Kapitan Cina

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Tjong Ah Fie, Mejar Cina Medan

Kapitan Cina, juga dieja Kapitan China atau Capitan China (Melayu: Kapten Cina; Cina: ; Belanda: Kapitein der Chinezen) pada asalnya merupakan gelaran Portugis untuk wakil penempatan Cina.[1][2] Pada abad ke-15, para pemerintah Asia Tenggara (seperti di Melaka dan Banten) memilih untuk berurusan dengan seorang individu daripada setiap kelompok etnik yang tinggal dalam wilayah masing-masing.[3][4] Kaedah pemerintahan secara tak langsung ini turut diwarisi oleh penjajah Portugis yang menakluki Melaka pada abad ke-16 , diikuti oleh kuasa Belanda di Hindia Timur Belanda, dan Inggeris di Malaya British.[3] Selepas berakhirnya zaman penjajahan, maka gelaran Kapitan sekadar kehormat.[3]

Asal-usul pra-penjajahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Asal jabatan itu, di bawah pelbagai gelaran asli, kembali ke jawatan pengadilan di negara-negara pra-penjajahan Asia Tenggara, seperti Kesultanan Melaka dan Banten, dan Kerajaan Siam.[5][6] Banyak pemerintah yang menugaskan diri kepada masyarakat asing tempatan, termasuk orang Cina, di bawah kepala mereka sendiri. Seringkali, ketua ini juga mempunyai tanggungjawab di luar komuniti tempatan mereka, khususnya berkaitan dengan perdagangan luar negeri atau pengumpulan cukai. Sebagai contoh, Souw Beng Kong dan Lim Lak Ko, dua Kapitein der Chinezen dari Batavia, sekarang ini, bermula sebagai pegawai istana dan fasilitator peringkat tinggi kepada Sultan Banten sebelum pembelaan mereka kepada Syarikat Hindia Timur Belanda awal abad ketujuh belas.[7] Begitu juga, gelaran mahkamah Chao Praya Chodeuk Rajasrethi di Thailand di bawah Dinasti Chakri awal menggabungkan peranan ketua Cina dan ketua Jabatan Hal Ehwal Timur dan Perdagangan.[8] Pada abad kesembilan belas, Kapitan Cina Yap Ah Loy, boleh dikatakan bapa pengasas Kuala Lumpur moden, ibu negara Malaysia, berkhidmat sebagai ketua Cina sambil memegang kedudukan mahkamah Melayu Sri Indra Perkasa Wijaya Bakti.[9]

Kapitan Kuala Lumpur[sunting | sunting sumber]

Yap Ah Loy ialah Kapitan Kuala Lumpur yang diingati sebagai pengasas ibu kota. Gelaran Kapitan mansuh pada tahun 1902, setelah Yap Kwan Seng meninggal dunia.

  • 1858 - 1861: Hiu Siew
  • 1862 - 1868: Liu Ngim Kong
  • 1868 - 1885: Yap Ah Loy
  • 1885 - 1889: Yap Ah Shak
  • 1889 - 1902: Yap Kwan Seng

