Demografi Filipina

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Demografi Filipina
Jumlah penduduk100,981,437 (banci 2015)
Kadar pertumbuhan1.72% (2010-2015)[1]
Kadar kelahiran19.0 kelahiran/1,000 penduduk
(2010)[2]
Kadar kematian5.2 kematian/1,000 penduduk (2010)[2]
Jangka hayat71.66 tahun
Kadar kesuburan3.0 anak lahir/perempuan (2013 est.)
Kadar mortaliti bayi19.34 kematian/1,000 kelahiran hidup
Kadar penghijrahan bersih-1.29 penghijrah/1,000 penduduk (2011 est.)
Tata tingkat usia
0–14 tahun34.6%
(lelaki 17,999,279/perempuan 17,285,040)
65 tahun ke atas5%
(lelaki 1,876,805/perempuan 2,471,644) (2011 est.)
Nisbah jantina
Jumlah1 lelaki(s)/perempuan
Sewaktu lahir1.05 lelaki(s)/perempuan
Bawah 15 tahun1.04 lelaki(s)/perempuan
15–64 years1 lelaki(s)/perempuan
65 and over0.76 lelaki(s)/perempuan
Bangsa
BangsaFilipina (Filipinos)
Etnik majoritiVisaya (Cebuano, Waray, Hiligaynon/Ilonggo, Karay-a, Aklanon, Masbatenyo, Romblomanon) 31.6%, Tagalog 28.1% (banci 2000)
Etnik minoritiIlocano 9%, Bikol 6%, Kapampangan 3%, Pangasinan 2%, Zamboangueño 1.5% & lain-lain 23.3% (banci 2000)
Bahasa
RasmiFilipino (Tagalog) dan Inggeris[3]
Dituturkanbahasa daerah bantuan - Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Bicolano, Waray, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Maranao, Maguindanao, Zamboangueño Chavacano dan Tausug

Purata kadar pertumbuhan tahunan Filipina pada 2010-2015 adalah 1.72%.[4] Menurut banci 2015, Filipina diduduki 100,981,437 orang.[5] Banci rasmi pertama dijalankan di Filipina pada 1877, mencatatkan seramai 5,567,685 orang.[6] Menurut kiraan rasmi, jumlah penduduk Filipina mencecah 100 juta pada waktu tengah malam 27 Julai 2014, menjadikan ini negara ke-12 yang mencapai bilangan ini.[7]

Dianggarkan bahawa separuh daripada penduduk tinggal di pulau Luzon. Umur median populasi ialah 22.7 tahun dengan 60.9% berumur 15 hingga 64 tahun.[8] Jangka hayat ketika lahir ialah 69.4 tahun: 73.1 tahun bagi perempuan dan 65.9 tahun bagi lelaki.[9] Kadar kemiskinan juga susut kepada 21.6% pada 2015 daripada 25.2% pada 2012.[10]

Majoriti penduduk Filipino datang dari rumpun bangsa Melayu, sementara etnik Aeta dan lain-lain orang hulu membentuk minoriti. Penduduk pribumi bertalian dengan penduduk pribumi Kepulauan Melayu. Kelompok etnik pendatang yang ada di Filipina berabad-abad sebelum pemerintahan kolonial seperti Cina, Jepun dan India telah pun pun berasimilasi dengan budaya negara.[11][12][13][14] Juga terdapat bangsa Eropah dan Amerika yang berhijrah ke Filipina sewaktu zaman kolonial.

Etnik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Menurut banci 2000, 28.1% warga Filipina berketurunan Tagalog, 13.1% Cebuano, 9% Ilocano, 7.6% Visayans/Bisaya (tidak termasuk Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray), 7.5% Hiligaynon, 6% Bikol, 3.4% Waray, dan 25.3% "lain-lain"[15] yang terdiri daripada suku minoriti seperti Moro, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Ibanag, dan Ivatan.[16] Juga terdapat suku-suku pribumi seperti Igorot, Lumad, Mangyan, Bajau, dan puak-puak Palawan.[17]

Warga Filipina umumnya tergolong kepada beberapa kelompok etnik Asia yang digolongkan secara linguistik sebagai Austronesia atau Melayu-Polinesia.[17] Dipercayai bahawa ribuan tahun dahulu, orang asli Taiwan yang berbahasa Austronesia berhijrah ke Filipina dari Taiwan, membawa sekali ilmu pertanian dan perlarian, akhirnya mengatasi suku Negrito yang terdahulu.[18] Kaum-kaum Negrito seperti Aeta dan Ati merupakan antara penduduk terawal.[19]

Filipina di persimpangan Timur dan Barat juga didiami kaum-kaum dari pelbagai tempat seperti China, Sepanyol, Amerika Syarikat, India, Korea dan Jepun. Kaum minoriti pendatang terpenting sekali adalah Cina dan Sepanyol.

