Joseph Stilwell

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Joseph Stilwell
2WWstilwell.JPG
Nama lahirJoseph Warren Stilwell
Nama samaran"Vinegar Joe", "Uncle Joe"
Kelahiran(1883-03-19)19 Mac 1883
Palatka, Florida, A.S.
Meninggal dunia12 Oktober 1946(1946-10-12) (umur 63)
San Francisco, California, A.S.
Kesetiaan Amerika Syarikat
PerkhidmatanSeal of the United States Department of War.png Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat
Tahun perkhidmatan1904–1946
PangkatUS-O10 insignia.svg Jeneral
ArahanDivisyen Ke-7 Infantri
Kor III
Kancah China Burma India
Pasukan Ekspedisi China (Burma)
Tentera Darat China di India
Markas Tempur Kawasan Utara (NCAC)
Angkatan Medan Tentera Darat
Tentera Darat Kesepuluh AS
Tentera Darat Keenam AS
Markas Pertahanan Barat
PertempuranPerang Dunia I

Perang Dunia II

AnugerahDistinguished Service Cross
Distinguished Service Medal (2)
Legion of Merit
Tugas lainKetua Staf kepada Generalisimo Chiang Kai-shek

Joseph Warren Stilwell (19 Mac 1883 – 12 Oktober 1946) adalah seorang Jeneral dalam Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat yang berkhidmat di Kancah China Burma India semasa Perang Dunia II. Personalitinya yang tajam telah memberikan nama samaran "Vinegar Joe".

Walaupun dicurigai Sekutunya, Stilwell menunjukkan dirinya sebagai seorang ahli taktik yang berkebolehan dan berani di medan perang tetapi kekurangan sumber-sumber menyebabkan beliau terus dipaksa untuk membuat penambahbaikan. Beliau terkenal dengan perbezaan strategi, pasukan darat menentang kuasa udara, dengan orang bawahannya, Mejar Jeneral Claire Chennault, yang kata-katanya didengar oleh Generalisimo Chiang Kai-shek. Jeneral George Marshall, iaitu Ketua Turus Tentera Darat, mengakui yang beliau telah memberikan Stilwell "salah satu tugas yang paling sukar" dari mana-mana panglima kancah peperangan.[1]

Tarikh kenaikkan pangkat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tiada pin insignia pada 1904 Leftenan Kedua, Tentera Darat Tetap: 15 Jun 1904
US-O2 insignia.svg Leftenan Pertama, TD Tetap: 3 Mac 1911
US-O3 insignia.svg Kapten, TD Tetap: 1 Julai 1916
US-O4 insignia.svg Mejar, Tentera Darat Kebangsaan: 5 Ogos 1917
US-O5 insignia.svg Leftenan Kolonel, TD Tetap: 26 Ogos 1918
US-O6 insignia.svg Kolonel, TD Tetap: 6 Mei 1919
US-O3 insignia.svg Kapten, TD Tetap (berikutan pengurangan am pangkat sementara masa perang): 14 September 1919
US-O4 insignia.svg Mejar, TD Tetap: 1 Julai 1920
US-O5 insignia.svg Leftenan Kolonel, TD Tetap: 6 Mei 1928
US-O6 insignia.svg Kolonel, TD Tetap: 1 Ogos 1935
US-O7 insignia.svg Brigedier Jeneral, TD Tetap: 1 Julai 1939
US-O8 insignia.svg Mejar Jeneral, Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat: 1 Oktober 1940
US-O9 insignia.svg Leftenan Jeneral, Tentera Darat AS: 25 Februari 1942
US-O8 insignia.svg Mejar Jeneral, TD Tetap: 1 September 1943
US-O10 insignia.svg Jeneral, Tentera Darat AS: 1 Ogos 1944

[2]

Anugerah kebesaran[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:ACMH
  1. ^ Eldridge, p. 160.
  2. ^ Official Register of Commissioned Officers of the United States Army. 1945. pg. 893.

Bacaan lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Jack Belden, Retreat With Stilwell, New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1943. Sympathetic eyewitness account.
  • Frank Dorn, Walkout: With Stilwell in Burma, Pyramid Books 1973. By his principal aide.
  • Fred Eldridge, 'Wrath in Burma The Uncensored Story of Gen. Stilwell Doubleday & Co., 1946.
  • Evans, M. Stanton; Romerstein, Herbert (2013). Stalin's Secret Agents: The Subversion of Roosevelt's Government. Threshold Editions. ISBN 978-1439147702. 
  • Eric Larrabee, Commander In Chief, New York: Harper & Row, 1987. ISBN 0-06-039050-6
  • Jon Latimer, Burma: The Forgotten War, London: John Murray, 2004. ISBN 978-0-7195-6576-2
  • Barbara Tuchman, Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911-45, Macmillan 1970. Grove Press 2001. British edition: Sand Against the Wind: Stilwell and the American Experience in China 1911-45, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2001. ISBN 978-1-84212-281-5. Sympathetic full scale biography.
  • John Masters, The Road Past Mandalay, London: Michael Joseph, 1961. First-hand account of the fighting in Burma by a Chindit officer.
  • Pfefer, Nathan Vinegar Joe's War Presidio Press, 2000, ISBN 0-89141-715-X.
  • Romanus, Charles F.; Sunderland, Riley (1987) [1953]. China-Burma-India Theater: Stilwell's Mission to China. United States Army in World War II. Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History. LCCN 53-60349. 
  • Charles F. Romanus Riley Sunderland, Stilwell's Command Problems (Washington: Department of the Army, Historical Division, 1956). Official Army history with extensive documentation.
  • Rooney, D.D. Stilwell Pan Macmillan, 1973, ISBN 0-345-09789-0.
  • Stilwell, Joseph; White, Theodore, Ed. The Stilwell Papers Da Capo Press, 1991, ISBN 0-306-80428-X. Stilwell's wartime diaries.
  • Hans Van de Ven, "Stilwell in the Stocks: The Chinese Nationalists and the Allied Powers in the Second World War," Asian Affairs 34.3 (November 2003): 243-259. Revisionist study argues that Stilwell misunderstood Chiang's military strategy, which was actually flexible and well founded in Chinese realities.
  • Hans J. Van de Ven, War and Nationalism in China, 1925-1945 (London; New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003). Expands revisionist view including longer period of time.
  • Andrew Roberts, "Masters and Commanders: How Four Titans Won the War in the West, 1941-1945" (New York: Harper Perennial. 2010). Presents a harsher picture of Stilwell in course of examining Churchill, Roosevelt, Brook, and Marshall.
  • Rana Mitter, "Forgotten Ally: China's World War II. 1937-1945" (Boston; New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2013). Complete re-examination of the Chinese wars with Japan which argues that the memory of 'betrayals' by Britain, America, and Russia continues to influence China's worldview today.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pegawai tentera
Didahului oleh
Walter Krueger
Panglima Tentera Darat Keenam Amerika Syarikat
1946
Diikuti oleh:
George Price Hays
Didahului oleh
Roy Geiger
Panglima Tentera Darat Kesepuluh Amerika Syarikat
1945–1946
Diikuti oleh:
tidak aktif
Didahului oleh
Ben Lear
Panglima Angkatan Tempur Tentera Darat A.S.
27 Januari 1945 hingga 22 Jun 1945
Diikuti oleh:
Jacob L. Devers