching are the following:

  1. Simplicity - the root of the substance. The fundamental law underlying everything in the universe is utterly plain and simple, no matter how abstruse or complex some things may appear to be.
  2. Variability - the use of the substance. Everything in the universe is continually changing. By comprehending this one may realize the importance of flexibility in life and may thus cultivate the proper attitude for dealing with a multiplicity of diverse situations.
  3. Persistency - the essence of the substance. While everything in the universe seems to be changing, among the changing tides there is a persistent principle, a central rule, which does not vary with space and time.
— 易一名而含三義:易簡一也;變易二也;不易三也。 commented on by Zheng Xuan (鄭玄 zhèng xúan) in his writings Critique of I Ching (易贊 yì zàn) and Commentary on I Ching (易論 yì lùn) of Eastern Han Dynasty.

Also for information, 易 is a combined character of the sun 日 and the moon 月, symbolic of an interplay between 陽 (Yang: masculine) and 陰 (Yin: feminine).

Falsafah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Yin and yang, while common expressions associated with many schools of classical Chinese culture, are especially associated with the Taoists.

Another view holds that the I Ching is primarily a Confucianist ethical or philosophical document. This view is based upon the following:

  • The Wings or Appendices are attributed to Confucius.
  • The study of the I Ching was required as part of the Civil Service Exams in the period that these exams only studied Confucianist texts.
  • It is one of the Five Confucian Classics.
  • It does not appear in any surviving editions of the Daozang.
  • The major commentaries were written by Confucianists, or Neo-Confucianists.
  • Taoist scripture avoids, even mocks, all attempts at categorizing the world's myriad phenomena and forming a static philosophy.
  • Taoists venerate the non-useful. The I Ching could be used for good or evil purposes.

Both views may be seen to show that the I Ching was at the heart of Chinese thought, serving as a common ground for the Confucian and Taoist schools. Partly forgotten due to the rise of Chinese Buddhism during the Tang dynasty, the I Ching returned to the attention of scholars during the Song dynasty. This was concomitant with the reassessment of Confucianism by Confucians in the light of Taoist and Buddhist metaphysics, and is known in the West as Neo-Confucianism. The book, unquestionably an ancient Chinese scripture, helped Song Confucian thinkers to synthesize Buddhist and Taoist cosmologies with Confucian and Mencian ethics. The end product was a new cosmogony that could be linked to the so-called "lost Tao" of Confucius and Mencius.

Langkah binari[sunting | sunting sumber]

In his article Explication de l'Arithmétique Binaire (1703) Gottfried Leibniz writes that he has found in the hexagrams a base for claiming the universality of the binary numeral system. He takes the layout of the combinatorial exercise found in the hexagrams to represent binary sequences, so that ¦¦¦¦¦¦ would correspond to the binary sequence 000000 and ¦¦¦¦¦| would be 000001, and so forth.

The binary arrangement of hexagrams is associated with the famous Chinese scholar and philosopher Shao Yung (a neo-Confucian and Taoist) in the 11th century. He displayed it in two different formats, a circle, and a rectangular block. Thus, he clearly understood the sequence represented a logical progression of values. However, while it is true that these sequences do represent the values 0 through 63 in a binary display, there is no evidence that Shao understood that the numbers could be used in computations such as addition or subtraction.

It should be noted that Shao Yung had been attributed with the original Segregation Table of the symbols of the book of changes Fu-Hsi Liu-shih-ssu Kua Tzhu Hsu from Chu Hsi's Chou I Pen I Thu Shou (reproduced in Hu Wei's I Thu Ming Pien ch.7, pp 2b,3a and elsewhere).

Analysis of the binary sequence and its derivation from Recursion of the yin/yang dichotomy reveal the capability of the I Ching to describe itself by reference to itself through use of analogies to hexagrams. Thus the full, generic, description of a particular hexagram is provided through analogies to all of the other hexagrams in the set - this being a feature of any language, to describe itself. As such the I Ching is revealed as a "Language of the Vague", universals representing 'all there is' that are then open to customisation through prose that ties the universals to a local context.Templat:POV-statement Examples of this process, using isomorphism of our brain's use of fight/flight to assess situations with our use of yang/yin to assess situations is given in Lofting(2009); the isomorphism identified as stemming from the basic dynamics of our brain as it processes information prior to labelling - the SAME patterns are used in all assessments but local context then introduces difference through use of labels.

