Kaki makan air

Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas.
Athlete's foot or tinea pedis
Pengelasan dan sumber luaran
Pale, flaky & split skin of athlete's foot in a toe web space
P. Data Penyakit13122
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Kaki makan air adalah sejenis penyakit yang juga dikenali sebagai Athletes Foot. Penyakit kaki makan air disebabkan kulat. Penyakit kaki makan air biasanya disebabkan kaki yang selalu berendam air atau lembab.

Simptom[sunting | sunting sumber]

Keruping antara celah jari kaki.

Kaki makan air (bahasa Inggeris Athlete's foot) menyebabkan kulit dicelah jari kaki yang dijangkiti menjadi berkeruping, bersisik dan gatal. Lepoh dan kulit pecah juga mungkin berlaku, menyebabkan tisu dlam terdedah, kesakitan, bengkak dan radang. Jangkitan bakteria kedua juga boleh berlaku bersama jangkitan kulat yang kadang-kala memerlukan rawatan antibiotik.[1][2]

Jangkitan ini mampu merebak kepada bahagian lain badan, seperti peha, dan biasanya dikenali dengan nama lain apabila ia merebak, seperti tinea corporis pada tubuh atau anggota badan dan tinea cruris (jock itch atau gatal dhobi itch) bagi jangkitan pada celah peha. Tinea pedis kebiaaannya hadir pada celah jari kaki, biasanya pada jari kaki kempat dan kelima palingkerap.[3][4][5]

Diagnosis[sunting | sunting sumber]

Diagnosis boleh dilakukan oleh ahli farmasis, doktor umum (general practitioner) dan pakar dermatologist atau podiatrist.


  • After any physical activity shower with a soap that has both an antibacterial and anti fungal fighting agent in it.

Rawatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

There are many conventional medications (over-the-counter and prescription) as well as alternative treatments for fungal skin infections, including athlete's foot. Important with any treatment plan is the practice of good hygiene. Several placebo controlled studies report that good foot hygiene alone can cure athlete's foot even without medication in 30-40% of the cases.[6] However, placebo-controlled trials of allylamines and azoles for athlete’s foot consistently produce much higher percentages of cure than placebo.[7]

Rawatan biasa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Conventional treatment typically involves daily or twice daily application of a topical medication in conjunction with hygiene measures outlined in the above section on prevention. Keeping feet dry and practicing good hygiene is crucial to preventing reinfection. Severe or prolonged fungal skin infections may require treatment with oral anti-fungal medication. Apply zinc oxide based diaper rash ointment. To prevent sweaty or wet feet that are breeding grounds for athlete's foot, apply talcum powder (baby powder) to absorb moisture that kills off the infection.

Ubat Topikal[sunting | sunting sumber]

The fungal infection is often treated with topical antifungal agents, which can take the form of a spray, powder, cream, or gel. The most common ingredients in over-the-counter products are miconazole nitrate (2% typical concentration in the United States) and tolnaftate (1% typ. in the U.S.). Terbinafine, marketed as Lamisil is another over-the-counter drug. There exists a large number of prescription antifungal drugs, from several different drug families. These include ketaconazole, itraconazole, naftifine, nystatin, caspofungin. One study showed that allylamines (terbinafine, Amorolfine, naftifine, butenafine) cure slightly more infections than azoles (Miconazole, ketaconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, sertaconazole, etc.).[7] Undecylenic acid (a castor oil derivative) is a known fungicide that can be used for fungal skin infections such as athlete's foot. Whitfield's Ointment (benzoic and salicylic acid) is an older treatment that still sees occasional use.

Some topical applications such as carbol fuchsin (also known in the U.S. as Castellani's paint), often used for intertrigo, work well but in small selected areas. This red dye, used in this treatment like many other vital stains, is both fungicidal and bacteriocidal; however, because of the staining it is cosmetically undesirable. For many years gentian violet was also used for bacterial and fungal infections between fingers or toes.

