Perbezaan antara semakan "Valais"

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(Laman baru: {{terjemahan}} {{coor title dm|46|14|N|7|36|E}} {{Infobox Canton|local_names=Valais <br> Wallis|short_name=Valais| gagiföhn=Valais <br> Wallis| flag_img_path=Flag of Canton of Valais.sv...)
 
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{{Infobox Canton
{{terjemahan}}
|local_names=Canton du Valais {{br}} Kanton Wallis|short_name=Valais
{{coor title dm|46|14|N|7|36|E}}
|flag_img_path=Flag of Canton of Valais.svg
{{Infobox Canton|local_names=Valais <br> Wallis|short_name=Valais|
gagiföhn |coa_img_path=Valais-coat <br>of Wallis|arms.svg
|locatormap_img_path=Swiss_Canton_Map_VS.png
flag_img_path=Flag of Canton of Valais.svg|
|cantonalmap_img_path=Karte_Kanton_Wallis.png
coa_img_path=Valais-coat of arms.svg|
|capital=[[Sittu]]
locatormap_img_path=Swiss_Canton_Map_VS.png|
|area=5224|area_rank=ke-3|area_scale=9
cantonalmap_img_path=Karte_Kanton_Wallis.png|
|population=294.608|population_rank=ke-9|population_asof=2006
capital=[[Sion, Switzerland|Sion]]|
|population_density=56
area=5224|area_rank=3rd|area_scale=9|
|since=1815
population=278,200|population_rank=9th|population_asof=2003|
|abbr=VS
population_density=53|
|languages=[[bahasa Perancis|Perancis]], [[bahasa Jerman|Jerman]]
since=1815|
|executive=Conseil d'Etat, Staatsrat|executive_members=5
abbr=VS|
|legislative=[[Grand Conseil]], [[Grosser Rat]]|parliament_members=130
languages=[[French language|French]], [[German language|German]]|
|highest=Dufourspitze|highest_m=4634|lowest=[[Tasik Jenewa]]|lowest_m=372
executive=Conseil d'Etat, Staatsrat|executive_members=5|
|municipalities_number=160
legislative=[[Grand Conseil]], [[Grosser Rat]]|parliament_members=130|
|districts_designation=daerah , Bezirke|districts_number=13
highest=Dufourspitze|highest_m=4634|
|coord={{coord|46|14|N|7|36|E|region:CH-VS_type:adm1st|display=title}}
municipalities_number=160|
|}}
districts_designation=districts, Bezirke|districts_number=13|}}The '''Valais''' ([[German language|German]]: {{Audio|De-Wallis.ogg|''Wallis''}}) is one of the 26 [[cantons of Switzerland]] in the south-western part of [[Switzerland|the country]], in the [[Pennine Alps]] around the valley of the [[Rhone River]] from its springs to [[Lake Geneva]]. The canton is one of the drier parts of Switzerland in its central Rhone valley. Paradoxically it is also one of the wettest parts, having large amounts of snow and rain up on the highest peaks found in Switzerland. It is perhaps best known world wide for the [[Matterhorn]].
'''Wilayah Valais''' ([[bahasa Jerman]]: ''{{audio|De-Wallis.ogg|Wallis}}'', [[bahasa Itali|Itali]]: ''Vallese'', [[bahasa Romansh|Romansh]]: ''Vallais'', [[bahasa Arpitan|Arpitan]]: ''Valês'')merupakan sebuah wilayah yang terletak di [[Switzerland]] yang memiliki luas wilayah 5,224 km&sup2; dan berpenduduk seramai 278,200 orang (2003). Ibu kotanya adalah [[Sitten]].
==Geography==
[[image:Matterhorn Riffelsee 2005-06-11.jpg|thumb|left|200px|The east face of the [[Matterhorn]] seen from the Riffelsee lake]]
[[image:Mischabelgruppe.jpg|right|thumb|200px|the [[Mischabel]] Group: Dom, Täschhorn, and Alphubel]]
 
The canton of Valais is located in the south of Switzerland. To its south lies [[Italy]], to the southwest [[France]]. To the north the canton is bounded by the Swiss cantons of [[Vaud]] and [[Canton of Bern|Bern]]; the cantons of [[Canton of Uri|Uri]] and [[Ticino]] lie to its east.
 
