Jean Piaget

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Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget in Ann Arbor.png
Piaget di Universiti Michigan, c. 1968
Kelahiran
Jean William Fritz Piaget

(1896-08-09)9 Ogos 1896
Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Meninggal dunia16 September 1980(1980-09-16) (umur 84)
Geneva, Switzerland
Pusat pendidikanUniversiti Neuchâtel
Terkenal keranaKonstruktivisme, Aliran Geneva, epistemologi genetik, teori perkembangan kognitif, kekekalan objek, egosentrisme
Kerjaya saintifik
BidangPsikologi perkembangan, epistemologi
PengaruhImmanuel Kant, Henri Bergson,[1] Pierre Janet, Alfred Binet, Théodore Simon, Sabina Spielrein, James Mark Baldwin[2]
Dipengaruhi olehRabai Shlomo Wolbe, Bärbel Inhelder,[3][4] Jerome Bruner,[5] Kenneth Kaye,[petikan diperlukan] Lawrence Kohlberg,[6] Robert Kegan,[7] Howard Gardner,[8] Thomas Kuhn,[9] Seymour Papert,[10] Lev Vygotsky,[11][12] John Flavell, Yann LeCun,[13] Jordan Peterson[14]

Jean Piaget (Perancis: [ʒɑ̃ pjaʒɛ]; 9 Ogos 1896 – 16 September 1980) merupakan seorang ahli psikologi Switzerland yang dikenali kerana kajiannya terhadap perkembangan kanak-kanak. teori perkembangan kognitif Piaget dan pandangan epistemologi sama-sama dipanggil "epistemologi genetik".

Piaget sangat mementingkan pendidikan kanak-kanak. Sebagai Pengarah Biro Pendidikan Antarabangsa, beliau mengisytihar pada tahun 1934 bahawa "hanya pendidikan mampu menyelamatkan masyarakat kita daripada runtuh yang boleh jadi, sama ada ganas, atau beransur-ansur."[15] Teori perkembangan kanak-kanak beliau dikaji dalam program pendidikan praperkhidmatan. Para pendidik terus menggabungkan strategi berasaskan konstruktivis.

Piaget mencipta Pusat Antarabangsa untuk Epistemologi Genetik di Geneva pada tahun 1955 manakala di fakulti Universiti Geneva dan mengarahkan Pusat tersebut sehingga beliau meninggal dunia pada tahun 1980.[16] The number of collaborations that its founding made possible, and their impact, ultimately led to the Center being referred to in the scholarly literature as "Piaget's factory".[17]