Given such research into logic operators and their function in the brain:

  • Parsons, L.M., & Osherton, D., (2001) "New Evidence for Distinct Right and Left Brain Systems for Deductive versus Probabilistic Reasoning" Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 11, No. 10, 954-965, October 2001
  • Matte Blanco I., (1991)"The Unconscious as Infinite Sets", Karnac Books, (originally published 1975))

we can see these operators acting to constrain degrees of freedom of expression, so application of those operators to I Ching representations brings out the ability of the I Ching to describe itself by reference to itself.

For example, the use of the exclusive-OR operator (XOR) applied to I Ching hexagrams reduced to representations as patterns of 'bits' (0 = yin, 1 = yang), brings out the self-referencing of the I Ching, an example to test is in the characteristics of hexagram 27 (100001) where its generic focus in on issues of quality control and infrastructure, describing the 'mud' or 'skeletal form' of a hexagram. Since the I Ching hexagrams reflect a closed set of meanings, so the self-referencing involved means descriptions of hexagrams are through analogy to other hexagrams (for mathematical modelling of such, see set theory and group theory). Thus if hexagram 27 is XOR'd with another hexagram, the result describes the '27-ness' (through analogy with some other hexagram) or 'skeletal form' of that other hexagram.

For hexagram 01, XORing with 27 gives us hexagram 28. The generic qualities of hexagram 28 cover the notion of 'excess, too much yang', where such a description maps to the infrastruture state of hexagram 01 (which is 111111 and covers total yang).

The full set of descriptions are covered in such as Lofting(2009) and through the EIC application where the interpretation is done through the I Ching itself[25]. The recursion of yin/yang creates a closed system and so a symmetric form that includes such properties as 'all is connected' and allows for the I Ching to self-reference. This is in fact applicable to any system derived from recursion of some dichotomy and as such brings out the ease in which the I Ching can be mapped to the genetic code where the common ground is in BOTH being products of recursion.

I Ching and Genetic Code texts:

  • Schonberger, M., (1976) "The I Ching and the Genetic Code" ASI Publishers Inc.
  • Yan. J.F., (1991) "DNA and the I Ching: The Tao of Life" North Atlantic Books.
  • Walter,K.,(1994)"The Tao of Chaos: DNA & The I Ching" Element

The tie is strictly due to the common methodology used - recursion.

Bahasa Bertanda dan Berangka[sunting | sunting sumber]

The oracular interpretation of the symbolic language based on trigram symbols formed from yang and yin components is well known. However, the inherent numerical language of line change and non-change is relatively unknown.

When the translated text reads "Nine in the beginning means...". this is the equivalent of saying: "When the positive line in the first place is represented by the number 9, it has the following meaning....".. If, on the other hand, the line is represented by the number 7, it is disregarded in interpreting the oracle. The same principle holds for lines represented by the numbers 6 and 8 respectively.[26]

Thus, line transformation (change) or non-transformation (non-change) can be represented numerically, as follows:

  • A POSITIVE (unbroken line) transforming into a NEGATIVE (broken line) = 9
  • A POSITIVE (unbroken line) transforming into a POSITIVE (unbroken line) = 7
  • A NEGATIVE (broken line) transforming into a POSITIVE (unbroken line) = 6
  • A NEGATIVE (broken line) transforming into a NEGATIVE (broken line) = 8

This changes the ancient symbolic linear language of the I Ching into a simple numerical language that enables the practitioner to create sixteen numerical codes, which consist of three numbers, from each circular arrangement of eight trigrams.

John C. Compton suggests that these numerical codes represent specific codons of the Genetic Code.[27]

Kepentingan Matematik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Richard S. Cook reported that that the I Ching demonstrated a relation between the golden ratio (aka the division in extreme and mean ratio) and "linear recurrence sequences" (the Fibonacci numbers are examples of "linear recurrence sequences") :

...the hexagram sequence, showing that its classification of binary sequences demonstrates knowledge of the convergence of certain linear recurrence sequences ... to division in extreme and mean ratio... that the complex hexagram sequence encapsulates a careful and ingenious demonstration of the LRS (linear recurrence sequences)/DEMR (division in the extreme mean ratio relation), that this knowledge results from general combinatorial analysis, and is reflected in elements emphasized in ancient Chinese and Western mathematical traditions. [28]

Penilikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: I Ching divination

The I Ching has long been used as an oracle and many different ways coexist to "cast" a reading, i.e., a hexagram, with its dynamic relationship to others. In China the I Ching had two distinct functions. The first was as a compendium and classic of ancient cosmic principles. The second function was that of divination text. As a divination text the world of the I Ching was that of the marketplace fortune teller and roadside oracle. These individuals served the illiterate peasantry. The educated Confucian elite in China were of an entirely different disposition. The future results of our actions were a function of our personal virtues. The Confucian literati actually had little use for the I Ching as a work of divination. In the collected works of the countless educated literati of ancient China there are actually few references to the I Ching as a divination text. Any eyewitness account of traditional Chinese society, such as S. Wells Williams The Middle Kingdom, and many others, can clarify this very basic distinction. Williams tells us of the I Ching, "The hundred of fortune- tellers seen in the streets of Chinese towns, whose answers to their perplexed customers are more or less founded on these cabala, indicate their influence among the illiterate; while among scholars, who have long since conceded all divination to be vain..". (The Middle Kingdom, vol. 1, p. 632)

Simbolik[sunting | sunting sumber]

The flag of South Korea, with Taegeuk in the centre with four trigrams representing Heaven, Water, Earth, and Fire (beginning top left and proceeding clockwise).
Flag of the Empire of Vietnam used Trigram Li - Fire

The Flag of South Korea contains the Taiji symbol, or tàijítú, (yin and yang in dynamic balance, called taegeuk in Korean), representing the origin of all things in the universe. The taegeuk is surrounded by four of the eight trigrams, starting from top left and going clockwise: Heaven, Water, Earth, Fire. In addition, the Republic of Korea Air Force aircraft roundel incorporates the Taiji in conjunction with the trigrams representing Heaven.

The flag of the Empire of Vietnam used the Li (Fire) trigram and was known as cờ quẻ Ly (Li trigram flag) because the trigram represents South. Its successor the Republic of Vietnam connected the middle lines, turning it into the Qián (Heaven) trigram. (see Flag of the Republic of Vietnam).

Pengaruh[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rencana utama: Pengaruh I Ching

I Ching telah mempengaruhi banyak bilangan ahli falsafah, artis dan juga peniaga Cina di sepanjang sejarah. Dalam zaman-zaman lebih kebelakangan ini, beberapa artis dan pemikir Barat telah menggunanya dalam jurusan sepelbagainya psikoanalisis, muzik, filem, drama, tarian, eskatologi, dan karangan fiksyen.[29]

Ulasan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Early Chinese civilization, as with western civilization, accepted various pre-scientific explanations of natural events, and the I Ching has been cited as an example of this. As a manual of divination it interpreted natural events through readings based on symbols expressed in the trigrams and hexagrams. Thus any observation in nature could be interpreted as to its significance and cause. This might be compared to the Roman practice of basing decisions on the state of animals' livers. While usually sympathetic to the claims of Chinese culture and science, Joseph Needham, in his second volume of Science and Civilization in China (p. 311) stated: "Yet really they [Han dynasty scholars] would have been wiser to tie a millstone about the neck of the I Ching and cast it into the sea".[30]

Abraham (1999) states that Confucius' ten commentaries, called the Ten Wings, transformed the I Ching from a divination text into a "philosophical masterpiece". It was this form of the I Ching that inspired the post-Warring State Taoists. It has influenced Confucians and other philosophers and scientists ever since.[31] However, Helmut Wilhelm in his Change/Eight Lectures on the I Ching, cautions: "It can no longer be said with certainty whether any of the material—and if any, how much—comes from Confucius' own hand".[32]

Terjemahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Taoism condensed

  • Anthony, Carol K. and Moog, Hanna. I Ching: The Oracle of the Cosmic Way. Stow, Massachusetts: Anthony Publishing Company, Inc., 2002. ISBN 1-890764-00-0. The publisher's internet address is www.ichingoracle.com.
  • Balkin, Jack M. 2002. The Laws of Change: I Ching and the Philosophy of Life. New York: Schocken Books. ISBN 0-8052-4199-X
  • Benson, Robert G. 2003. I Ching for a New Age: The Book of Answers for Changing Times. New York: Square One Publishers.
  • Blofeld, J. 1965. The Book of Changes: A New Translation of the Ancient Chinese I Ching. New York: E. P. Dutton.
  • Chang, Shi (aka Tuck Chang) 2008. ebook : Unveiling The Mystery of I Ching from Confucian perspective.
  • Cornelius, J Edward and Cornelius, Marlene (1998) Yî King: A Beastly Book of Changes. Red Flame: A Thelemic Research Journal (5) 1998. This book contains Aleister Crowley's notes and comments on the Yi Jing.
  • Huang, A. 1998. The Complete I Ching: the Definitive Translation From the Taoist Master Alfred Huang. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions.
  • Hua-Ching Ni. 1999. I Ching: The Book of Changes and the Unchanging Truth. (2nd edition). Los Angeles: Seven Star Communications.
  • Karcher, Stephen, 2002. I Ching: The Classic Chinese Oracle of Change: The First Complete Translation with Concordance. London: Vega Books. ISBN 1-84333-003-2. The publisher can be found at www.chrysalisbooks.co.uk. This version manages to pull together a wide variety of sources and interpretations into a coherent, intelligible whole which is generally easier to understand than the Wilhelm/Baynes edition. Especially interesting are its multiple translations of the Chinese words used and the concordance at the end.
  • Legge, J. 1964. I Ching: Book of Changes. With introduction and study guide by Ch'u Chai and Winberg Chai. New York: Citadel Press.
  • Shaughnessy, Edward L. 1996. I Ching, The Classic of Changes, Ballantine. ISBN 0-345-36243-8. First English translation of the newly discovered 2nd century B.C. Mawangdui texts.
  • Wilhelm, R. and Baynes, C., 1967. The I Ching or Book of Changes, With foreword by Carl Jung. 3rd. ed., Bollingen Series XIX. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press (1st ed. 1950).
  • Lofting, C.J., 2009, The Emotional I Ching : A Language of the Vague Lulu, ISBN 978-1-4092-7139-0 . Grounds the I Ching in a product of neurology, cognition, and emotion. The author maintains that in doing so this grounding lets the I Ching describe itself by reference to itself independent of the Chinese language. As such the coverage is on universals then grounded in local context through words.
  • Lynn, Richard J. 1994, The Classic of Changes, A New Translation of the I Ching as Interpreted by Wang Bi. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08294-0
  • Wei, Wu 2005. I Ching, The Book Of Answers Power Press ISBN 0-943015-41-3 New revised edition, interpreted by Wu Wei. Appears to follow the Wilhelm and Baynes translation closely, leaving out the sometimes confusing mechanics. Would be useful in conjunction with Wilhelm and Baynes when divining for the lay person.
  • Cheng Yi translated by Cleary, Thomas 1988, 2003. I Ching: The Book of Change Shambhala Publications, Boston, London ISBN 1-59030-015-7
  • Kitabul Taghayyurat-The First arabic Translation الترجمة العربية الأولى لكتاب التغيرات =(I Ching or Book of Changes) translated and forwarded by Bashar Abdulah,2008, Fadaat Publishing House, Amman, Jordan. ISBN 978-9957-30-043-2