The wide, glacial [[Rhône River|Rhône]] valley dominates the area. There are many side valleys which branch off the main valley. These vary from narrow and remote to reasonably populous and popular. At the head of the [[Mattertal]] valley lies [[Zermatt]], a pretty tourist village dominated by views of the [[Matterhorn]] (4,478 m). Fifty of the mountains exceed 4,000m with the highest, [[Monte Rosa]], reaching to 4,638m (15,217ft), and there are numerous glaciers.
 
The Rhône drains the main valley from east to west up to [[Martigny, Switzerland|Martigny]], then in a right angle north to its mouth in the [[Lake Geneva]]. After the small town of [[Saint-Maurice, Valais|Saint-Maurice]], the northern banks of the river belong to the canton of [[Vaud]]. The main valley is bound by the [[Bernese Alps]] in the north and the [[Pennine Alps]] in the south. Only about half of the total area is considered productive.
 
===Valleys===
*North of the [[Rhone River]]
**[[Fieschertal]]
**[[Lötschental]]
**Dalatal ([[Leukerbad]])
*South of the Rhone River:
**[[Binntal]]
**[[Saastal]]
**[[Mattertal]]
**[[Val d'Anniviers]]
**[[Val d'Hérens]]
**[[Val de Nendaz]]
**[[Val de Bagnes]]
**[[Val d'Entremont]]
**[[Val d'Illiez]]
 
==History==
[[image:Mischabelhörner.jpg|left|thumb|175px|[[Zmutt Valley]] with Mischabelhörner group-1890 [[photochrom]] print]][[image:Sion notre dame.jpg|thumb|right|200px|The [[Notre Dame de Valere]] above the cantonal capital [[Sion, Switzerland|Sion]]]]The Romans called the area ''Vallis Poenina'' (''"Upper Rhône Valley"''). From [[888]] onwards the lands were part of the kingdom of [[Burgundians|Jurane Burgundy]].
 
:''Main article: [[Bishop of Sion|Bishops of Sion]]''.
King [[Rudolph III of Burgundy]] gave the lands to the Bishop of Sion in 999, making him Count of the Valais. The count-bishops then struggled to defend their area against the dukes of [[Savoy]], so that the medieval history of the Valais is inextricably linked with that of the diocese of Sion.
 
The Valais resisted the [[Protestant Reformation]], remaining faithful to the [[Roman Catholic Church]]. On [[March 12]], [[1529]], Valais became an associate member (''Zugewandter Ort'') of the [[Swiss Confederation]]. In 1628 the Valais became technically a republic, the ''République des Sept Dizains / Republik der Sieben Zehenden'' under the guidance of the prince-bishop of Sion and the ''bailli''. The bishop remained in power until [[1798]] when [[Napoleon]]'s troops invaded the Valais and declared a Revolutionary ''République du Valais'' (March 16) which was swiftly incorporated (May 1) into the [[Helvetic Republic]] until 1802 when it became the independent ''Rhodanic Republic''. In [[1810]] the Rhodanic Republic was annexed by Napoleonic France as the ''[[Simplon (département)|département of Simplon]]''. Independence was restored in 1813 and on [[August 4]], [[1815]] the Valais finally entered the Swiss confederation as a canton. In [[1845]] the Valais joined the Catholic separatist league (''[[Sonderbund]]''), but chose not to fight the troops of the confederation in [[1847]] and submitted to the federal forces.
 
==Economics==
[[image:Wine grapes03.jpg|150px|thumb|left]][[image:Zermatt_summerski.jpg|200px|thumb|right|Summertime skiing in the Valais on the Theodul [[glacier]]]][[image:Crocus sativus1.jpg|thumb|right|150px|the [[saffron]] crocus]][[Wine]] production and [[tourism]] are some of the main industries of the canton. The [[Matterhorn]] near [[Zermatt]] is one of the biggest tourist attractions in the Swiss mountains, as is its sister valley immediately east [[Saas Fee]]. Other parts of the mountains of the canton further west are popular as well, such as the more French speaking resorts near [[Verbier]] and the [[Evolene]] & [[Arolla]] region. The resorts on the north side of the main Rhone river valley are popular, looking out southwards towards the [[Peninne Alps]] and still part of the southern slope of the [[Bernese Alps]], such as the family oriented resort of [[Crans-Montana]]. The resorts in the [[Goms]] region are slightly less known, yet also receive attention during the summer hiking season and the winter ski season.
 
Apart from tourism, agriculture is still important, particularly cattle breeding in the mountains and [[dairy farming]] in the plains. The wine industry of the canton is the largest in Switzerland. There are also a large number orchards in the area, and [[saffron]] is also gathered here.
 