Orang Cina Filipina rata-ratanya keturunan pendatang dari Fujian, China selepas 1898. Jumlahnya sekitar 2 juta tetapi terdapat anggaran 27 peratus Filipina yang mempunyai sekerat keturunan Cina,[20][21][22] daripada pendatang Cina sebelum dan semasa zaman penjajah.[23] Kahwin campur sesama Cina dan pribumi ternyata di kawasan bandar.[24]

Sekurang-kurangnya satu pertiga penduduk Luzon, dan juga penempatan lama di Visayas dan Bandar Zamboanga di Mindanao (sekitar 13.33% populasi Filipina), mempunyai sekerat keturunan Hispanik (dari pelbagai tempat Amerika Latin[25] mahupun negara Sepanyol).[26] Kajian genetik terkini membuktikan keturunan sekerat Eropah[27][28] dan Amerika Latin ini.[29]

Suku minoriti lain yang terpenting termasuklah India dan Jepun. Keturunan pasangan campur kaum dipanggil mestizo.[30][31]

Statistik penting[sunting | sunting sumber]

Banci Filipina[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penduduk Banci 1960-2015[32]
1960 1970 1975 1980 1990 1995 2000 2007 2010 2015
27,087,685 36,684,486 42,070,660 48,098,460 60,703,206 68,616,536 76,506,928 88,566,732 92,337,852 100,981,437

Anggaran PBB[sunting | sunting sumber]

Prospek Populasi Dunia, 2010[33]
Tempoh Kelahiran hidup setahun Kematian setahun Perubahan semula jadi setahun KLK1 KMK1 PSJ1 KJS1 KMB1
1950-1955 981 000 269 000 712 000 48.6 13.3 35.3 7.42 96.8
1955-1960 1 095 000 285 000 810 000 45.7 11.9 33.8 7.27 86.5
1960-1965 1 218 000 299 000 919 000 43.0 10.6 32.5 6.98 77.4
1965-1970 1 334 000 311 000 1 023 000 40.4 9.4 31.0 6.54 67.8
1970-1975 1 461 000 326 000 1 136 000 38.3 8.5 29.8 5.98 59.3
1975-1980 1 643 000 346 000 1 297 000 37.4 7.9 29.5 5.46 51.8
1980-1985 1 801 000 368 000 1 433 000 35.6 7.3 28.3 4.92 45.2
1985-1990 1 968 000 393 000 1 575 000 34.0 6.8 27.2 4.53 39.5
1990-1995 2 084 000 419 000 1 664 000 31.8 6.4 25.4 4.14 34.5
1995-2000 2 216 000 450 000 1 766 000 30.2 6.1 24.1 3.90 30.1
2000-2005 2 360 000 487 000 1 873 000 29.0 6.0 23.0 3.70 26.3
2005-2010 2 318 000 528 000 1 790 000 25.9 5.9 20.0 3.27 23.0
1KLK = kadar kelahiran kasar (per 1000); KMK = kadar kematian kasar (per 1000); PSJ = perubahan semula jadi (per 1000); KJS = kadar jumlah kesuburan (bilangan anak per ibu); IMR = kadar mortaliti bayi per 1000 kelahiran