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan dan petikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. Wilhelm, R. I Ching Introduction. English translation by Cary F. Baines; HTML edition by Dan Baruth. Retrieved on: January 20, 2008.
  2. Rujuk Shaugnessy (1993).
  3. Cook, Richard S. (2006). STEDT Monograph 5: Classical Chinese Combinatorics: Derivation of the Book of Changes Hexagram Sequence. ISBN 0-944613-44-6.
  4. Wilhelm, R. & Baynes, C., 1967: "The I Ching or Book of Changes", With foreword by Carl Jung, Introduction, pp.l-li. Bollingen Series XIX, Princeton University Press, (1st ed. 1950)
  5. Wilhelm, 1967, pp.l-li
  6. The Shuo Kua. Translated in Wilhelm, 1967, p.269
  7. The Shuo Kua. Translated in Wilhelm, 1967, p.274
  8. The Shuo Kua. Translated Wilhelm, 1967, p.274
  9. The Shuo Kua. Translated Wilhelm, 1967, pp.l-li, p.273
  10. Wilhelm, 1967, p.l-li
  11. The Shuo Kua. Translated Wilhelm, 1967, p.273
  12. Wilhelm, Richard. "The I Ching, or Book of Changes". http://www.onlineclarity.co.uk/html/wiltrans/wilhelm_translation.html. Capaian 16 October 2008. 
  13. Xiaochun, Tan (1993). The I Ching: An Illustrated Guide to the Chinese Art of Divination. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=GQblA-A0LcUC&pg=PA80&lpg=PA80&dq=The+Receptive+%22Hexagram+2%22&source=web&ots=azZJRpTSV-&sig=b4-YqdcUw8xiVi_nyzRre_2OS8k&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result#PPA80,M1. Capaian 16 October 2008. 
  14. Legge, James. "The I Ching". http://www.sacred-texts.com/ich/. Capaian 16 October 2008. 
  15. Wilhelm, R.. "The I Ching on the Net". http://pacificcoast.net/~wh/Index.html. Capaian 16 October 2008. 
  16. Kinnes, Tormod. "I Ching Hexagram Drawings". http://oaks.nvg.org/q5.html. Capaian 16 October 2008. 
  17. Benson, Robert G. (2003). I Ching for a New Age. http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=hDtupOjFjAoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=%22hexagram+5%22+%22I+Ching%22&ots=xUD4D-tXxG&sig=OjaucJ-FHS2tgAPV7BQlwLg2umA#PPA72,M1. Capaian 16 October 2008. 
  18. Merritt, Dennis L.. "Use of the I Ching in the Analytic Setting". http://www.dennismerrittjungiananalyst.com/China_paper.htm. Capaian 16 October 2008. 
  19. Lofting, Chris J.. "05 Waiting (Nourishment)". http://members.iimetro.com.au/~lofting/IChingPlus/x010111.html. Capaian 16 October 2008. 
  20. Michael Drake, Michael Drake (1997). I Ching: The Tao of Drumming. http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=GI8ne8iqQjwC&oi=fnd&pg=PA5&dq=%22hexagram+6%22+%22I+Ching%22&ots=vuHmGwIpgO&sig=7a3QJ4KivkAUfwoLWEKp2vWoH0Y#PPA79,M1. Capaian 16 October 2008. 
  21. Secter, Mondo; Chung-Ying Cheng (2002). The I Ching Handbook: Decision-Making with and Without Divination. http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=l_P6ZWF7X3wC&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=%22hexagram+6%22+%22I+Ching%22&ots=CoouSSuwTA&sig=qQOrkoWoz1OWyhhkwQbrKPDIscI#PPA100,M1. Capaian 16 October 2008. 
  22. Sloane, Sarah Jane (2005). The I Ching for Writers: Finding the Page Inside You. http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=nVXAf7zQSicC&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=%22hexagram+6%22+%22I+Ching%22&ots=F51T3kxqW0&sig=8iAm4MIKYLFlW4ZG-cwRyCZNgpQ#PPA48,M1. Capaian 16 October 2008. 
  23. Moran, Elizabeth; Joseph Yu (2001). The Complete Idiot's Guide to the I Ching. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=1CK2efLIY7sC&pg=PA104&dq=%22hexagram+9%22+%22I+Ching%22+%22Idiot%27s%22&lr=#PPA124,M1. Capaian 16 October 2008. 
  24. Dy, Manuel B., Jr. The Chinese View of Time: A Passage to Eternity. Chapter XX. Retrieved on: January 29, 2008
  25. Lofting, C.J. (2009)The Emotional I Ching ISBN 978-1-4092-7139-0
  26. Wilhelm, Richard. The I Ching or Book of Changes, Part 1
  27. The I Ching Project - The I Ching Key - Volume 2 - The I Ching and the Genetic Code by John C. Compton ISBN 978-0-9554482-1-8.
  28. http://stedt.berkeley.edu/html/publications.html#mng5
  29. Nylan, M. (2001). The Five Confucian 'Classics'. Yale University Press. 204, 206. ISBN 978-0-300-08185-5. The I Ching's influence is summarized by Nylan, as follows: "Outside China, the Changes is without doubt the best-known Chinese book, in addition to being the most familiar of the five classics. Beginning with Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) and continuing through Carl Jung (1875-1961) and Joseph Needham (1900-1995), the work has had considerable influence on intellectuals in Europe and America, who have mined it for alternate theories of structural change in the natural world".
  30. Snow, Eric. (June 27, 1999) "Christianity: A Cause of Modern Science?". Retrieved on: February 16, 2008
  31. Abraham, Ralph H. (1999) Commentaries on the I Ching. Chapter 1 Legendary History. Retrieved on: February 15, 2008
  32. Wilhelm, H. (1973) Change: Eight Lectures On The I Ching., p. 12. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Translated into English from the German by Cary F. Baynes.

Bahan rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Brennan, Herbie (August, 1973). The Syncronistic Barometer, Analog.
  • Crowley, Aleister - liber CCXVI- The Book of Changes- I CHing - The Equinox, Vol III NO 7. A.'.A.'.
  • Marshall, S. J. (2001). The Mandate of Heaven: Hidden History in the I Ching. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12299-3
  • Rutt, R. (1996). Zhouyi: The Book of Changes. Curzon Press.
  • Reifler, Samuel. (1974). "I Ching: A New Interpretation for Modern Times". Bantam New Age Books. ISBN 0-553-27873-8
  • Shaughnessy, Edward L. (1993). "I ching 易經 (Chou I 周易) ", pp. 216–228 in Loewe, Michael (ed.). Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide, (Early China Special Monograph Series No. 2), Society for the Study of Early China, and the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, ISBN 1-55729-043-1.
  • Smith, Richard J. (2008). Fathoming the Cosmos and Ordering the World: The Yijing (I Ching or Classic of Changes) and Its Evolution in China. University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0-8139-2705-3

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]