Edward Snowden

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Edward Snowden
Edward Snowden-2.jpg
Kelahiran
Edward Joseph Snowden

(1983-06-21) 21 Jun 1983 (umur 37)
WarganegaraAmerican
Pendidikan
PekerjaanComputer security consultant
Majikan
Terkenal keranaRevealing details of classified United States government surveillance programs
PasanganLindsay Mills (k. 2017)
AnugerahRight Livelihood Award
Laman sesawangTemplat:ConditionalURL
Tandatangan
Edward Snowden signature 2013.svg

Edward Joseph Snowden (lahir 21 Jun 1983) ialah seorang bekas pekerja dan subkontraktor Agensi Perisikan Pusat yang dikenali atas tindakan menyalin dan meniris maklumat sulit tinggi (highly classified information) milik Agensi Keselamatan Negara Amerika Syarikat pada 2013 kepada orang ramai yang membongkarkan banyak program pengintipan global kelolaan agensi tersebut serta Five Eyes Intelligence Alliance dengan kerjasama syarikat telekom yang banyak menimbulkan kerisauan orang ramai terhadap keselamatan negara serta privasi peribadi yang berkaitan dengan pengunaan teknologi komunasi sekitar.

Atas pembongkaran yang dilakukan beliau terhadap maklumat sulit tinggi ini Jabatan Keadilan Amerika Syarikat mendakwa Snowden dua kali tuduhan pecah rahsia melanggar Akta Perisikan 1917 (Espionage Act of 1917) serta tuduhan mencuri harta kerajaan;[1] sehingga pasportnya ditarik balik Jabatan Dalam Negeri Amerika Syarikat.[2] Beliau berlindung di Moscow dengan pemberian suaka kepadanya dalam tempoh setahun yang dilanjutkan sehingga selewat-lewatnya 2020. Beliau berumah tangga dan bermastautin di kota tersebut sejak tahun 2017.[3][4]

Awal hidup dan pendidikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Edward Joseph Snowden lahir pada 21 Jun 1983[5] du Elizabeth City, North Carolina.[6] Kesemua ahli keluarganya ada jawatan penting dalam badan-badan milik pemerintah Amerika Syarikat; ayahnya seorang Pegawai Pantai[7] manakala ibunya Elizabeth seorang kerani dalam Mahkamah Negeri Maryland (U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland).[8][9][10][11][12] Datuknya Edward J. Barrett,[13][14] seorang Pegawai Pantai serta juga seorang pegawai kanan dalam FBI - malah, beliau berada di ditugaskan di Pentagon semasa berlakunya serangan pengganasan pada 11 September 2001.[15]

Kerjaya awal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penirisan dan pembongkaran maklumat sulit NSA[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pendakwaan pemerintah A.S ke atasnya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kesuakaan di Rusia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Snowden tiba di Lapangan Terbang Sheremetyevo Moskva dari penerbangan di Hong Kong pada 23 Jun 2013.[16][17][18] Beliau memohon suaka sementara di Rusia selama 1 tahun setleha dimohon pada 1 Ogos .[19] A year later, his temporary asylum having expired, Snowden received a three-year residency permit allowing him to travel freely within Russia and to go abroad for up to three months. He was not granted permanent political asylum.[20] In January 2017, a spokesperson for the Russian foreign ministry wrote on Facebook that Snowden's asylum, which was due to expire in 2017, was extended by "a couple more years".[21][22] Snowden's lawyer Anatoly Kucherena said the extension was valid until 2020.[23]

As of October 2019, Snowden had been granted permanent residency in Russia, which is renewed every three years.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan wapocharges tidak disediakan
  2. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan KerryPassport tidak disediakan
  3. ^ Oliphant, Roland (January 18, 2017). "Russia Extends Edward Snowden Asylum until 2020". The Telegraph. Dicapai pada October 23, 2019.
  4. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan Guardian130919 tidak disediakan
  5. ^ Ackerman, Spencer (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden was not successful in joining the US Army's elite special forces unit". The Guardian. London. Dicapai pada April 11, 2015. The army did confirm Snowden's date of birth: 21 June 1983.
  6. ^ "Report: Snowden has document to enter Russia". WVEC. Associated Press. July 24, 2013. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada August 22, 2013. Dicapai pada October 23, 2019. Edward Snowden, who was born in Elizabeth City, NC, is wanted in the U.S. for espionage" by the FBI et al.
  7. ^ Itkowitz, Colby; Sheehan, Daniel Patrick (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden's father, stepmother plan to make public statement". The Morning Call. Allentown, PA. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada November 1, 2013. Dicapai pada June 10, 2013.
  8. ^ Tulumello, Jennifer Skalka (June 11, 2013). "Edward Snowden: Who is he, and what kind of life is he leaving behind?". The Christian Science Monitor. Dicapai pada October 23, 2019.
  9. ^ Marbella, Jean; Bengali, Shashank; Cloud, David S. (June 10, 2013). "Details about Edward Snowden's life in Maryland emerge". The Baltimore Sun.
  10. ^ Tracy, Connor (June 10, 2013). "What we know about NSA leaker Edward Snowden". NBC News. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada 2013-06-13. Dicapai pada October 23, 2019.
  11. ^ Toppo, Greg (June 10, 2013). "Former neighbor remembers Snowden as 'nice kid'". USA Today. Washington, D.C. Dicapai pada October 23, 2019.
  12. ^ "Court Information". United States District Court for the District of Maryland. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada April 2, 2015. Dicapai pada March 10, 2015.
  13. ^ "NSA leaker Edward Snowden has ties to North Carolina". The News & Observer. August 1, 2013. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada October 19, 2014.
  14. ^ "Rear Admiral Edward J. Barrett". United States Coast Guard. Dicapai pada October 19, 2019.
  15. ^ Cole, Matthew; Esposito, Richard; Dedman, Bill; Schone, Mark (May 28, 2014). "Edward Snowden's Motive Revealed: He Can 'Sleep at Night'". NBC News. Dicapai pada October 23, 2019.
  16. ^ Loiko, Sergei L. (June 23, 2013). "Snowden stopping in Moscow en route to Cuba, Russian says". Los Angeles Times. Dicapai pada April 11, 2015.
  17. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan NYT: back in the game tidak disediakan
  18. ^ Makinen, Julie (June 23, 2013). "Snowden leaves Hong Kong; final destination unclear". Los Angeles Times. Dicapai pada October 24, 2019.
  19. ^ Fantz, Ashley; Black, Phil; Martinez, Michael (August 2, 2013). "Snowden out of airport, still in Moscow". CNN. Dicapai pada April 11, 2015.
  20. ^ "Edward Snowden Can Stay in Russia for Three Years, Lawyer Says". NBC News. Associated Press. August 7, 2014. Dicapai pada August 7, 2014.
  21. ^ Pascaline, Mary (January 18, 2017). "Will Edward Snowden Be Pardoned? Russia Slams Ex-CIA Head's Suggestion That Putin 'Gift' NSA Whistleblower To Trump". International Business Times. Dicapai pada March 18, 2018.
  22. ^ Onyanga-Omara, Jane; Korte, Gregory (January 18, 2017). "Edward Snowden's residence permit in Russia extended by a 'couple of years'". USA TODAY. Dicapai pada March 18, 2018.
  23. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (January 18, 2017). "Russia Extends Edward Snowden's Asylum". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Dicapai pada March 18, 2018.

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