Iwi

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Iwi ([i.wi], asalnya bermaksud "tulang"[1] dalam bahasa Māori tetapi juga dipadankan dengan "bangsa" - nation[2] - atau "suku" - tribe[3]) merupakan unit masyarakat terbesar yang ada dalam kalangan orang Māori iaitu peribumi New Zealand. Unit ini dibentuk secara simbolik didasarkan kepada kelompok-kelompok orang yang berhijrah dari Polinesia (terutamanya dari rantau Hawaiki) melalui suatu salasilah keluarga (whakapapa) dan kumpulan yang mendayung dalam perahu-perahu khas iaitu waka.

Iwi-iwi ini memainkan peranan penting dalam masyarakat serta politik New Zealand moden lagi-lagi sebagai pemegang kuasa dalam hal pengurusan tanah berikutan penandatanganan Perjanjian Waitangi.

Setiap iwi terdiri kepada beberapa unit mirip suku dipanggil "hapū"; banyak iwi-iwi ini diberi nama berhujung "Ngāti" [ngaa.ti], "Ngāi" [ngaai] (di Pulau Utara), "Kāti" [kaa.ti] atau "Kāi" [kaai] (di Pulau Selatan) yang bermaksud "peranakan".

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  1. ^ "Iwi: glossary definition". National Library of New Zealand. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2011-12-14. Dicapai pada 9 September 2012.
  2. ^ Back cover: Ballara, A. (1998). Iwi: The dynamics of Māori tribal organisation from c.1769 to c.1945. Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University Press. - See also: Durie, A. (1999). Emancipatory Māori education: Speaking from the heart. In S. May (Ed.), Indigenous community education (pp. 67–78). Philadelphia, PA: Multilingual Matters. - See also: Healey, S. M. (2006). The nature of the relationship of the Crown in New Zealand with iwi Māori. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Auckland, New Zealand. - See also: Sharp, A. (1999). What if value and rights lie foundationally in groups? The Maori case. Critical Review of International, Social and Political Philosophy, 2(2), 1–28.
  3. ^ Taylor, R. (1848). A leaf from the natural history of New Zealand, or, A vocabulary of its different productions, &c., &c., with their native names. - White, J. (1887). The ancient history of the Maori, his mythology and traditions. - Smith, S. P. (1910). Maori wars of the nineteenth century; the struggle of the northern against the southern Maori tribes prior to the colonisation of New Zealand in 1840. - Best, E. (1934). The Maori as he was: A brief account of Maori life as it was in pre-European days. - Buck, P. (1949). The coming of the Maori.

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