Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Fizik jirim termeluwap adalah bidang fizik yang berurusan dengan ciri fizikal makroskopik dan mikroskopik jirim. Secara khususnya, ia berkenaan dengan fasa "termeluwap" yang muncul apabila bilangan juzuk dalam suatu sistem teramat besar dan interaksi antara juzuk kuat. Contoh paling biasa fasa termeluwap ialah pepejal dan cecair, yang muncul daripada daya elektromagnet antara atom. Fasa termeluwap lebih eksotik termasuklah fasa keberaliran lampau yang ditunjukkan bahan tertentu pada suhu rendah, fasa feromagnet dan antiferomagnet spin pada kekisi atom, dan hasil pemeluwapan Bose–Einstein yang ditemui dalam sistem atom ultrasejuk tertentu.
The aim of condensed matter physics is to understand the behavior of these phases by using well-established physical laws, in particular those of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism and statistical mechanics. The diversity of systems and phenomena available for study makes condensed matter physics by far the largest field of contemporary physics. By one estimate,[petikan diperlukan] one third of all United States physicists identify themselves as condensed matter physicists. The field has a large overlap with chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, and there are close connections with the related fields of atomic physics and biophysics. Theoretical condensed matter physics also shares many important concepts and techniques with theoretical particle and nuclear physics.
Historically, condensed matter physics grew out of solid-state physics, which is now considered one of its main subfields. The name of the field was apparently[petikan diperlukan] coined in 1967 by Philip Anderson and Volker Heine when they renamed their research group in the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge from "Solid-State Theory" to "Theory of Condensed Matter". In 1978, the Division of Solid State Physics at the American Physical Society was renamed as the Division of Condensed Matter Physics. One of the reasons for this change is that many of the concepts and techniques developed for studying solids can also be applied to fluid systems. For instance, the conduction electrons in an electrical conductor form a Fermi liquid, with similar properties to conventional liquids made up of atoms or molecules. Even the phenomenon of superconductivity, in which the quantum-mechanical properties of the electrons lead to collective behavior fundamentally different from that of a classical fluid, is closely related to the superfluid phase of liquid helium.
Topik-topik dalam fizik jirim termeluap[sunting | sunting sumber]
- P. M. Chaikin and T. C. Lubensky (2000). Principles of Condensed Matter Physics, Cambridge University Press; 1st edition, ISBN 0-521-79450-1
- Alexander Altland and Ben Simons (2006). Condensed Matter Field Theory, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-84508-4
- Michael P. Marder (2000). Condensed Matter Physics, Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 0-471-17779-2