The time line for cure may be long, often 45 days or longer. The recommended course of treatment is to continue to use the topical treatment for four weeks after the symptoms have subsided to ensure that the fungus has been completely eliminated. However, because the itching associated with the infection subsides quickly, patients may not complete the courses of therapy prescribed.

Anti-itch creams are not recommended as they will alleviate the symptoms but will exacerbate the fungus; this is due to the fact that anti-itch creams typically enhance the moisture content of the skin and encourage fungal growth. For the same reason, some drug manufacturers are using a gel instead of a cream for application of topical drugs (for example, naftin and Lamisil). Novartis, maker of Lamisil, claims that a gel penetrates the skin more quickly than cream.

If the fungal invader is not a dermatophyte but a yeast, other medications such as fluconazole may be used. Typically fluconazole is used for candidal vaginal infections moniliasis but has been shown to be of benefit for those with cutaneous yeast infections as well. The most common of these infections occur in the web spaces (intertriginous) of the toes and at the base of the fingernail or toenail. The hall mark of these infections is a cherry red color surrounding the lesion and a yellow thick pus.

Ubat Oral[sunting | sunting sumber]

Oral treatment with griseofulvin was begun early in the 1950s. Because of the tendency to cause liver problems and to provoke aplastic anemia the drugs were used cautiously and sparingly. Over time it was found that those problems were due to the size of the crystal in the manufacturing process and microsize and now ultramicrosize crystals are available with few of the original side effects.[perlu rujukan]

For severe cases, the current preferred oral agent in the UK,[8] is the more effective terbinafine.[9] Other prescription oral antifungals include itraconazole and fluconazole.[1]

Alternative treatments[sunting | sunting sumber]

Topical oils[sunting | sunting sumber]

Symptomatic relief from itching may be achieved after topical application of tea tree oil, probably due to its involvement in the histamine response;[10] however, the efficacy of tea tree oil in the treatment of athlete's foot (achieving mycological cure) is questionable.[11][12]

Onion extract[sunting | sunting sumber]

A study of the effect of 3% (v/v) aqueous onion extract was shown to be very effective in laboratory conditions against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum.[13]

Garlic extract[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ajoene, a compound found in garlic, is sometimes used to treat athlete's foot.[14]

Rubbing alcohol, hydrogen peroxide and vinegar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Direct application of rubbing alcohol and/or hydrogen peroxide after bathing can aid in killing the fungus at the surface level of the skin and will help prevent a secondary (bacterial) infection from occurring.[perlu rujukan] In addition, soaking the feet in a bath of 70% rubbing alcohol will help dry the skin out, and likewise kill the invading fungus.[perlu rujukan] The alcohol is not, however, effective against spores. Vinegar in some cases has killed the fungus and is effective against spores.


Rawatan rumah (Home remedy)[sunting | sunting sumber]

Asid borik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Peggunaan asid Borik pada stokin sebagai melindungi kaki daripada dijangkiti berulang, tetapi tidak digunakan bagi merawatnya.

Pengering rambut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Oleh kerana kulat tumbuh pada persekitaran lembab, iaamat penting bagi mengeringkan kaki dengan betul selepas mandi. Pengering rambut boleh digunakan bagi membantu mengeringkan kaki, atau bagi mengeringkan kaki yang menjadi lembab dalam tempon antara mandi.

Baking soda[sunting | sunting sumber]

Melumur kaki dengan pes baking soda dan/atau menabur baking soda dalam kasut dipercayai membantu dengan menukar kadar pH.[15]

Peluntur biasa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Menggunakan peluntur pada kulit idak digalakkan, kerana ia terbukti sebagi perengsa (jelas dilabel di United Kingdom sebagai "Merbahaya (Harmful)" oleh COSHH). Bagaimanapun ia dilaukan bagi kegunaan pembasmi kulat persekitaran bagi menghalang penyebaran dermatophytes antara haiwan, dan dari haiwan kepada manusia. Ia juga digunakan bagi menghapus kulat di lantai laluan kaki (kolam renang), dan pada pakaian (stokin).

