Perbezaan antara semakan "Rumpun bahasa Germanik"

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Bahasa-bahasa Jermanik yang terbesar ialah [[Bahasa Inggeris]] dan [[Bahasa Jerman]], masing-masing dengan kira-kira 400 juta dan 100 juta orang penutur bahasa ibunda. Kumpulan ini juga terdiri daripada bahasa-bahasa utama yang lain, seperti [[Bahasa Belanda]] dengan 22 juta dan [[Bahasa Afrikaans]] dengan lebih daripada 16 juta orang penutur; dan [[Bahasa-bahasa Jermanik Utara]] termasuk [[Bahasa Norway]], [[Bahasa Denmark]], [[Bahasa Sweden]], [[Bahasa Iceland]], dan [[Bahasa Faroe]] dengan jumlah kira-kira 20 juta orang penutur. ''Etnologi'' [[SIL International|SIL]] menyenaraikan 53 bahasa Jermanik yang berbeza.
Ciri- ciri
Bahasa Jerman mempunyai beberapa ciri-ciri yang unik seperi berikut ;
1. Kata kerja peringkat Indo-European (IE) dan sistem aspek kedalam kata kerja sekarang (''present tense)'' dan kata kerja lampau ''(past tense)'' (juga dikenali sebagai kata kerja kala lampau ''( preterite )'' )
2. Banyak pengkelasan kata kerja yang menggunakan imbuhan dental (/d/ or /t/) sebaliknya huruf vokal pinggiran digunakan (Indo-European ablaut) untuk menunjukkan kata kerja lampau ; perkataan ini dikenali sebagai kata kerja jermanik lemah ''the Germanic weak verbs''; baki kata kerja yang lain dengan ablaut vokal adalam kata kerja Jemanik Kuat ''theGermanic strong verbs''
3. The use of so-called strong and weak adjectives: different sets of inflectional endings for adjectives depending on the definiteness of the noun phrase; (modern English adjectives do not inflect at all, except for the comparative and superlative; this was not the case in Old English, where adjectives were inflected differently depending on whether they were preceded by an article or demonstrative)
4. The consonant shift known as Grimm's Law; (the consonants in High German have shifted farther yet by the High German consonant shift)
5. A number of words with etymologies that are difficult to link to other Indo-European families, but variants of which appear in almost all Germanic languages, See Germanic substrate hypothesis
6. The shifting of stress accent onto the root of the stem and later to the first syllable of the word, (though English has an irregular stress, native words always have a fixed stress regardless of what is added to them)
Germanic languages differ from each other to a greater degree than do some other language families such as the Romance or Slavic languages. Roughly speaking, Germanic languages differ in how conservative or how progressive each language is with respect to an overall trend toward analyticity. Some, such as German, Dutch, and Icelandic have preserved much of the complex inflectional morphology inherited from the Proto-Indo-European language. Others, such as English, Swedish, and Afrikaans have moved toward a largely analytic type.
Another characteristic of Germanic languages is the verb second or V2 word order, which is quite uncommon cross-linguistically. This feature is shared by all modern Germanic languages except modern English (which nevertheless appears to have had V2 earlier in its history), but has largely replaced the structure with an overall Subject Verb Object syntax.


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