The world's tallest gravity dam is located at [[Grande Dixence Dam|Grande Dixence]] in the canton. Hydroelectric power plants from the canton produce about a quarter of the Swiss electricity.
 
Near [[Visp]] there is a large plant of aluminium manufacturing. Other metal products and chemicals are produced around Visp and [[Sierre]]. There is an oil refinery in the canton.
 
Despite the thriving tourist industry, high level of infrastructure, and the many vineyards, canton Valais is still one of the poorest of the Swiss cantons, and not yet near the wealthier banking/financial cantons. A large portion of the canton's land and houses is now owned by foreigners.
 
The mountainous canton with a plethora of ski resorts, was narrowly passed over in the bid for the last Winter Olympics.
 
==Transport==
[[image:valais.jpeg|thumb|left|View looking down on the broad [[Rhone river]] valley running thru the middle of the Valais]]A small airport is located at [[Sion, Switzerland|Sion]], but the main routes of transport are rail and road. Both networks are extensive and benefit from tourism. There are two major rail tunnels at the Simplon and Lötschberg and a road tunnel at the Great St Bernard. Many of the road passes are well known, such as the Grimsel Pass. The longest land tunnel in the world will soon be in operation, in late 2007 perhaps, connecting by rail the town of [[Frutigen]] in [[Canton of Berne|canton Bern]], with the town of [[Visp]] in canton Valais/Wallis. This is to better allay car traffic in the highly scenic [[Kandersteg|Kandertal]], and also to provide faster transport through the [[Bernese Alps]] from the populous Mittelland in the north to the southern canton of Valais. Cars may be loaded onto the trains as freight. The old train line will still likely have traffic though, as it has highly scenic sections in both cantons on either side of the old tunnel through the dividing ridgeline, yet is somewhat slower than the new route which has a much longer tunnel section.
 
Because of the tourism there are many mountain railways and cable cars in the mountains. The scenic rail route across the Furka Pass originates in the canton of Valais.
 
==Demographics==
[[Image:Breithorn_Enzian_2005-06-11.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Breithorn with [[Gentian]] in the foreground]]Valais is predominantly [[French language|French]] and [[Arpitan]] speaking. The eastern part of the canton [[Upper Valais]], however, speaks [[German language|German]]. The French speaking population makes up a little bit more than two thirds of the total population.
 
The whole canton is thinly populated. The largest towns are the capital Sion (''Sitten''), Sierre and Visp. There is no major city located in the canton. Over 90% of the population is [[Roman Catholic]].[[image:Wallis Strahlhorn mg-k.jpg|thumb|right|300px|the Strahlhorn]][[image:Loetschental.jpg|thumb|right|250px|A view of the Lötschental valley]][[image:Hauteroute-alps-seabhcan.jpg|thumb|300px|right|Part of the [[Haute Route]] traversing the [[Pennine Alps]] between [[Chamonix]] and the Valais]][[image:MonteRosaWestseite gesehenVomGornergrat.JPG|thumb|right|200px|Monte Rosa Massif]][[image:Swiss_playing_an_alphorn.jpg|right|thumb|300px|A Swiss playing an [[alphorn]] near a lake]][[image:Allalin.jpg|thumb|right|250px|the Allalinhorn in August]][[Image:P1020008.JPG|thumb|right|250px|View from Anzere]]
 
===Towns and villages===
*[[Anzère]]
*[[Bluche]]
*[[Brig, Switzerland|Brig]]
*[[Sion, Switzerland|Sion]]
*[[Sierre]]
*[[Martigny, Switzerland|Martigny]]
*[[Crans-Montana]]
*[[Leukerbad]]
*[[Saas-Fee]]
*[[Verbier]]
*[[Zermatt]]
 
==Municipalities==
The following are the [[municipalities of Switzerland|municipalities]] of the canton, by district.
 
== Kawasan perbandaran==
Berikut merupakan senarai [[senarai kawasan perbandaran di Switzerland|kawasan perbandaran]] yang terletak di Valais, mengikut daerah.
 
