Kerajaan kecil India

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Kerajaan-kerajaan kecil yang ada dalam India British (princely states) terdiri daripada kerajaan naungan[1] pemerintah setempat atau kawasan yang bersekutu dengan Raj British. Walaupun kerajaan sebegini telah wujud dari sekurang-kurangnya zaman klasik sejarah India, istilah kerajaan kecil khusus merujuk ke kerajaan dalam benua kecil India sewaktu zaman Raj British yang separa berdaulat diperintah secara tidak langsung oleh British tetapi lebih daripada pemerintah setempat dan tertakluk kepada suatu pemerintahan tidak langsung atau perkara lainnya. Hal ini membenarkan kerajaan British campur tangan dalam hal ehwal dalam kerajaa-kerajaan ini serta menggubal undang-undang yang dikuatkuasakan ke atas sepelusuk India jika perlu.

Kerajaan-kerajaan ini tiba di penghjungnya apabila India merdeka pada tahun 1947. Pada tahun 1950, hampir semua kerajaan-kerajaan ini telah bersetuju menyertai baik India mahupun Pakistan.[2] Penyatuan politik ini sebahagian besarnya dilakukan secara aman, kecuali beberapa kes tertentu seperti Kashmir (memerdekakan diri, namun memilih bergabung dengan India setelah diserang tentera Pakistan),[3] Hyderabad (memerdekakan diri pada tahun 1947, kemudiannya diserang pasukan polis dan diilhak India), Junagadh (kerajaannya bersetuju bergabung dengan Pakistan, tetapi diilhak India dalam suatu pungutan suara)[4] dan Kalat (memerdekakan diri tahun 1947, diilhak pada tahun berikutnya).[5][6][7]

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kerajaan kecil utama pada tahun 1947[sunting | sunting sumber]

Berhubungan dengan Pemerintah Pusat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lima kerajaan kecil berhubungan politik terus dengan Kerajaan Pusat India[8][9][10][11]
Nama kerajaan Keluasan (batu persegi) Populasi pada tahun 1941 Pendapatan kerajaan dianggarkan (dalam ratus ribu Rupee) Gelaran, bangsa, dan agama raja Bil. das tembakan hormat Pegawai setempat yang bertanggungjawab
Templat:Country data Kerajaan Baroda 13,866 3,343,477 (majoriti Hindu) 323.26 Maharaja, Maratha, Hindu 21 Residen Baroda
Templat:Country data Kerajaan Hyderabad 82,698 16,338,534 (Hindu dengan minoriti Muslim) 1582.43 Nizam, Turki, Islam Sunni 21 Residen Hyderabad
Templat:Country data Jammu dan Kashmir 84,471 4,021,616 termasuk Gilgit, Baltistan (Skardu), Ladakh, dan Punch (majoriti Muslim, dengan populasi beragama Hindu dan Buddha) 463.95 Maharaja, Dogra, Hindu 21 Residen Jammu & Kashmir
Templat:Country data Kerajaan Mysore 29,458 7,328,896 1001.38 Maharaja, Kannadiga, Hindu 21 Residen Mysore
Templat:Country data Gwalior State 26,397 4,006,159 (banyak beragama Hindu) 356.75 Maharaja, Maratha, Hindu 21 Residen Gwalior
Jumlah 236,890 35,038,682 3727.77

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Nota[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Ramusack 2004, halaman 85 Quote: "The British did not create the Indian princes. Before and during the European penetration of India, indigenous rulers achieved dominance through the military protection they provided to dependents and their skill in acquiring revenues to maintain their military and administrative organisations. Major Indian rulers exercised varying degrees and types of sovereign powers before they entered treaty relations with the British. What changed during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries is that the British increasingly restricted the sovereignty of Indian rulers. The [[Syarikat Hindia Timur InggerisCompany] set boundaries; it extracted resources in the form of military personnel, subsidies or tribute payments, and the purchase of commercial goods at favourable prices, and limited opportunities for other alliances. From the 1810s onwards as the British expanded and consolidated their power, their centralised military despotism dramatically reduced the political options of Indian rulers." (p. 85)
  2. ^ Ravi Kumar Pillai of Kandamath in the Journal of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs, pages 316–319 https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03068374.2016.1171621
  3. ^ Bajwa, Kuldip Singh (2003). Jammu and Kashmir War, 1947–1948: Political and Military Perspectiv. New Delhi: Hari-Anand Publications Limited. 
  4. ^ Aparna Pande (16 Mac 2011). Explaining Pakistan’s Foreign Policy: Escaping India. Taylor & Francis. m/s. 31–. ISBN 978-1-136-81893-6. 
  5. ^ Jalal, Ayesha (2014), The Struggle for Pakistan: A Muslim Homeland and Global Politics, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-74499-8  Lebih daripada satu |author-link= dan |authorlink= dinyatakan (bantuan); Lebih daripada satu |ISBN= dan |isbn= dinyatakan (bantuan)
    "Equally notorious was his high-handed treatment of the state of Kalat, whose ruler was made to accede to Pakistan on threat of punitive military action."
  6. ^ Samad, Yunas (2014). "Understanding the insurgency in Balochistan". Commonwealth & Comparative Politics. 52 (2): 293–320. doi:10.1080/14662043.2014.894280. : "When Mir Ahmed Yar Khan dithered over acceding the Baloch-Brauhi confederacy to Pakistan in 1947 the centre’s response was to initiate processes that would coerce the state joining Pakistan. By recognising the feudatory states of Las Bela, Kharan and the district of Mekran as independent states, which promptly merged with Pakistan, the State of Kalat became land locked and reduced to a fraction of its size. Thus Ahmed Yar Khan was forced to sign the instrument of accession on 27 March 1948, which immediately led to the brother of the Khan, Prince Abdul Karim raising the banner of revolt in July 1948, starting the first of the Baloch insurgencies."
  7. ^ Harrison, Selig S. (1981), In Afghanistan's Shadow: Baluch Nationalism and Soviet Temptations, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, ISBN 978-0-87003-029-1  Lebih daripada satu |ISBN= dan |isbn= dinyatakan (bantuan): "Pakistani leaders summarily rejected this declaration, touching off a nine-month diplomatic tug of war that came to a climax in the forcible annexation of Kalat.... it is clear that Baluch leaders, including the Khan, were bitterly opposed to what happened."
  8. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, halaman 92
  9. ^ "Mysore," Indian States and Agencies, The Statesman's Year Book 1947, pg 173, Macmillan & Co.
  10. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir," Indian States and Agencies, The Statesman's Year Book 1947, pg 171, Macmillan & Co.
  11. ^ "Hyderabad," Indian States and Agencies, The Statesman's Year Book 1947, pg 170, Macmillan & Co.

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Gazet[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. II (1908), The Indian Empire, Historical, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxxv, 1 map, 573.  talian
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. III (1907), The Indian Empire, Economic (Chapter X: Famine, pp. 475–502, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxxvi, 1 map, 520.  talian
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV (1907), The Indian Empire, Administrative, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxx, 1 map, 552.  talian

Pautan luar[sunting | sunting sumber]