Hari-hari Mac

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Hari-hari Mac
Sebahagian daripada Perang Saudara Rusia
Maklumat am
Tarikh 30 Mac 19182 April 1918
Lokasi Baku
Hasil Kemenangan Bolshevik-Dashnak
Pihak yang berperang
Socialist red flag.svg Parti Bolshevik
Flag of Armenia.svg Dashnak
22px Parti Musavat
Bahagian Buas
Kekuatan
Bolshevik
6,000 pasukan[1]
Dashnak
4,000 militia[1]
Musavat dan Bahagian Buas
10,000 tentera dan militia[1]
Kerugian dan kehilangan
2.500 tentera Dashnak 3,000 hingga 12,000 jiwa termasuk penduduk
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Hari-hari Mac atau Insiden Mac merujuk pada perang antar-etnik semasa Perang Saudara Rusia, yang membawa kepada pembunuhan 3,000 [2][3][4] hingga 12,000 orang Azerbaijan dan Muslim[5][6][7] di bandar Baku dan lokasi lain di Kegabenoran Baku.[8] Sumber Azerbaijan merujukan kejadian ini sebagai "pembunuhan beramai-ramai".[9][10]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b c Hopkirk, Peter (1994). Like hidden fire. The Plot to bring down the British Empire. New York: Kodansha Globe. pp. 281, 283, 287. ISBN 1-56836-127-0. 
  2. ^ " Baku in flames as battle rages (Associated press) // New York Times, May 20, 1918, Monday, page 2. query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50D11FC3D5A11738DDDA90A94DD405B888DF1D3
  3. ^ " PLAYING THE "COMMUNAL CARD": Communal Violence and Human Rights / Human Rights Watch, http://hrw.org/reports/1995/communal/#P985_418640
  4. ^ The Note Issues of Azerbaijan, Part I – The Baku Issues, by Peter Symes, http://www.pjsymes.com.au/articles/az-baku.htm
  5. ^ "New Republics in the Caucasus", The New York Times Current History, v. 11 no. 2 (March 1920), p. 492
  6. ^ "Anatomy of Rumor: Murder Scandal, the Musavat Party and Narrative of the Russian Revolution in Baku, 1917-1920", Journal of Contemporary History, Vol 36, No. 2, (Apr. 2001), p. 228
  7. ^ James B. Minahan. Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States, Greenwood Press, 1998, ISBN 0-313-30610-9, p. 22: "The tensions and fighting between the Azeris and the Armenians in the federation culminated in the massacre of some 12,000 Azeris in Baku by radical Armenians and Bolshevik troops in March 1918"
  8. ^ (Rusia) Michael Smith. "Azerbaijan and Russia: Society and State: Traumatic Loss and Azerbaijani National Memory"
  9. ^ Decree of President of Republic of Azerbaijan about genocide of Azerbaijani people, March 1998
  10. ^ PACE Written Declaration, "Recognition of the genocide perpetrated against the Azeri population by the Armenians", Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Doc. 9066 2nd edition, 14 May 2001