John McCarthy (ahli sains komputer)

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John McCarthy
John McCarthy Stanford.jpg
John McCarthy di persidangan pada 2006
Kelahiran(1927-09-04)4 September 1927
Meninggal dunia24 Oktober 2011(2011-10-24) (umur 84)
Pusat pendidikanUniversiti Princeton, Institut Teknologi California
Terkenal keranaKecerdasan buatan, Lisp, penerapan lilit, kalkulus keadaan
AnugerahAnugerah Turing (1971)
Anugerah Perintis Komputer (1985)
Anugerah IJCAI Award untuk Kecemerlangan Penyelidikan (1985)
Hadiah Kyoto (1988)
Pingat Sains Kebangsaan (1990)
Pingat Benjamin Franklin (2003)
Kerjaya saintifik
BidangSains komputer
InstitusiUniversiti Stanford, Institut Teknologi Massachusetts, Kolej Dartmouth, Universiti Princeton
Penasihat kedoktoranSolomon Lefschetz
Pelajar kedoktoranRuzena Bajcsy
Ramanathan V. Guha
Barbara Liskov
Raj Reddy

John McCarthy (4 September 1927 – 24 Oktober 2011) merupakan ahli sains komputer dan ahli sains kognitif Amerika Syarikat. McCarthy merupakan salah satu pengasas disiplin kecerdasan buatan.[1] Beliau mengarang bersama dokumen yang mencipta istilah "kecerdasan buatan" (AI), membangun keluarga bahasa pengaturcaraan Lisp, nyata sekali mempengaruhi reka bentuk bahasa pengaturcaraan ALGOL, mempopularkan perkongsian masa, mencipta pengutipan sampah, dan sangat berpengaruh dalam awal pembangunan AI.

McCarthy menghabiskan kebanyakan kerjayanya di Universiti Stanford.[2] Beliau menerima banyak sanjungan dan kehormat, seperti Anugerah Turing 1971 atas sumbangannya kepada topik AI,[3] Pingat Sains Kebangsaan Amerika Syarikat, dan Hadiah Kyoto.

Penerbitan utama[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • McCarthy, J. 1959. "Programs with Common Sense" di Wayback Machine (diarkibkan Oktober 4, 2013). In Proceedings of the Teddington Conference on the Mechanization of Thought Processes, 756-91. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
  • McCarthy, J. 1960. "Recursive functions of symbolic expressions and their computation by machine" di Wayback Machine (diarkibkan Oktober 4, 2013). Communications of the ACM 3(4):184-195.
  • McCarthy, J. 1963a "A basis for a mathematical theory of computation". In Computer Programming and formal systems. North-Holland.
  • McCarthy, J. 1963b. Situations, actions, and causal laws. Technical report, Stanford University.
  • McCarthy, J., and Hayes, P. J. 1969. Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence di Wayback Machine (diarkibkan Ogos 25, 2013). In Meltzer, B., and Michie, D., eds., Machine Intelligence 4. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 463-502.
  • McCarthy, J. 1977. "Epistemological problems of artificial intelligence". In IJCAI, 1038-1044.
  • McCarthy, J (1980). "Circumscription: A form of non-monotonic reasoning". Artificial Intelligence. 13 (1–2): 23–79. doi:10.1016/0004-3702(80)90011-9.
  • McCarthy, J (1986). "Applications of circumscription to common sense reasoning". Artificial Intelligence. 28 (1): 89–116. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.29.5268. doi:10.1016/0004-3702(86)90032-9.
  • McCarthy, J. 1990. "Generality in artificial intelligence". In Lifschitz, V., ed., Formalizing Common Sense. Ablex. 226-236.
  • McCarthy, J. 1993. "Notes on formalizing context". In IJCAI, 555-562.
  • McCarthy, J., and Buvac, S. 1997. "Formalizing context: Expanded notes". In Aliseda, A.; van Glabbeek, R.; and Westerstahl, D., eds., Computing Natural Language. Stanford University. Also available as Stanford Technical Note STAN-CS-TN-94-13.
  • McCarthy, J. 1998. "Elaboration tolerance". In Working Papers of the Fourth International Symposium on Logical formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning, Commonsense-1998.
  • Costello, T., and McCarthy, J. 1999. "Useful counterfactuals". Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence 3(A):51-76
  • McCarthy, J. 2002. "Actions and other events in situation calculus". In Fensel, D.; Giunchiglia, F.; McGuinness, D.; and Williams, M., eds., Proceedings of KR-2002, 615-628.

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Conversations On the Leading Edge of Knowledge and Discovery, with Jeffrey Mishlove
  2. ^ McCarthy, John. "Professor John McCarthy". jmc.stanford.edu.
  3. ^ "John McCarthy – A.M. Turing Award Laureate". amturing.acm.org (dalam bahasa Inggeris).

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Philip J. Hilts, Scientific Temperaments: Three Lives in Contemporary Science, Simon and Schuster, 1982. Lengthy profiles of John McCarthy, physicist Robert R. Wilson and geneticist Mark Ptashne.
  • Pamela McCorduck, Machines Who Think: a personal inquiry into the history and prospects of artificial intelligence, 1979, second edition 2004.
  • Pamela Weintraub, ed., The Omni Interviews, New York: Ticknor and Fields, 1984. Collected interviews originally published in Omni magazine; contains an interview with McCarthy.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Didahului oleh
Lucy Suchman
Pingat Benjamin Franklin dalam Sains Komputer dan Kognitif
2003
Diikuti oleh:
Richard M. Karp

Templat:John McCarthy navbox Templat:Lisp programming language Templat:ALGOL programming Templat:Turing Award laureates Templat:National Medal of Science