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population - Philippine Statistics Authority". psa.gov.ph. Dicapai December 21, 2017. 
  2. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Diarkibkan daripada asal pada November 14, 2015. Dicapai January 6, 2016. 
  3. ^ "Constitution of the Philippines: Article XIV Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture, and Sports". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Dicapai November 26, 2009. 
  4. ^ "Population Statistics". www.popcom.gov.ph. Dicapai December 21, 2017. 
  5. ^ "The 2010 Census of Population and Housing Reveals the Philippine Population at 92.34 Million". Philippine Statistics Authority. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada January 15, 2013. Dicapai February 15, 2013. 
  6. ^ Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. Population of the Philippines Census Years 1799 to 2007 Diarkibkan July 4, 2012, di Wayback Machine.. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
  7. ^ "Philippine population officially hits 100 million". 
  8. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan CIAfactbook tidak disediakan
  9. ^ Central Intelligence Agency. "Field Listing :: Life expectancy at birth". Washington, D.C.: Author. Dicapai April 19, 2018. 
  10. ^ Republic of the Philippines. National Statistics Office. Poverty Incidence
  11. ^ Philippines History, Culture, Civilization and Technology, Filipino. Asiapacificuniverse.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  12. ^ Tamil Cultural Association - Tamil Language Diarkibkan April 13, 2015, di Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ Vince Figueroa (June 15, 2012). "Philippine History: Impluwensya ng mga Hindu sa mga Pilipino". Dicapai December 21, 2017 – melalui YouTube. 
  14. ^ The Cultural Influences of India, China, Arabia, and Japan | Philippine Almanac Diarkibkan July 1, 2012, di Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Philippine Statistics Authority (2009). The Philippines in Figures 2009 (PDF). ISSN 1655-2539. Diarkibkan daripada asal (PDF) pada July 11, 2012. Dicapai December 23, 2009. 
  16. ^ "Philippines". (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 18, 2009 from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  17. ^ a b Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). (2015). [1]. Ethnologue: Languages of the World (18th ed.). Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
  18. ^ Capelli; Christian; James F. Wilson; Martin Richards; Michael P. H. Stumpf; Fiona Gratrix; Stephen Oppenheimer; Peter Underhill; Ko, Tsang-Ming (2001). "A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular South Asia and Oceania" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics. 68 (2): 432–443. doi:10.1086/318205. PMC 1235276Boleh dicapai secara percuma. PMID 11170891. Diarkibkan daripada asal (PDF) pada May 11, 2011. Dicapai December 18, 2009. 
  19. ^ Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991). "Ethnicity, Regionalism, and Language". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved April 8, 2010 from Country Studies US Website.
  20. ^ "Sangley, Intsik und Sino : die chinesische Haendlerminoritaet in den Philippine". 
  21. ^ "The ethnic Chinese variable in domestic and foreign policies in Malaysia and Indonesia" (PDF). Dicapai April 23, 2012. 
  22. ^ The final component (dark blue in Fig. 3b) has a high frequency in South China (Fig. 2b) and is also seen in Taiwan at ~25–30 %, in the Philippines at ~20–30 % (except in one location which is almost zero) and across Indonesia/Malaysia at 1–10 %, declining overall from Taiwan within Austronesian-speaking populations.("Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking populations", Published by "Springer: Human Genetics" January 18 2016.)
  23. ^ "Chinese lunar new year might become national holiday in Philippines too". Xinhua News (August 23, 2009). (archived from the original on 2009-08-26)
  24. ^ Filipino Food and Culture. Food-links.com. Retrieved on July 4, 2012.
  25. ^ "In 1637 the military force maintained in the islands consisted of one thousand seven hundred and two Spaniards and one hundred and forty Indians." ~Memorial de D. Juan Grau y Monfalcon, Procurador General de las Islas Filipinas, Docs. Inéditos del Archivo de Indias, vi, p. 425. "In 1787 the garrison at Manila consisted of one regiment of Mexicans comprising one thousand three hundred men, two artillery companies of eighty men each, three cavalry companies of fifty men each." La Pérouse, ii, p. 368.
  26. ^ Jagor, Fëdor, et al. (1870). The Former Philippines thru Foreign Eyes
  27. ^ *Institute for Human Genetics, University of California San Francisco (2015). "Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos". Genetics Online: 1. 
  28. ^ With a sample population of 105 Filipinos, the company of Applied Biosystems, analysed the Y-DNA of average Filipinos and it is discovered that about 13.33% of the samples have the Y-DNA Haplotype "R1b", which is most common in Western Europe and had spread to the Philippines via Spanish colonists.
  29. ^ "Reference Populations - Geno 2.0 Next Generation". 
  30. ^ "The Impact of Spanish Rule in the Philippines". (2009). Tagalog at NIU. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from the Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, SEAsite Project. (archived from the original Diarkibkan October 1, 2007, di Wayback Machine. on October 1, 2007)
  31. ^ Nicholas Trajano Molnar (2017), University of Missouri Press, "American Mestizos, The Philippines, and the Malleability of Race: 1898–1961"
  32. ^ "Population of the Philippines : Census Years 1799 to 2010". Philippine Statistics Authority. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada July 4, 2012. 
  33. ^ World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Diarkibkan May 6, 2011, di Wayback Machine., United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.