Charles H. Townes

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Charles H. Townes

Charles Hard Townes (28 Julai 1915 – 27 Januari 2015) ialah ahli fizik Amerika Syarikat[1][2] dan pencipta maser. Townes bekerja pada teori dan penerapan maser, yang mana beliau memperoleh hak paten asas, dan kerja lain dalam elektronik kuantum yang berkaitan dengan kedua-dua alat maser dan laser.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] Beliau berkongsi Hadiah Nobel dalam Fizik bersama Nikolay Basov dan Alexander Prokhorov.[12][13] Townes ialah penasihat kepada Kerajaan Amerika Syarikat, bertemu dengan setiap Presiden AS dari Harry Truman (1945) ke Bill Clinton (1999).

Penerbitan terpilih[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Charles H. Townes — Biographical". Nobelprize.org. 2006. Dicapai 2014-07-29. 
  2. ^ "Remembering Charles Townes". Furman University. 2015-01-27. Dicapai 2015-01-27. 
  3. ^ Bertolotti, Mario (2004). The History of the Laser. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-7503-0911-0. 
  4. ^ Bromberg, Joan (1991). The Laser in America, 1950–1970. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-585-36732-3. 
  5. ^ Chiao, Raymond, penyunting (1996). Amazing Light: A Volume Dedicated To Charles Hard Townes On His 80th Birthday. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-94658-0. 
  6. ^ Chiao, Raymond, penyunting (2005). Visions of Discovery: New Light on Physics, Cosmology, and Consciousness, A Volume Dedicated to Charles Hard Townes on his 90th Birthday. Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-88239-2. 
  7. ^ Haynie, Rachel (2014). First, You Explore: The Story of Young Charles Townes (Young Palmetto Books). University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-61117-343-7. 
  8. ^ Hecht, Jeff (2005). Beam: The Race to Make the Laser. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514210-5. 
  9. ^ Hecht, Jeff (1991). Laser Pioneers. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-336030-4. 
  10. ^ Taylor, Nick (2000). Laser: The Inventor, the Nobel Laureate, and the Thirty-Year Patent War. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-83515-0. 
  11. ^ Townes, Frances (2007). Misadventures of a Scientist's Wife. Regent Press. ISBN 978-1-58790-128-7. 
  12. ^ Boyd, Robert (2015). "Dr. Charles H. Townes (1915-2015) Laser co-inventor, astrophysicist and US presidential adviser". Nature. 519 (7543): 292. Bibcode:2015Natur.519..292B. doi:10.1038/519292a. PMID 25788091. 
  13. ^ "Nobel laureate and laser inventor, Charles Hard Townes, dies at 99". Berkeley.edu. 2015-01-27. Dicapai January 27, 2015. 

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Charles Townes Oral History part 1 Childhood, college, career overview, Recorded at IEEE History Center, August 1991, Retrieved May 1, 2015
  • Charles Townes Oral History part 2 Studies at Caltech and work at Bell Labs on the eve of World War II, Recorded at IEEE History Center, September 1992, Retrieved May 1, 2015
  • The Learning Project Charles Hard Townes, physicist, astronomer, university professor. Interview for The Learning Project: Views of Authentic Learning, June 2005