Kempen Tunisia

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Kempen Tunisia
Sebahagian daripada Kempen Afrika Utara dalam Perang Dunia Kedua
Gromalia prisoner of war camp.jpg
Tawanan perang Jerman dan Itali selepas kejatuhan Tunis, 12 Mei 1943.
Tarikh17 November 194213 Mei 1943
Lokasi34°N 09°E / 34°N 9°E / 34; 9Koordinat: 34°N 09°E / 34°N 9°E / 34; 9
Keputusan Kemenangan Pihak Bersekutu
Perubahan
wilayah
Pihak Paksi dihalau dari Afrika Utara
Pihak yang terlibat

 United Kingdom

 Amerika Syarikat
Flag of Free France (1940-1944).svg Perancis Bebas
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand
Kerajaan Yunani Greece
 Jerman Nazi
Flag of Italy (1861–1946).svg Itali
Komandan dan pemimpin
United Kingdom Harold Alexander
United Kingdom Kenneth Anderson
United Kingdom Bernard Montgomery
Amerika Syarikat Dwight D. Eisenhower
Amerika Syarikat Lloyd Fredendall
Amerika Syarikat George S. Patton
Flag of Free France (1940-1944).svg Charles de Gaulle
Flag of Free France (1940-1944).svg Philippe Leclerc
Flag of Free France (1940-1944).svg Alphonse Juin
Jerman Nazi Albert Kesselring
Jerman Nazi Erwin Rommel
Jerman Nazi H.J. von Arnim Menyerah diri
Flag of Italy (1861–1946).svg Giovanni Messe Menyerah diri
Kekuatan
Mac:
500,000 askar
1,800+ kereta kebal
1,200+ meriam medan
Ribuan pesawat[1]
Mac:
350,000 askar[nb 1]
200+ kereta kebal[nb 2]
1,000+ meriam medan
Ribuan pesawat[1]
Kerugian dan korban
76,020
849 pesawat musnah
340+ kereta kebal musnah[nb 3]

290,000–362,000 (238,000-300,000 ditawan)
2,422+ pesawat musnah

600+ pesawat ditawan
450+ kereta kebal musnah[nb 4]
1,000+ meriam ditawan
Ribuan trak ditawan[3]

Kempen Tunisia (juga dikenali sebagai Pertempuran Tunisia) merupakan siri pertempuran yang berlaku di Tunisia semasa Kempen Afrika Utara dalam Perang Dunia II, antara tentera Paksi dan Bersekutu. Pihak Bersekutu terdiri daripada Tentera Imperial British, termasuk kontinjen Greece, bersama kor Amerika dan kor Perancis. Pertempuran ini dimulakan dengan kejayaan awal oleh tentera Jerman dan Itali tetapi halangan besar pembekalan menyebabkan kekalahan muktamad pihak Paksi. Lebih 250,000 askar Jerman dan askar Itali telah menjadi tawanan perang, termasuk sebahagian besar Afrika Korps.

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota kaki

  1. ^ 2/3 of the combat troops and 1/3 of the support troops were Germans[1]
  2. ^ Operational tanks only[1]
  3. ^ 183 lost in the Battle of Kasserine Pass, 6 lost in the Battle of Medenine, 40 lost in the Battle of El Guettar, 16 lost in Operation Oxhead (Operation Ochsenkopf), at least 51 lost in the Battle of the Mareth Line, 32 lost in the Battle of Wadi Akarit, 12 lost in Operation Vulcan and several more lost in minor battles.[1]
  4. ^ Mitcham lists the following tank losses with no upper limit and no noted losses to mechanical breakdowns. 34 (20 German, 14 Italian) lost in the Battle of Kasserine Pass, 55 (40 German, 15 Italian) lost in the Battle of Medenine, 45 (mostly German) lost in the Battle of El Guettar, 71 (all German) lost in Operation Oxhead (Operation Ochsenkopf) and 200+ operational tanks (mostly German) lost in actions after March 9. Mitcham also notes that a very large number of tanks were not operational at the time due to previous mechanical issues; for instance, by April 22, only 45% of German tanks were operational, with the rest confined to workshops. Therefore the actual number of tanks lost after March 9 is possibly around 450 rather than 200.[2]

Petikan

  1. ^ a b c d e Mitcham, p. 78
  2. ^ Mitcham, pp. 56 to 84.
  3. ^ Churchill, Winston. "The Hinges of Fate: The Second World War, Volume IV". Houghton Mifflin Company, 1950. Page 697, quoting a telegram from General Alexander on 12 May 1943: "It appears that we have taken over 1,000 guns, of which 180 are 88-mm, 250 tanks and many thousands of motor vehicles, most of which are operational".

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

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