{|
|----- valign="top" style="font-size:small"
|
=== [[BrigDaerah (district)Brig|Brig]] ===
* [[Birgisch]]
* '''[[Brig, Switzerland|Brig-Glis]]'''
* [[Eggerberg]]
* [[Mund, Switzerland|Mund]]
* [[Naters]]
* [[Ried-Brig]]
* [[Simplon, Valais(kota)|Simplon]]
* [[Termen]]
* [[Zwischbergen]]
 
=== [[ContheyDaerah (district)Conthey|Conthey]] ===
* [[Ardon, SwitzerlandValais|Ardon]]
* [[Chamoson]]
* '''[[Conthey]]'''
* [[Nendaz]]
* [[Vétroz]]
 
=== [[EntremontDaerah (district)Entremont|Entremont]] ===
* [[Bagnes]]
* [[Bourg-Saint-Pierre]]
* [[Liddes]]
* [[Orsières]]
* '''[[Sembrancher]]'''
* [[Vollèges]]
 
=== [[GomsDaerah (district)Goms|Goms]] ===
* [[Bellwald]]
* [[Binn]]
* [[Blitzingen]]
* [[Ernen]]
* [[Fiesch]]
* [[Fieschertal]]
* [[Grafschaft, SwitzerlandSwiss|Grafschaft]]
* [[Lax, Switzerland|Lax]]
* '''[[Münster-Geschinen]]'''
* [[Niederwald, Switzerland|Niederwald]]
* [[Obergesteln]]
* [[Oberwald, Valais|Oberwald]]
* [[Reckingen-Gluringen]]
* [[Ulrichen]]
 
=== [[HérensDaerah (district)Hérens|Hérens]] ===
* [[Ayent]]
* [[Evolène]]
* [[Hérémence]]
* [[Les Agettes]]
* [[Mase, Switzerland|Mase]]
* [[Nax]]
* [[Saint-Martin, Valais|Saint-Martin]]
* [[Vernamiège]]
* '''[[Vex, Switzerland(kota)|Vex]]'''
|
=== [[LeukDaerah (district)Leuk|Leuk]] ===
* [[Agarn]]
* [[Albinen]]
* [[Bratsch]]
* [[Ergisch]]
* [[Erschmatt]]
* [[Gampel]]
* [[Guttet-Feschel]]
* [[Inden, SwitzerlandSwiss|Inden]]
* '''[[Leuk]]'''
* [[Leukerbad]]
* [[Oberems]]
* [[Salgesch]]
* [[Turtmann]]
* [[Unterems]]
* [[Varen, SwitzerlandSwiss|Varen]]
 
=== [[MartignyDaerah (district)Martigny|Martigny]] ===
* [[Bovernier]]
* [[Charrat]]
* [[Fully]]
* [[Isérables]]
* [[Leytron]]
* '''[[Martigny, Switzerland|Martigny]]'''
* [[Martigny-Combe]]
* [[Riddes]]
* [[Saillon]]
* [[Saxon, SwitzerlandSwiss|Saxon]]
* [[Trient, Valais|Trient]]
 
=== [[MontheyDaerah (district)Monthey|Monthey]] ===
* [[Champéry]]
* [[Collombey-Muraz]]
* '''[[Monthey]]'''
* [[Port-Valais]]
* [[Saint-Gingolph|Saint-Gingolph]]
* [[Troistorrents]]
* [[Val D'Illiez]]
* [[Vionnaz]]
* [[Vouvry]]
=== [[Daerah Raron (district)Barat|Raron Barat]] ===
* [[Ausserberg]]
* [[BettenBlatten]]
* [[Bürchen]]
*[[Bister, Switzerland|Bister]]
* [[Eischoll]]
*[[Bitsch, Switzerland|Bitsch]]
* [[BlattenFerden]]
* [[BürchenHohtenn]]
* [[EischollKippel]]
* [[FerdenNiedergesteln]]
* '''[[Filet|FiletRaron]]'''
* [[GrengiolsSteg]]
* [[HohtennUnterbäch]]
* [[KippelWiler]]
*[[Martisberg]]
*[[Mörel]]
*[[Niedergesteln]]
*'''[[Raron]]'''
*[[Riederalp]]
*[[Steg]]
*[[Unterbäch]]
*[[Wiler]]
|
===[[Saint-Maurice (district)|Saint-Maurice]]===
*[[Collonges, Switzerland|Collonges]]
*[[Dorénaz]]
*[[Evionnaz]]
*[[Finhaut]]
*[[Massongex]]
*[[Mex, Valais|Mex]]
*[[Salvan, Switzerland|Salvan]]
*'''[[Saint-Maurice-en-Valais|Saint-Maurice]]''' (Roman ''[[Agaunum]]'')
*[[Vernayaz]]
*[[Vérossaz]]
 