Garam Epsom[sunting | sunting sumber]

Merendam kaki dalam larutan gram Epsom dalam air suam. Air masin/garam akan merencat/membunuh kulat.

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Gupta AK, Skinner AR, Cooper EA (2003). "Interdigital tinea pedis (dermatophytosis simplex and complex) and treatment with ciclopirox 0.77% gel". Int. J. Dermatol. 42 (Suppl 1): 23–7. doi:10.1046/j.1365-4362.42.s1.1.x. PMID 12895184.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Guttman, C (2003). "Secondary bacterial infection always accompanies interdigital tinea pedis". Dermatol Times. 4: S12. doi:10.1046/j.1365-4362.42.s1.1.x. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (bantuan); line feed character in |title= at position 37 (bantuan)
  3. ^ Al Hasan M, Fitzgerald SM, Saoudian M, Krishnaswamy G (2004). "Dermatology for the practicing allergist: Tinea pedis and its complications". Clinical and Molecular Allergy. 2 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/1476-7961-2-5. PMID 15050029.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Hainer BL (2003). "Dermatophyte infections". American family physician. 67 (1): 101–8. PMID 12537173.
  5. ^ Hirschmann JV, Raugi GJ (2000). "Pustular tinea pedis". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 42 (1 Pt 1): 132–3. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(00)90022-7. PMID 10607333.
  6. ^ Over-the-Counter Foot Remedies (American Family Physician)
  7. ^ a b Crawford F, Hollis S (18 July 2007). "Topical treatments for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the foot" (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): Art. No.: CD001434. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001434.pub2.
  8. ^ National Library for Health (06/September/07). "What is the best treatment for tinea pedis?". UK [[National Health Service (England)|National Health Media:Service|accessdate=2007]]-09-29. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2008-06-22. Dicapai pada 2008-12-29. Check date values in: |date= (bantuan)
  9. ^ Bell-Syer SEM, Hart R, Crawford F, Torgerson DJ, Tyrrell W, Russell I. (2002). "Oral treatments for fungal infections of the skin of the foot" (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2: Art. No.: CD003584. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003584. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (bantuan)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Koh KJ, Pearce AL, Marshman G, Finlay-Jones JJ, Hart PH (2002). "Tea tree oil reduces histamine-induced skin inflammation". Br. J. Dermatol. 147 (6): 1212–7. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2002.05034.x. PMID 12452873.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Bedinghaus JM, Niedfeldt MW (2001). "Over-the-counter foot remedies". American family physician. 64 (5): 791–6. PMID 11563570.
  12. ^ Tong MM, Altman PM, Barnetson RS (1992). "Tea tree oil in the treatment of tinea pedis". Australas. J. Dermatol. 33 (3): 145–9. doi:10.1111/j.1440-0960.1992.tb00103.x. PMID 1303075.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ Shams M (May 1–4, 2004). "The effect of onion extract on ultrastructure of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum -- Abstract number: 902_p517". 14th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Prague / Czech Republic. European Society of clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2007-10-15. Dicapai pada 2007-09-29. and it is very strong
  14. ^ Eliades Ledezma, Katiuska Marcano, Alicia Jorquera, Leonardo De Sousa, Maria Padilla, Mireya Pulgar, Rafael Apitz-Castro (2000-11). "Efficacy of ajoene in the treatment of tinea pedis: A double-blind and comparative study with terbinafine" ([pautan mati]Scholar search). Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 43 (5): 829–832. doi:10.1067/mjd.2000.107243. Check date values in: |date= (bantuan)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ "The Doctors Book of Home Remedies Athletes Foot". Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2008-12-11. Dicapai pada 2008-12-29.

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pautan diatur dalam seksyen kecil, dan kemudiannya disenarai menurut turutan.

Maklumat perubatan umum[sunting | sunting sumber]

Gambar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Organisasi[sunting | sunting sumber]