Fordisme

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Fordisme adalah asas sistem ekonomi dan sosial yang moden dalam pengeluaran besar-besaran yang bersifat industri dan berskala besar dan penggunaan jisim. Konsep ini dinamakan untuk Henry Ford. Ia digunakan dalam teori sosial, ekonomi, dan pengurusan mengenai pengeluaran, keadaan kerja, penggunaan, dan fenomena yang berkaitan, khususnya mengenai abad ke-20.[1]

Gambaran keseluruhan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Fordisme ialah "sistem pembuatan eponim yang direka untuk memancarkan barang standard yang kos rendah dan mampu membayar pekerja yang cukup upah untuk membelinya."[2] Ia juga telah digambarkan sebagai "model pengembangan ekonomi dan kemajuan teknologi berdasarkan pengeluaran besar-besaran: pengilangan produk standard dalam jumlah besar menggunakan jentera tujuan khas dan buruh tidak mahir."[3] Walaupun Fordisme adalah kaedah yang digunakan untuk meningkatkan produktiviti dalam industri automotif, prinsip ini boleh digunakan untuk apa-apa jenis proses pembuatan.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Fordism & Postfordism, www.willamette.edu, dicapai 2008-12-26 
  2. ^ De Grazia 2005. p. 4.
  3. ^ Tolliday, Steven & Zeitlin, Jonathan. The Automobile Industry and its Workers: Between Fordism and Flexibility, St. Martin's Press (New York: 1987) pp. 1–2.

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Antonio, Robert J. and Bonanno, Alessandro. "A New Global Capitalism? From 'Americanism and Fordism' to 'Americanization-globalization.'" American Studies 2000 41(2–3): 33–77. ISSN 0026-3079.
  • Banta, Martha. Taylored Lives: Narrative Production in the Age of Taylor, Veblen, and Ford. U. of Chicago Press, 1993. 431 pp.
  • De Grazia, Victoria (2005), Irresistible Empire: America's Advance Through 20th-Century Europe, Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01672-6 
  • Baca, George. "Legends of Fordism." Social Analysis Fall 2004: 171–180.
  • Doray, Bernard (1988). From Taylorism to Fordism: A Rational Madness.
  • Holden, Len. "Fording the Atlantic: Ford and Fordism in Europe" in Business History Volume 47, #1 January 2005 pp. 122–127.
  • Hughes, Thomas P. (2004). American Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm 1870–1970. 2nd ed. The University of Chicago Press. [1]
  • Jenson, Jane. "'Different' but Not 'Exceptional': Canada's Permeable Fordism," Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 26, 1989
  • Koch, Max. (2006). Roads to Post-Fordism: Labour Markets and Social Structures in Europe
  • Ling, Peter J. America and the Automobile: Technology, Reform, and Social Change chapter on "Fordism and the Architecture of Production"
  • Maier, Charles S. "Between Taylorism and Technocracy: European Ideologies and the Vision of Industrial Productivity." Journal of Contemporary History (1970) 5(2): 27–61. ISSN 0022-0094 Fulltext online at Jstor
  • Mary Nolan; Visions of Modernity: American Business and the Modernization of Germany Oxford University Press, 1994 online
  • Mead, Walter Russell. "The Decline of Fordism and the Challenge to American Power." New Perspectives Quarterly; Summer 2004: 53–61.
  • Meyer, Stephen. (1981) "The Five Dollar Day: Labor Management and Social Control in the Ford Motor Company, 1908–1921" State University of New York Press
  • Spode, Hasso: "Fordism, Mass Tourism and the Third Reich." Journal of Social History 38(2004): 127–155.
  • Pietrykowski, Bruce. "Fordism at Ford: Spatial Decentralization and Labor Segmentation at the Ford Motor Company, 1920–1950," Economic Geography, Vol. 71, (1995) 383–401 online
  • Roediger, David, ed. "Americanism and Fordism - American Style: Kate Richards O'hare's 'Has Henry Ford Made Good?'" Labor History 1988 29(2): 241–252. Socialist praise for Ford in 1916.
  • Settis, Bruno. (2016) "Fordismi. Storia politica della produzione di massa", Mulino Bologna
  • Shiomi, Haruhito and Wada, Kazuo. (1995). Fordism Transformed: The Development of Production Methods in the Automobile Industry Oxford University Press.
  • Tolliday, Steven and Zeitlin, Jonathan eds. (1987) The Automobile Industry and Its Workers: Between Fordism and Flexibility Comparative analysis of developments in Europe, Asia, and the United States from the late 19th century to the mid-1980s.
  • Watts, Steven. (2005). The People's Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century.
  • Williams, Karel, Colin Haslam and John Williams, "Ford versus `Fordism': The Beginning of Mass Production?" Work, Employment & Society, Vol. 6, No. 4, 517–555 (1992). Stress on Ford's flexibility and commitment to continuous improvements.
  • Gielen, Pascal. (2009). The Murmuring of the Artistic Multitude. Global Art, Memory and Post-Fordism. Valiz: Amsterdam.