Kapitan Cina lain[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ The Kapitan System and Secret Societies published in Chinese politics in Malaysia: a history of the Malaysian Chinese Association‎ - Page 14
  2. ^ Southeast Asia-China interactions: reprint of articles from the Journal of the Malaysian Branch, Royal Asiatic Society, Issue 25 of M.B.R.A.S. reprint, 2007, - Page 549
  3. ^ a b c Ooi, Keat Gin. Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, From Angkor Wat to East Timor, p. 711
  4. ^ Hwang, In-Won. Personalized Politics: The Malaysian State Under Matahtir, p. 56
  5. ^ Ooi, Keat Gin. Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, From Angkor Wat to East Timor, p. 711
  6. ^ Hwang, In-Won. Personalized Politics: The Malaysian State Under Matahtir, p. 56
  7. ^ Kathirithamby-Wells, J. (1990). The Southeast Asian port and polity: rise and demise (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Singapore: Singapore University Press, National University of Singapore. ISBN 9789971691417. Dicapai 30 March 2018. 
  8. ^ "The Siamese Aristocracy". Soravij. Dicapai 9 January 2017. 
  9. ^ Malhi, PhD., Ranjit Singh (May 5, 2017). "The history of Kuala Lumpur's founding is not as clear cut as some think". www.thestar.com.my. The Star. The Star Online. Dicapai 23 May 2017. 
  10. ^ A social history of the Chinese in Singapore and Malaya, 1800-1911‎ - Page 232
  11. ^ A Gallery of Chinese Kapitans, CS Wong
  12. ^ A portrait of Malaysia and Singapore‎ - Page 77
  13. ^ Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 68‎ - Page 34
  14. ^ Triad and Tabut: a survey of the origin and diffusion of Chinese and ...‎ - Page 350
  15. ^ The Straits Settlements, 1826-67: Indian presidency to crown colony‎ - Page 259
  16. ^ Wong Ah Fook: immigrant, builder, and entrepreneur‎ - Page 85
  17. ^ Singapore: wealth, power and the culture of control‎ - Page 49
  18. ^ The Western Malay States, 1850-1873: the effects of commercial development ...‎ - Page 35
  19. ^ One hundred years' history of the Chinese in Singapore‎ - Page 21
  20. ^ A social history of the Chinese in Singapore and Malaya, 1800-1911‎ - Page 267
  21. ^ Toponymics: a study of Singapore street names‎ - Page 345
  22. ^ Chinese secret societies in Malaya: a survey of the Triad Society from 1800 ...‎ - Page 206
  23. ^ Chinese epigraphic materials in Malaysia‎ - Page 452
  24. ^ Studies in the Social History of China and South-east Asia‎ - Page 36
  25. ^ Pope-Hennesy to C.O., 13 October 1869. Co. 144/20. To F.O., 1 September 1869. F.O. 12/34B. To Lord Knutsford, 25 May 1888. C.O. 133/66
  26. ^ The Sarawak Museum journal‎ - Page 9, 1963
  27. ^ The Eastern seas: or, Voyages and adventures in the Indian Archipelago, in ...‎ - Page 363
  28. ^ European commercial expansion in early modern Asia‎ - Page 273
  29. ^ Opium and empire: Chinese society in Colonial Singapore, 1800-1910‎ - Page 195
  30. ^ Kelantan zaman awal: kajian arkeologi dan sejarah di Malaysia By Hassan Shuhaimi bin Nik Abd. Rahman, 1987, Pg 227
  31. ^ Ethnic Chinese in Singapore and Malaysia: a dialogue between tradition and modernity by Leo Suryadinata, 2002, Pg 86
  32. ^ The cultural melting pot By Robert Sin Nyen Tan, 1991, Page 85
  33. ^ Rites of belonging: memory, modernity, and identity in a Malaysian Chinese ... By Jean Elizabeth DeBernardi Page 27
  34. ^ Growing Up in Trengganu By Awang Goneng by Monsoon Books, 2007, Page 161
  35. ^ Reconstructing identities: a social history of the Babas in Singapore‎ by Jürgen Rudolph - Page 149
  36. ^ The Baba of Melaka: culture and identity of a Chinese peranakan community in ...‎ - Page 64
  37. ^ The Portuguese Missions in Malacca and Singapore (1511-1958): Malacca‎ - Page 317
  38. ^ Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volumes 11-12‎, 1933, - Page 1
  39. ^ Wong, 1963: 1-2, Studies in ASEAN sociology: urban society and social change‎ - Page 232
  40. ^ Historical Sabah: The Chinese‎ by Danny Tze-Ken Wong, 2005 - Page 57
  41. ^ Wong C.S., 1963, p. 47, Reconstructing identities: a social history of the Babas in Singapore By Jürgen Rudolph, Page 38
  42. ^ See historical Malacca in one day‎ - Page 18 by Marcus Scott-Ross - History - 1973
  43. ^ The overseas Chinese and the 1911 revolution, with special reference to Singapore and Malaya by Yen Ching Hwang, Qinghuang Yan, 1976, Pg 182

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Hwang, In-Won (2003). Personalized Politics: The Malaysian State Under Matahtir. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 981-230-185-2
  • Lohanda, Mona (1996). The Kapitan Cina of Batavia, 1837-1942. Jakarta: Djambatan. ISBN 979-428-257-X.
  • Ooi, Keat Gin (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, From Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-770-5

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]