Menurut Ernst von Glasersfeld, Jean Piaget merupakan "perintis hebat teori mengetahui konstruktivis."[18] Walau bagaimanapun, ideanya tidak popular meluas hingga 1960-an.[19] Hal ini kemudian membawa kepada timbulnya kajian perkembangan sebagai suatu subdisiplin major dalam psikologi.[20] Menjelang akhir abad ke-20, Piaget hanya yang kedua daripada B. F. Skinner sebagai ahli psikologi yang paling banyak dipeting pada zaman itu.[21]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rakan usaha sama[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penterjemah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Pass, Susan (2004) Parallel Paths to Constructivism: Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, Information Age Publishing. p. 74. ISBN 1593111452
  2. ^ Piaget, J. (1982). Reflections on Baldwin [interview with J. J. Vonèche]. In J. M. Broughton & D. J. Freeman-Moir (Eds.), The cognitive developmental psychology of James Mark Baldwin. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. pp. 80–86. ISBN 0893910430
  3. ^ Inhelder, B. (1989). Bärbel Inhelder [Autobiography] (H. Sinclair & M. Sinclair, Trans.). In G. Lindzey (Ed.), A History of Psychology in Autobiography. Vol. VIII. pp. 208–243. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  4. ^ Tryphon, A., & Vonèche, J. J. (Eds.). (2001). Working with Piaget: Essays in honour of Bärbel Inhelder. Hove, East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.
  5. ^ Bruner, J. S. (1983). In search of mind: Essays in autobiography. New York: Harper & Row.
  6. ^ Kohlberg, L. (1982). "Moral development". In J. M. Broughton & D. J. Freeman-Moir (Eds.), The cognitive developmental psychology of James Mark Baldwin: Current theory and research in genetic epistemology. pp. 277–325. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. ISBN 0893910430
  7. ^ Kegan, Robert (1994). In Over Our Heads. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780674445888
  8. ^ Gardner, H. (2008). "Wrestling with Jean Piaget, my paragon. What have you changed your mind about?". Edge.org. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada 19 October 2016. Dicapai pada 17 October 2016.
  9. ^ Burman, J. T. (2007). "Piaget no "remedy" for Kuhn, but the two should be read together: Comment on Tsou's "Piaget vs. Kuhn on scientific progress"". Theory & Psychology. 17 (5): 721–732. doi:10.1177/0959354307079306.
  10. ^ Papert, S (29 March 1999). "Child Psychologist: Jean Piaget". Time. 153: 104–107.
  11. ^ Piaget, J (1979). "Comments on Vygotsky's critical remarks". Archives de Psychologie. 47 (183): 237–249.
  12. ^ Piaget, J (2000). "Commentary on Vygotsky's criticisms of Language and Thought of the Child and Judgement and Reasoning in the Child (L. Smith, Trans.)". New Ideas in Psychology. 18 (2–3): 241–259. doi:10.1016/s0732-118x(00)00012-x. (Original work published 1962.)
  13. ^ Ng, A (7 April 2018). Heroes of Deep Learning: Andrew Ng interviews Yann LeCun. Youtube.com. Preserve Knowledge. Peristiwa berlaku di 00:1:14.
  14. ^ Rowson, Jonathan (1 March 2019). "Cultural Indigestion: What we learned and failed to learn from Jordan Peterson's rise to fame". Medium. Dicapai pada 4 May 2020.
  15. ^ Munari, Alberto (1994). "Jean Piaget" (PDF). Prospects: The Quarterly Review of Comparative Education. XXIV (1/2): 311–327. doi:10.1007/bf02199023.
  16. ^ "About Piaget". Jean Piaget Society. Dicapai pada 17 October 2016.
  17. ^ Burman, J. T. (2012). "Jean Piaget: Images of a life and his factory". History of Psychology. 15 (3): 283–288. doi:10.1037/a0025930. ISSN 1093-4510. PMID 23397918.
  18. ^ von Glasersfeld, E. (1990). "An exposition of constructivism: Why some like it radical". Journal for Research in Mathematics Education – Monograph. 4: 19–29 & 195–210 [22]. doi:10.2307/749910. ISSN 0883-9530. JSTOR 749910. (p. 22).
  19. ^ Hsueh, Y (2009). "Piaget in the United States, 1925–1971. In U. Müller, J. I. M. Carpendale & L. Smith (Eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Piaget (pp. 344–370). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Müller, U., Burman, J. T., & Hutchinson, S. (2013). The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget: A quinquagenary retrospective". Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 34 (1): 52–55. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2012.10.001.
  20. ^ Pickren, W. E. (2012). Joseph McVicker Hunt: Golden age psychologist. In W. E. Pickren, D. A. Dewsbury, & M. Wertheimer (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in developmental psychology (pp. 185–203). New York: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
  21. ^ Haggbloom, Steven J.; Warnick, Renee; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.; Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey, Reagan; Powell, John L., III; Beavers, Jamie; Monte, Emmanuelle (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century" (PDF). Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139–152. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Aqueci, F. (2003). Ordine e trasformazione: morale, mente, discorso in Piaget. Acireale-Roma: Bonanno. ISBN 88-7796-148-1.
  • Amann-Gainotti, M.; Ducret, J.-J. (1992). "Jean Piaget, disciple of Pierre Janet: Influence of behavior psychology and relations with psychoanalysis". Information Psychiatrique. 68: 598–606.
  • Beilin, H. (1992). "Piaget's enduring contribution to developmental psychology". Developmental Psychology. 28 (2): 191–204. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.28.2.191.
  • Beilin, H. (1994). Jean Piaget's enduring contribution to developmental psychology. A century of developmental psychology (pp. 257–290). Washington, DC US: American Psychological Association.
  • Bringuier, J.-C. (1980). Conversations with Jean Piaget (B.M. Gulati, Trans.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1977) ISBN 0-226-07503-6.
  • Chapman, M. (1988). Constructive evolution: Origins and development of Piaget's thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36712-3.
  • Demetriou, A. (1998). Cognitive development. In A. Demetriou, W. Doise, K. F. M. van Lieshout (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology (pp. 179–269). London: Wiley.
  • Demetriou, A., Mouyi, A., & Spanoudis, G. (2010). The development of mental processing. Nesselroade, J. R. (2010). Methods in the study of life-span human development: Issues and answers. In W. F. Overton (Ed.), Biology, cognition and methods across the life-span. Volume 1 of the Handbook of life-span development (pp. 36–55), Editor-in-chief: R. M. Lerner. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • Duveen, G. & Psaltis, C. (2008). The constructive role of asymmetries in social interaction. In U. Mueller, J. I. M. Carpendale, N. Budwig & B. Sokol (Eds.), Social life and social knowledge: Toward a process account of development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Flavell, J. (1967). The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. ISBN 0-442-02413-4.
  • Fowler, J. W. (1981). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest for meaning. San Francisco: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-062866-9.
  • Gattico, E. (2001). Jean Piaget. Milano: Bruno Mondadori. ISBN 88-424-9741-X.
  • Hallpike, C.R. (1979). The foundations of primitive thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-823196-2.
  • Ivey, A. (1986). Developmental therapy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 1-55542-022-2.
  • Kamii, C. (1985). Young children reinvent arithmetic: Implications of Piaget's theory. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Kesselring, T. (1999). Jean Piaget. München: Beck. ISBN 3-406-44512-8.
  • Kassotakis, M. & Flouris, G. (2006) Μάθηση & Διδασκαλία, Αthens.
  • Kitchener, R. (1986). Piaget's theory of knowledge: Genetic epistemology & scientific reason. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03579-9.
  • Kose, G. (1987). "A philosopher's conception of Piaget: Piagetian theory reconsidered". Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology. 7 (1): 52–57. doi:10.1037/h0091442.

