Kedudukan Akademik Universiti Sedunia

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Kedudukan Akademik Universiti Sedunia
(Academic Ranking of World Universities, ARWU)
KategoriPendidikan tinggi
KekerapanTahunan
PenerbitShanghai Ranking Consultancy (2009~kini)
Universiti Jiao Tong Shanghai (2003~2008)
NegaraChina
BahasaSepuluh bahasa termasuk bahasa Inggeris & mandarin
Laman webwww.shanghairanking.com
Kedudukan Akademik Universiti Sedunia, 2003-2018, Sepuluh Besar

Kedudukan Akademik Universiti Sedunia atau Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), sering juga disebut Kedudukan Shanghai (Shanghai Ranking), ialah salah satu penerbitan tahunan kedudukan universiti dunia. Senarai kedudukan ARWU pada awalnya disusun dan dikeluarkan oleh Universiti Jiao Tong Shanghai pada tahun 2003, menjadikannya sebagai senarai kedudukan universiti global pertama dengan pelbagai indikator.[1][2]

Sejak 2009, senarai kedudukan ARWU telah diterbitkan setiap tahun dan dilindungi hak cipta oleh Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, sebuah pertubuham yang berfokus pada pendidikan tinggi dan secara sah tidak tertakluk serta tidak terikat kepada sebarang universiti atau lembaga pemerintah.[3] Pada tahun 2011, dewan penasihat antarabangsa yang terdiri dari sarjana dan penyelidik dasar dibentuk untuk memberikan saranan.[4][5] Senarai ARWU saat ini termasuk senarai kedudukan institusi pendidikan tinggi global secara keseluruhan dan untuk pilihan mata pelajaran individu, selain itu terdapat juga senarai "Kedudukan China" dan "Kedudukan HEI Macedonia" bebas serantai.

ARWU dianggap sebagai salah satu dari tiga pemeringkat universito yang paling berpengaruh dan diamati secara luas, di samping QS World University Rankings dan Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12] ARWU banyak menerima maklum balas positif untuk objektiviti dan metodologinya,[10][11][12] tetapi mengundang kritikan meluas kerana gagal menyesuaikan dengan ukuran institusi, sehingga institusi pendidikan yang lebih besar cenderung menempati kedudukan di atas yang lebih kecil.[9][13][14]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Pavel, Adina-Petruta (2015). "Global university rankings - a comparative analysis". Procedia Economics and Finance. 26: 54–63. doi:10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00838-2.
  2. ^ "World university rankings: how much influence do they really have?". The Guardian. 2013. Dicapai pada 27 January 2015. The first international rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities or Shanghai Rankings
  3. ^ "About Academic Ranking of World Universities". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Dicapai pada 26 September 2014. Since 2009 the Academic Ranking of World Universities has been published and copyrighted by ShanghaiRanking Consultancy.
  4. ^ "Shanghai rankings rattle European universities". ABS-CBN Interactive. 8 December 2010. Dicapai pada 27 January 2015. France's higher education minister travelled to Jiaotong University's suburban campus last month to discuss the rankings, the Norwegian education minister came last year and the Danish minister is due to visit next month.; The idea for the rankings was born in 1998, when Beijing decreed China needed several world-leading universities.
  5. ^ "ARWU International Advisory Board". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2014. Dicapai pada 27 January 2015.
  6. ^ Network, QS Asia News (2018-03-02). "The history and development of higher education ranking systems - QS WOWNEWS". QS WOWNEWS. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2018-08-21. Dicapai pada 2018-03-29.
  7. ^ "About Academic Ranking of World Universities | About ARWU". www.shanghairanking.com. Dicapai pada 2018-03-29.
  8. ^ Ariel Zirulnick (2010-09-16). "New world university ranking puts Harvard back on top". Christian Science Monitor. Those two, as well as Shanghai Jiao Tong University, produce the most influential international university rankings out there
  9. ^ a b Indira Samarasekera & Carl Amrhein. "Top schools don't always get top marks". The Edmonton Journal. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada October 3, 2010. There are currently three major international rankings that receive widespread commentary: The Academic World Ranking of Universities, the QS World University Rankings and the Times Higher Education Rankings.
  10. ^ a b Philip G. Altbach (11 November 2010). "The State of the Rankings". Inside Higher Ed. Dicapai pada 27 January 2015. The major international rankings have appeared in recent months — the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Rankings, and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE).
  11. ^ a b "Strength and weakness of varsity rankings". NST Online. 2016-09-14. Dicapai pada 2018-03-29.
  12. ^ a b Marszal, Andrew (2012-10-04). "University rankings: which world university rankings should we trust?". Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Dicapai pada 2018-03-29.
  13. ^ ""Shanghai Academic Ranking: a French Controversy" by Marc Goetzmann, for La Jeune Politique". Lajeunepolitique.com. 29 August 2013. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 9 January 2015. Dicapai pada 9 June 2014.
  14. ^ Bahram Bekhradnia (15 December 2016). "International university rankings: For good or ill?" (PDF). Higher Education Policy Institute. m/s. 16. Dicapai pada 10 June 2017. ARWU presents a further data issue. Whereas in the case of the other rankings the results are adjusted to take account of the size of institutions, hardly any such adjustment is made by ARWU. So there is a distortion in favour of large institutions. If two institutions were to merge, the very fact of merger would mean that the merged institution would do nearly twice as well as either of the individual institutions prior to merger, although nothing else had changed.

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