Gestapo

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Gestapo
Geheime Staatspolizei
Schutzstaffel Abzeichen.svg
Gestapo diurus oleh pegawai-pegawai SS.
Gestapomen following the white buses.jpg
Plainclothes Gestapo agents during the White Buses operations in 1945.
Gambaran keseluruhan
Dibentuk 26 April 1933
Agensi terdahulu
Dibubarkan 8 Mei 1945
Jenis Polis Rahsia
Di bawah bidang kuasa Jerman Jerman Nazi
Taklukan Eropah
Ibu pejabat Prinz-Albrecht-Straße, Berlin
52°30′26″N 13°22′57″E / 52.50722°N 13.38250°E / 52.50722; 13.38250
Kakitangan 32,000 anggota tahun 1944[1]
Menteri bertanggungjawab
Eksekutif agensi
Agensi induk Flag of the Schutzstaffel.svg Allgemeine SS
RSHA
Sicherheitspolizei

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Gestapo (Sebutan bahasa Jerman: [ɡeˈstaːpo, ɡəˈʃtaːpo]  ( dengar); Singkatan kata dari Geheime Staatspolizei, "Polis Rahsia Negara") adalah polis rahsia rasmi Jerman Nazi dan Eropah taklukan Jerman.

Hermann Goering membentuk unit ini pada tahun 1933. Permulaan tarikh 20 April 1934, ia dibawah pentadbiran SS Heinrich Himmler, yang telah dilantik (1936) oleh Hitler sebagai Ketua Polis Jerman (Chef der Deutschen Polizei).[2] Pada tahun 1936, Himmler menjadikan ia sebuah jabatan kecil dalam Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) ("Polis Keselamatan"). Kemudian dari tarikh 27 September 1939 hingga seterusnya, ia telah ditadbir oleh Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA) ("Pejabat Keselamatan Utama Reich") dan telah dianggap sebuah organisasi kembar Sicherheitsdienst (SD) ("Perkhidmatan Keselamatan").[3]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Robert Gellately (January 1992). [Gestapo di Buku Google The Gestapo and German Society] Periksa nilai |url= (bantuan). ISBN 978-0-19-820297-4. Dicapai pada 2 June 2009. 
  2. ^ Lumsden 2002, m/s. 83.
  3. ^ Lumsden 2002, m/s. 80–84.

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bauz, Ingrid; Sigrid Brüggemann; Roland Maier, eds. (2013). Die Geheime Staatspolizei in Württemberg und Hohenzollern. Stuttgart: Schmetterling. ISBN 3-89657-138-9.
  • Benz, Wolfgang (2007). A Concise History of the Third Reich. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-52025-383-4
  • Bernstein, Victor H. (1947). Final Judgment: The Story of Nuremberg. New York: Boni & Gaer. ISBN 978-1-16316-417-4
  • Browder, George C. (1996). Hitler's Enforcers: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510479-0
  • Burleigh, Michael (2001). The Third Reich: A New History. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001. ISBN 978-0-80909-326-7
  • Crew, David F., ed. (1994). Nazism and German Society, 1933–1945. London; New York: Routledge.  ISBN 978-0-41-508240-2
  • Dams, Carsten, and Michael Stolle (2014). The Gestapo: Power and Terror in the Third Reich. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-966921-9.
  • Delarue, Jacques (2008). The Gestapo: A History of Horror. New York: Skyhorse, 2008. ISBN 978-1-60239-246-5.
  • Evans, Richard J. (2006). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3
  • Evans, Richard J. (2010). The Third Reich at War. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-311671-4
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  • Frei, Norbert. National Socialist Rule in Germany: The Führer State, 1933–1945. Cambridge, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 1993. ISBN 0-631-18507-0
  • Gellately, Robert (1992). The Gestapo and German Society: Enforcing Racial Policy 1933-1945. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19820-297-4
  • Hildebrand, Klaus (1986). The Third Reich. London & New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41507-861-0
  • Hoffmann, Peter (1977). The History of the German Resistance, 1933-1945. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-26208-088-0
  • Höhne, Heinz (2001) [1969]. Der Orden unter dem Totenkopf, Verlag der Spiegel (Hamburg 1966), translated by Richard Barry as The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of Hitler’s SS New York: Penguin. ISBN 0-330-02963-0.
  • Johnson, Eric (1999). Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and Ordinary Germans. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-46-504908-0.
  • Krausnick, Helmut, et al. (1968). Anatomy of the SS State. New York; Walker and Company. ISBN 978-0-00211-026-6
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  • Lumsden, Robin (2002). A Collector's Guide To: The Allgemeine – SS. Ian Allan Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-7110-2905-9. 
  • Mallmann, Klaus-Michael & Paul, Gerhard. (1993). "Allwissend, allmächtig, allgegenwärtig? : Gestapo, Gesellschaft und Widerstand". Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft 1993 (dalam bahasa german). 41 (11): 984–999.  (translated as Omniscient, Omnipotent, Omnipresent? Gestapo, Society and Resistance, and included in Crew, Nazism and German Society, 1994)
  • McDonough, Frank (2005). Opposition and Resistance in Nazi Germany. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52100-358-2
  • McNab, Chris (2009). The SS: 1923–1945. Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-906626-49-5. 
  • Merson, Allan (1985). Communist Resistance in Nazi Germany. New York: NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-85315-601-7
  • Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression (1946). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • Overy, Richard (1997). Why the Allies Won. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-39331-619-3
  • Padfield, Peter (2001) [1990]. Himmler: Reichsführer-SS. London: Cassel & Co. ISBN 978-0-304-35839-7. 
  • Peukert, Detlev (1989). Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity, Opposition, and Racism in Everyday Life. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-30004-480-5
  • Rees, Laurence (1997). The Nazis: A Warning from History. New York: New Press. ISBN 0-563-49333-X. 
  • Schmid, Heinrich (1947). Apokalyptisches Wetterleuchten: Ein Beitrag der Evangelischen Kirche zum Kampf im Dritten Reich. München: Verl .d. Evang. - Lutherischen Kirche in Bayern. ASIN: B00279MGQS
  • Shirer, William (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York City: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-72868-7. 
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  • Spielvogel, Jackson (1992). Hitler and Nazi Germany: A History. New York: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13393-1822
  • Steigmann-Gall, Richard (2003). The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity, 1919-1945. New York & London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52182-371-5
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  • Williams, Max (2001). Reinhard Heydrich: The Biography: Volume 1. Church Stretton: Ulric. ISBN 978-0-9537577-5-6. 
  • Williamson, David G. (2002). The Third Reich. 3rd edition. London: Longman Publishers. ISBN 978-0-58236-883-5

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