CUNY pdf

  • Mayer, S. (2005). "The early evolution of Jean Piaget's clinical method". History of Psychology. 8 (4): 362–382. doi:10.1037/1093-4510.8.4.362. PMID 17152748.
  • Messerly, J.G. (1992). Piaget's conception of evolution: Beyond Darwin and Lamarck. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-8243-9.
  • Psaltis, C.; Duveen, G. (2006). "Social relations and cognitive development: The influence of conversation type and representations of gender". European Journal of Social Psychology. 36 (3): 407–430. doi:10.1002/ejsp.308.
  • Psaltis, C.; Duveen, G. (2007). "Conversation types and conservation: Forms of recognition and cognitive development". British Journal of Developmental Psychology. 25 (1): 79–102. doi:10.1348/026151005X91415.
  • Robinson, R.J. (2005). The birth of reason. Prometheus Research Group. (Available online at prometheus.org.uk)
  • Smith, L. (Ed.) (1992). Jean Piaget: Critical assessments (4 Vols.). London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04408-1.
  • Smith, L. (1993). Necessary knowledge: Piagetian perspectives on constructivism. Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN 0-86377-270-6.
  • Smith, L. (Ed.) (1996). Critical readings on Piaget. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13317-3.
  • Smith, L. (2001). Jean Piaget. In J. A. Palmer (Ed.), 50 modern thinkers on education: From Piaget to the present. London: Routledge.
  • Traill, R.R. (2000) Physics and Philosophy of the Mind. Melbourne: Ondwelle. ISBN 0-9577737-1-4
  • Traill, R.R. (2005a) ........ . Melbourne: Ondwelle. ondwelle.com
  • Traill, R.R. (2005b / 2008) Thinking by Molecule, Synapse, or both? – From Piaget's Schema, to the Selecting/Editing of ncRNA. Melbourne: Ondwelle. ondwelle.com [Also in French: ondwelle.com
  • Vidal, F. (1994). Piaget before Piaget. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-66716-6.
  • Vonèche, J.J. (1985). Genetic epistemology: Piaget's theory. In T. Husén & T.N. Postlethwaite (Eds.-in-chief), International encyclopedia of education (Vol. 4). Oxford: Pergamon.
  • Wynn, T. (1979). "The intelligence of later Acheulean hominids". Man. New Series. 14 (3): 371–391. doi:10.2307/2801865. JSTOR 2801865.
  • Wynn, T. (1981). "The intelligence of Oldowan hominids". Journal of Human Evolution. 10 (7): 529–541. doi:10.1016/S0047-2484(81)80046-2.

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Piaget telah memberi inspirasi kepada kajian yang tidak terkira banyaknya dan juga bidang pertanyaan yang baru. Berikut adalah senarai kritik dan ulasan, disusun menggunakan kaedah berasaskan kutipan yang sama sebagai senarai karya utama beliau sendiri (di atas). Ini mewakili tulisan pasca-Piaget yang penting dan berpengaruh dalam subdisiplin masing-masing.