=== [[SierreDaerah (district)Raron Timur|SierreRaron Timur]] ===
* [[Betten]]
*[[Ayer, Switzerland|Ayer]]
* [[Chalais|ChalaisBister]]
* [[ChandolinBitsch]]
* [[ChermignonFilet]]
* [[ChippisGrengiols]]
* [[GrimentzMartisberg]]
* '''[[GrôneMörel]]'''
* [[IcogneRiederalp]]
*[[Lens, Valais|Lens]]
*[[Miège]]
*[[Mollens, Valais|Mollens]]
*[[Montana-Vermala]]
*[[Randogne]]
*'''[[Sierre]]'''
*[[Saint-Jean, Switzerland|Saint-Jean]]
*[[Saint-Léonard|Saint-Léonard]]
*[[Saint-Luc, Valais|Saint-Luc]]
*[[Venthône]]
*[[Veyras|Veyras]]
*[[Vissoie]]
 
=== [[SionDaerah (district)Saint-Maurice|SionSaint-Maurice]] ===
* [[Collonges, Swiss|Collonges]]
*[[Arbaz]]
* [[GrimisuatDorénaz]]
* [[Evionnaz]]
*[[Salins, Switzerland|Salins]]
* [[SavièseFinhaut]]
* [[Massongex]]
*'''[[Sion, Switzerland|Sion]]'''
* [[VeysonnazMex, Valais|Mex]]
* [[Salvan]]
* '''[[Saint-Maurice-en-Valais]]''' (Romawi: ''[[Agaunum]]'')
* [[Vernayaz]]
* [[Vérossaz]]
 
=== [[VispDaerah (district)Sierre|VispSierre]] ===
* [[BaltschiederAyer, Swiss|Ayer]]
* [[Chalais, Swiss|Chalais]]
*[[Eisten]]
* [[EmbdChandolin]]
* [[GrächenChermignon]]
* [[LaldenChippis]]
* [[RandaGrimentz]]
* [[Grône]]
*[[Saas Almagell]]
* [[Icogne]]
*[[Saas-Balen]]
* [[Saas-FeeLens, Swiss|Lens]]
* [[Miège]]
*[[Saas-Grund]]
* [[Mollens, Valais|Mollens]]
*[[Sankt-Niklaus]]
* [[StaldenMontana-Vermala]]
* [[StaldenriedRandogne]]
* '''[[TäschSierre]]'''
* [[Saint-Jean, Swiss|Saint-Jean]]
*[[Törbel]]
* [[Saint-Léonard]]
*'''[[Visp]]'''
* [[Saint-Luc, Swiss|Saint-Luc]]
*[[Visperterminen]]
* [[Venthône]]
*[[Zeneggen]]
* [[ZermattVeyras]]
* [[Vissoie]]
|}
 
=== [[Daerah Sion|Sion]] ===
==See also==
* [[Arbaz]]
*''[[Le Nouvelliste (Valais)|Le Nouvelliste]]'', daily
* [[Grimisuat]]
*[[Sion, Switzerland]] - Capital of the canton.
* [[FrenchSalins, languageSwiss|Salins]]
* [[German languageSavièse]]
* '''[[Sion, Swiss|Sion]]'''
*[[Franco-Provençal language]]
* [[Veysonnaz]]
 
=== [[Daerah Visp|Visp]] ===
==External links==
* [[Baltschieder]]
{{commonscat}}
* [[Eisten]]
*[http://www.vs.ch Cantonal government] {{fr icon}} {{de icon}}
* [[Embd]]
*[http://www.matterhornstate.com Tourist office]
* [[Grächen]]
*[http://home.valaisinfo.ch/photo/search.asp Photo database]
* [[Lalden]]
*[http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/en/index/regionen/regionalportraets/wallis/blank/kennzahlen.html Official statistics]
* [[Randa]]
* [[Saas Almagell]]
* [[Saas-Balen]]
* [[Saas-Fee]]
* [[Saas-Grund]]
* [[Sankt-Niklaus]]
* [[Stalden]]
* [[Staldenried]]
* [[Täsch]]
* [[Törbel]]
* '''[[Visp]]'''
* [[Visperterminen]]
* [[Zeneggen]]
* [[Zermatt]]
|}
 
{{commonscat|Valais}}
{{Client states of the Great French War}}
{{Switzerland}}
{{tunas|Eropah}}
 
[[Kategori:Wilayah di Switerland|Valais]]
[[Category:Valais|*]]
[[Category:Cantons of Switzerland]]
[[Category:Wine regions of Switzerland]]
[[Category:Arpitany]]
 
[[als:Kanton Wallis]]

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