Contoh[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Vygotsky, L. (1963). Thought and language. [12630 citations]

Klasik[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Papert, S. (1980). Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas. [4089]
  • Minsky, M. (1988). The society of mind. [3950]
  • Kohlberg, L. (1969). Stage And Sequence: The Cognitive-Developmental Approach To Socialization. [3118]
  • Flavell, J. (1963). The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. [2333] [The development of the project that became this book, and its impact, is discussed in detail by Müller, U.; Burman, J. T.; Hutchison, S. M. (2013). "The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget: A quinquagenary retrospective". Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 34 (1): 52–55. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2012.10.001. ISSN 0193-3973.]
  • Gibson, E. J. (1973). Principles of perceptual learning and development. [1903]
  • Hunt, J. McV. (1961). Intelligence and Experience. [617+395+384+111+167+32=1706]
  • Meltzoff, A. N. & Moore, M. K. (1977). Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. [1497]
  • Case, R. (1985). Intellectual development: Birth to adulthood. [1456]
  • Fischer, K. W. (1980). A theory of cognitive development: The control and construction of hierarchies of skills. [1001]

Karya utama[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bates, E. (1976). Language and context: The acquisition of pragmatics. [959]
  • Ginsburg, H. P. & Opper, S. (1969). Piaget's theory of intellectual development. [931]
  • Singley, M. K. & Anderson, J. R. (1989). The transfer of cognitive skill. [836]
  • Duckworth, E. (1973). The having of wonderful ideas. [775]
  • Youniss, J. (1982). Parents and peers in social development: A Sullivan-Piaget perspective. [763]
  • Pascual-Leone, J. (1970). A mathematical model for the transition rule in Piaget's developmental stages. [563]
  • Schaffer, H. R. & Emerson, P. E. (1964). The development of social attachments in infancy. [535]

Karya kepentingan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Shatz, M.; Gelman, R. (1973). "The Development of Communication Skills: Modifications in the Speech of Young Children as a Function of Listener". Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. 38 (5): 1–37. doi:10.2307/1165783. JSTOR 1165783. [470]
  • Broke, H (1971). "Interpersonal perception of young children: Egocentrism or Empathy?". Developmental Psychology. 5 (2): 263–269. doi:10.1037/h0031267. [469]
  • Wadsworth, B. J. (1989). Piaget's theory of cognitive and affective development [421]
  • Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1992). Beyond Modularity. [419]
  • Bodner, G. M. (1986). Constructivism: A theory of knowledge. [403]
  • Shantz, C. U. (1975). The Development of Social Cognition. [387]
  • Diamond, A.; Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1989). "Comparison of human infants and rhesus monkeys on Piaget's AB task: evidence for dependence on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex". Experimental Brain Research. 74 (1): 24–40. doi:10.1007/bf00248277. PMID 2924839. [370]
  • Gruber, H. & Voneche, H. (1982). The Essential Piaget. [348]
  • Walkerdine, V. (1984). Developmental psychology and the child-centred pedagogy: The insertion of Piaget into early education. [338]
  • Kamii, C. & DeClark, G. (1985). Young children reinvent arithmetic: Implications of Piaget's theory [335]
  • Riegel, K. F. (1973). Dialectic operations: The final period of cognitive development [316]
  • Bandura, A.; McDonald, F. J. (1963). "Influence of social reinforcement and the behavior of models in shaping children's moral judgment". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 67 (3): 274–281. doi:10.1037/h0044714. PMID 14054361. [314]
  • Karplus, R. (1980). Teaching for the development of reasoning. [312]
  • Brainerd, C. (1978). The stage question in cognitive-developmental theory. [311]
  • Brainerd, C. (1978). Piaget's theory of intelligence. [292]
  • Gilligan, C. (1997). Moral orientation and moral development [285]
  • Diamond, A. (1991). Neuropsychological insights into the meaning of object concept development [284]
  • Braine, M. D. S., & Rumain, B. (1983). Logical reasoning. [276]
  • John-Steiner, V. (2000). Creative collaboration. [266]
  • Pascual-Leone, J. (1987). Organismic processes for neo-Piagetian theories: A dialectical causal account of cognitive development. [261]
  • Hallpike, C. R. (1979). The foundations of primitive thought [261]
  • Furth, H. (1969). Piaget and Knowledge [261]
  • Gelman, R. & Baillargeon, R. (1983). A review of some Piagetian concepts. [260]
  • O'Loughlin, M. (1992). Rethinking science education: Beyond piagetian constructivism. Toward a sociocultural model of teaching and learning. [252]
  • Messerly, John G. (1996). "Psychogenesis and the History of Science: Piaget and the Problem of Scientific Change", The Modern Schoolman LXXIII, 295–307.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]